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BPO Resume Template 22+ Free Samples, Examples, Format Download! The way you coin your BPO resume format can influence the perception of essay, your potential recruiter so it is a break or make moment. Here are a few things that should not miss in such a sample BPO Resume Examples if you aspire to the red help, land a favorable rating. Structure is essay toronto just as good as organizational skills without mentioning them. You can also see Blank Resume Templates . Apush Essay Rubric. Employers do not prefer a BPO Resume Template written in a style that does not give careful consideration to the hierarchy. Toronto. So, you should place your content in a structured manner and make sure to not miss out on something of public, substantial significance. Toronto. It should be organized and presented in a professional manner. Download BPO Call Centre Resume Sample Word Doc. cv-resumesamples.blogspot.in | This BPO call centre resume template is the simplest one which is available free online. This template is a straight forward approach towards creating your resume and will let you arrange your resume according to your job objectives. BPO Lead Manager Resume Word Free Download.

The BPO lead manager resume template is a hassle free way to jot down your requirements in a hierarchical way so that your resume looks presentable. You can download this doc format for free and edit it accordingly. CallCenter BPO Resume Template Sample Word Download. aquariustec.com | The call centre BPO resume template is the key to essay pulmonary disease, solve the essay, hitches you might face while constructing an apt resume for your job interview. It’s easily available online and gives a complete look to your resume. Sample Student BPO Resume Template PDF Printable. dayjob.com | The student BPO resume template is available in PDF format and downloading it is a piece of cake now. The strict format will help you to include all your job objectives and requirements in a well formatted way. It is easily printable, simple yet attractive. BPO Customer Service Resume Example Template PDF Download. resumeprose.com | The BPO customer service resume template focuses on your job experience section keeping the qualification section on the top, thus making the whole resume writing work easy.

It is available in PDF format and can be easily downloadable. Ap English 2000. Free Download Professional Resume Template Sample. The professional resume template gives a well furnished and experienced look to your resume which enhances the very cause of creating it. This template is essay easily available online and editable as well. BPO Lead Manager Resume Template Sample. This free BPO Lead Manager resume template is a simple and effective way to organize a standard CV for the profession with hints on essay on the history how to arrange career objectives, job experience qualification summary.

BPO Operations Head Resume Template. This free BPO Operations Head Resume template presents a functional style and focuses on important content that is brief, simple and has all necessary information. This template will help you structure your resume better and essay, attract the attention of employers. Essay On Chronic Disease. You can download this template for free and add in your personal resume information. BPO Sales Manager Resume Template. This BPO sales manager resume template example would be handy when you are in essay toronto need of an expert help to exam essay rubric, better your CV for further jobs. It is essay free to download and could be customized easily. Sample BPO CV for Fresher Template. Christopher. The BPO CV for fresher template makes it very easy for a fresher to essay, jot down all his important job objectives in an organised way. Essay History. The template is easily downloadable.

BPO Solutions Architect Resume Template Download. this template is one of the well efficient templates to keep the resume within a structure. This template mainly highlights your job experience. Telecoms Customer Relationship Manager Resume Template. The telecoms customer relationship manager resume template gives a pre structured format to make the essay, resume writing job easier for you. The free downloaded version is customizable as well.

This is one of the simple formatted resume templates which will help you to organise all your job objectives in an ordered manner along with mentioning your hobbies. Subject Matter Experts Resume Template. Public Law Case Study. The subject matter experts resume will not only help you to essay toronto, organise your data in a sophisticated way but also will allow you to customize it. It is just a click away now to download this pre arranged resume. The BPO experienced resume template is public school a trouble free way to keep your resume in an ordered manner. It is easily downloadable and essay, can be customized according to history of tango, your need. Customer Service Manager Resume Templates. Essay Toronto. The customer service manager resume template is the exam essay, key to essay toronto, create the apush exam essay, perfect resume. All the toronto, objectives are laced in a hierarchical manner.

Call Centre Manager Resume Template. Essay On Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary. This template allows you to put all your objectives in your resume in straight forward way. It is essay easily customizable once downloaded. Customer Service Rep Resume Template. Customer Service Agent Resume Template. Exam Essay Rubric. Have everything organized structurally and proceed downwards after mentioning your details under bio data. Essay. If you are not so sure about what should come before what and contain what then you are better off having someone else do it for you, or download the thousand of BPO resume format for freshers available on the internet then edit to reflect your person. You can also see Resume Examples for Job Seekers . A common mistake occurs in the job experiences section where people mention each post they have ever handled without thinking about it for a second. Your recruiter is not out to get amused by ap english essays the number of posts you have held or what you have ever done but instead they are looking for essay toronto, things that will add value to your expertise and christopher warren, improve their firm’s standing.

You must be keen to highlight a few of the most significant experiences and alongside them illustrate how they have changed you and essay, why such experiences should be of concern to your current recruiter. If you have any DMCA issues on this post, please contact us!

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sales resume lingo Glossary of Sales Definitions Author grants permission for this glossary to be republished in whole or part with the condition that a permanent link from the published page or document to http://www.cycleofsales.com is displayed. Advantage: positive attributes of a feature kept in relative terms (not in essay emotional or beneficial terms). Example: “An advantage to ap english, having a 4 wheel drive (feature) is that the driver may be able to navigate through adverse weather conditions more easily than if possessing only a 2 wheel drive.” (Not to be confused with the benefit) Appointments Set: Total number of appointments set (to conduct a sales presentation) during a call period, whether in-person or via the toronto, phone. One of the vital sales stats. Average Dollar Per Sale: (DPS) Your average dollar per sale. Christopher Essay. Can be derived by dividing total sales dollars for a given time period by essay toronto, the number of christopher warren sales (closed deals.) Click here for additional information. One of the vital sales stats. Back-out: A customer who is essay trying to or did cancel their order.

Beating Objections: (Overcoming Objections) Answering questions or addressing concerns allowing your prospect to make an intelligent purchasing decision. Benefit: The emotional enhancement provided by the advantage of a product. Example (continuing with the 4 wheel drive example above in advantage): “The 4 wheel drive my wife and essay pulmonary, children were driving prevented them from driving over the cliff and falling 3500 feet below during the horrible snowstorm.” Bounce Back Coupons Offers : Offers, discounts, or coupon “enticements” delivered with physical products or emailed with digital confirmation or receipts. The goal of essay toronto a Bounce Back Coupon is to “entice” a customer to place a follow-up order or to renew their contract for the red essay, the next period of essay toronto time by offering a discount or special if the customer responds by a certain date or time. You can read our full article about bounce back coupon offers and watch our video here. Brag Book : A presentation binder or book featuring stories, pictures, or testimonials regarding previous projects performed for customers. Sales people often present their Brag Books to prospects to display their success providing products or services for current and past customers.

Buy Line: A graphical, visual “line” that denotes where a prospect is: regarding emotionally and intellectually being sold. On Chronic. If a prospect is “above the buy line,” he would theoretically sign the contract if asked to do so. Buyer’s Remorse: A customer feeling anxiety after making a purchase commitment that can often lead to a back-out or cancellation if not handled properly. Buying Atmosphere: Setting up your sales presentation so that your customer has a great experience, thus avoiding pressure or awkward moments. People, in general, like to toronto, feel that they’re making a purchase decision, but, in general, don’t like to feel they’re “being sold” on a product or service. Call-back: Making repeated phone calls or contacts to attempt to get a prospect to purchase or to find out if a prospect has made a decision regarding purchasing a product or service. Call-blocks: A span of study time, normally 2 to 4 hours, spent telemarketing to data-mine, prospect, or perform phone demos and follow-ups. Calls: Lead and Prospect contacts. Can be conducted in-person or via the essay toronto, phone, at christopher trade shows, or any other way that you make actual attempts to contact your lead or prospect. Call-in: When a prospect contacts you or your company first expressing interest in essay your products or services.

Cancellation Prevention: Also known as ‘solidifying your sale.’ Intended to help prevent buyer’s remorse and cancellations. Cash Collection: (also referred to as Payment Arrangements) Step six in the Sales Cycle. Essay. Click here for additional information about toronto, Payment Arrangements. Setting up arrangements for payment for your products or services. Could include credit, payment in full, or a deposit. Closing Ratio: Number of sales divided by ap english essays 2000, the number of toronto sales presentations over a period of time. Example: if you perform 10 sales presentations and close 4 sales, your closing ratio for these 10 sales presentations is 40%.

Click here for warren essay, more information about closing ratio. One of the essay toronto, vital sales stats. Cold Calling : Making contacts with possible prospects (via phone or in person) to attempt to set an appointment, conduct a phone or in person sales presentation, and ultimately close a sale. Commission: Your compensation for closing a sale. Ap English. Usually based on a percentage of the gross sale or profit margin of the sale. Conversion: The act of toronto converting a prospect to a client or customer.

Critical Questions: Asking the essay on chronic, Qualifying and Procrastination questions in the Presentation. Current Customer: A customer who has ordered in essay the last 12 to public law case, 18 months depending on your product or service cycle. Current Customer Referrals: Attempting to obtain referrals of other possible prospects from essay toronto your current customer (usually while making a current customer call.) Click here for ap english essays 2000, additional information on current customer referrals.) Current Customer Upselling : Contacting your current customers and essay toronto, attempting to sell them additional products or services (either current product “add-ons” or entirely new products or services.) Click here for additional information about essay on the of tango, Current Customer Upselling. Cycle Of Sales : The seven steps that must be followed to most efficiently and effectively sell your products or services. Data-mining: Researching to find leads or ‘most probable customers’ in your territory.

Usually includes first and last name, title, gender, availability, and names in common. Deal-flow: Number of potential deals you have in your ‘pipe-line.’ Decision Maker: Any Prospect or Lead who is capable and authorized to toronto, make a decision to purchase a Sales Person’s products or services. Definition Of Selling (simple): Persuading someone (a prospect) to purchase something from you. (click here for the technical definition of selling) Demo: Slang for a sales presentation. The act of presenting your product or service to a prospect.

Our litmus test to declare an appointment an actual sales presentation (or an actual demo) is if price is discussed. Demo Goals: Number of demos (sales presentations) you wish to accomplish each week. Demo Ratio: The percentage of demos divided by contacts. Essay On The Of Tango. Example: If you make 100 contacts and accomplish 10 demos, your demo ratio is 10%. Direct Response Marketing: Utilizing direct marketing via mailers, emails, postcards, etc. to solicit interest from essay toronto prospects.

DOA Customer: A customer who is essay on chronic pulmonary no longer able to essay, purchase for any reason. Dollar per apush exam rubric, Customer: (DPC) Your average dollar per customer including all their orders in essay toronto a regular product purchase cycle. Dollar Per Sale: (DPS) Your average dollar per sale. The Red Help. Can be derived by dividing total sales dollars for a given time period by the number of essay toronto sales (closed deals.) See also Average Dollar Per Sale. Or click her for additional information regarding “vital sales stats.” Draw: A “loan” against future commissions earned. Public. Usually set up as a debit/credit system where any commissions you earn must first be used to “repay” the essay, draw. Draw Cap: The max amount your draw can add up to or the warren, most you can “go in the hole” with your draw.

Drive By: “Dropping in” on a lead or prospect in person, and unannounced. Emotional Sale : A Prospect emotionally “wanting” your product or service. Your Prospect is excited and essay, interested. Obstructive Disease. See also “Intellectual Sale.” Feature: Quantitative properties of a product or service. Example: a 4 wheel drive.

s.u.v evenly disburses the weight and traction of the essay, vehicle, receives 15 miles/ gallon, goes 0 to 60 in 20 seconds, and has 7 drink holders. See also advantage benefit. Field Day: When a candidate for a sales position rides-along with an essay rubric experienced sales rep to essay, learn more about the position she’s interviewing for. Footprint: The exact steps an order must go through from acquisition to delivery. Gatekeeper: Person (usually a secretary or person answering the phones or greeting people in an office or company) who often is responsible for “screening” sales people or strangers who call the company prior to forwarding these sales people or strangers to warren, purchasing agents, managers, or owners. Gift Of Gab : The perceived or actual skill or ability for a sales person to essay, easily converse or communicate with a prospect or customer.

Goal Card: A paper or electronic tool to track demos, calls, and sales. Goal-D Card Incentive Program : A sales incentive program developed by apush exam, Cycle Of Sales. Designed to motivate and encourage positive sales related results from a small to large sales team. Intellectual Sale : Your Prospect objectively “needing” your product or service. Your Prospect has a real need that your product or service may satisfy. See also Emotional Sale. Law of Averages: Your statistical average of getting a sale from calls to demos. A person can plan his or her results with a fair amount of accuracy if he knows his statistics and thoroughly believes and follows the law of averages. Law of Compensation: If you help enough people get what they want, you in toronto turn will get what you want. Lead: Anyone you could approach to attempt a sale or demonstration or anyone who may be a viable prospect who could become a customer.

Lead Generation: Researching the “most probable customers” in your are or sales territory. This is the list of “leads” or contacts you will eventually approach. Lead Generation is the red room help also often referred to as “prospecting,” although technically prospecting has a different definition (see prospecting.) Marketing: The act of promoting your company, products, and services in the effort to attract a primary influence to your company (normally pertains to essay, customers). Mom Pop: Small business usually family owned. Monday Morning Meeting: A sales meeting conducted at the start of each work week, usually on essay pulmonary disease Monday mornings. Typical topics include discussing the previous week’s sales activities and accomplishments, covering the essay toronto, next week’s goals, and communicating other important information. Name Based Rapport: Utilizing “3rd Person Selling” or, in christopher essay essence, sharing names that both you and essay, your prospect know in common to create credibility and ap english essays 2000, trust.

Not to be confused with “name dropping.” Name based rapport, when utilized effectively, can create interest and help your prospect become “open minded” to your ideas. Click here for additional information regarding name based rapport. Name Dropping : Mentioning or “dropping names” that make no sense to your prospect. Name dropping becomes obvious and toronto, possibly annoying to on chronic pulmonary disease, your prospect if he or she feels you’re blatantly dropping names for personal gain or to brag. New Customer: A customer who has never ordered before. Objections: Any question or concern voiced by essay toronto, a prospect that possibly could cause you to public study, not close a sale. Off-Schedule: A sales person who is not performing the agreed upon or necessary tasks to fulfill his/her obligation or quota. Open Accounts: Accounts that are ready to be re-sold, and/or accounts that need additional work or attention to close or complete to essay toronto, delivery. Past Customer: A customer who has not ordered in the last 12 to 18 months. Payment: Discussing and agreeing on christopher warren payment terms for your sale. Pipe-line: The line of potential candidates you have who will more than likely purchase within a given amount of time.

Pitch: Or, “Pitching your product”: the act of essay selling your goods or services. Presentation: The actual sales presentation, also known as the “demo.” The goal of the presentation is to make the emotional and intellectual sale. Price-build-up: Creating a relativity point to discuss the price of your product or service. Primary Influences: (to your company) Customers, Employees, Lenders, Vendors, and. Product Purchase Cycle: The time frame used to measure a customer’s ordering habits. Example: Our product purchase cycle for our customers in essay history of tango one year is 5.5 orders. Prospect: Any “Lead” or Decision Maker who has shown any type of interest in your product or service. Prospecting: The act of essay contacting leads to exam essay rubric, attempt a sale or demonstration. Profile: Researched information regarding your lead or prospect such as first and last name, best time to call, background information, possible needs, and most importantly, names in common that you can use to build rapport. Protected Territory: When your area is protected against other representatives from your company from calling on the same leads that you are to call on.

Qualifying Your Prospect : Attempting to obtain a verbal affirmation that your prospect is indeed the person capable of toronto making a purchasing decision. Essay On The History. Click here for additional information regarding qualifying your prospect. Quota: The minimum volume a sales person must produce within a given amount of time. Rapport: Things you have in essay common with a prospect. Room. With our system, we usually refer only to what matters most: names in common (also known as name based rapport.) Referrals: Obtaining additional profile information about other possible prospects from a current customer, prospect, associate, or family member.

Referral Appreciation Gesture: Acknowledging your appreciation for essay, receiving a referral from a prospect or current customer by sending a thank you note or small present. Click here for essay on the of tango, more information regarding referral appreciation gestures. Retention Rate: Your client retention percentage. Essay. How many clients are you keeping as repeat customers? Ride-Along : One sales rep “riding with” or observing another sales rep (normally in the rep’s territory) to help improve sales skills. Sales Bundle: The articles you need to apush exam essay rubric, properly submit your sale to customer service. Usually includes contract, payment arrangement, artwork or job specifications. Sales Calls : Phone or in-person contacts to essay, find prospects, to set an appointment, or to on the of tango, conduct a sales presentation or phone demo. One of the essay toronto, vital sales stats.

Sales Cycle: The beginning to end of rubric your sales process. Starts normally with data-mining, and ends with attempting to essay toronto, get referrals from your client. Sales Manager: Usually the individual responsible for exam essay rubric, training or motivating and managing/accounting for the results of a sales team. Sales Presentation (or sales “demo”): The event of meeting with a client with the objective of making a sale. Sales presentations normally involve a product or service demonstration. One of the toronto, vital sales stats. Sales Related Activities: Actions DIRECTLY related to closing a sales demo. Usually include prospecting, setting appointments, doing product “demos,” and attempting to close the sale. Prospecting and setting appointments can sometimes be performed through marketing systems.

Sales Territory: A sales person’s “area of focus” from essay pulmonary disease which they are to obtain sales. Most territories are organized by zip codes or geographical boundaries.. Many territories are “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own sales reps and disallow a sales rep to sell in another team member’s territory. Toronto. See also Territory Management. Schedules and Habits: Your regular sales schedules and essay on chronic disease, habits which will dictate the amount of demos and sales you ultimately make. Selling Is A Numbers Game : The belief that results from performing sales related activities result in essay predictable results- based on the numbers and statistics. Apush Rubric. See also Law Of Averages. Selling The Sizzle: A term used to refer to essay toronto, selling the emotional part of the sale, or the ap english essays 2000, “benefit” (versus the “feature” or “advantage.”) Example: a hot, juicy, steaming, medium-rare Porterhouse vs. a slab of essay protein-filled, hormone-injected steak. Side-selling: The art of the red selling an toronto additional “complimentary product’ to a prospect who is already using a competitor for your lead product. Slump (Sales Slump): A period of time when a sales person is having problems or challenges making sales. Straight-Commission: Working on a commission ONLY basis.

No base, draws, etc. Target Market : Group of people (prospects) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of essay on chronic disease converting these people into customers. Target Markets usually share important traits in common such as industry, demographics, geographic location, income, or sales revenue. Technical Definition Of Selling : Selling is the act of essay communicating information to a Prospect that “triggers” an emotional and intellectual desire to purchase a product or service. (Click here for the simple definition of direct selling) Temperature Questions: Questions you ask to find out where the prospect is on the buy-line such as “how am I doing so far” or “can you see why so many people are getting these?”

Territory: A sales person’s “area of focus” from on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease which they are to essay toronto, obtain sales. Most territories are organized by zip codes or geographical boundaries.. Many territories are “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own sales reps and disallow a sales rep to sell in apush exam essay rubric another team member’s territory. See also Territory Management. Territory Management: Properly “working” a geographically defined sales area or “protected territory,” where the sales rep is the only person allowed to sell in toronto this defined area. History Of Tango. The goal is to maximize sales results from this territory while minimizing the essay, inefficiencies relating to travel or missing potential Prospects. Essays. Click here for additional information regarding Managing Your Sales Territory. Trade-shows: A marketed event that your leads attend to toronto, gain information about their occupation or industry. The trade shows are usually sponsored by vendors wishing to gain exposure in apush exam front of their most probable customers. Training Period: Usually refers to essay toronto, the amount of on the history time allocated to essay, a newer sales rep before they are expected to meet quota or start producing sales results.

Turn-Over Rate : How often a sales position becomes vacant. For example, if the average sales person in room a position lasts six month, then this position would be experiencing a 6 month turn-over rate. Essay Toronto. Sales, in general, normally has a high turn-over rate compared to other positions. Up-sell: Selling additional products or services to your existing clients. Vital Sales Stats: The most important sales numbers to track and warren, monitor including: number of sales calls, appointments set, presentations made, number of sales closed, and dollar per.

Zeroed Out (Draw) : When a sales person sells enough to earn enough commission to essay toronto, make his draw balance equal zero.

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6 Job Interview Questions and Answers to Avoid. The old adage of Think before you speak is toronto, never truer than when you#39;re on a job interview. One unwitting slip-up could cost you your dream position, so it#39;s crucial to know what kinds of questions and answers will set off a red flag for your interviewer. While a hiring manager has a responsibility to avoid illegal interview questions, there are certain things that you shouldn#39;t say as a candidate, either. The Red Room! Five career coaches weighed in on essay toronto the most common questions and answers that interviewees should avoid at history all costs.

Even if the toronto, job posting you read didn#39;t include much information about the company itself, this should be a fairly obvious question to avoid. Nothing puts a big red X on your résumé like not having done your research. If you#39;re coming in for a job interview, the hiring manager expects that you have a basic understanding of what the public law case study, company does and who its clients are. Don#39;t ask questions that you can find the answers to essay online, said Marie Zimenoff of A Strategic Advantage. Obstructive Disease! Questions should demonstrate some research of the company and knowledge of the position. Toronto! What will my salary/benefits/work schedule be?

Money is essay rubric, important. You need to earn money to pay the bills and take care of yourself and your family. Essay! But any career coach will tell you that you should never ask a potential employer about exam rubric, salary and benefits up front. Candidates that do this appear to only be interested in essay, the money and not as much about exam rubric, performing the job, said Charlotte Weeks of Weeks Career Services. Abby Kohut of essay AbsolutelyAbby.com agreed that bringing up money (or other issues like work hours, work-from-home policies and vacation time) too soon lets the hiring manager know that you only care about what the company can do for you, instead of what you can do for your potential employer. The best tactic is to christopher essay wait for the employer to bring up these topics, and follow his or her lead. Essay Toronto! Zimenoff advised researching a salary range before the interview; when your interviewer does start talking numbers, you can request this range.

What is rubric, your company culture like? While it#39;s not necessarily bad manners to ask about company culture, you probably won#39;t get an honest answer to this question. No company is essay toronto, going to christopher warren say that its culture is terrible, Kohut said. As an alternative, she recommended asking your interviewer for one thing he or she would change about the company#39;s culture if given the opportunity. This will allow the hiring manager to give you a more truthful perspective, without forcing that person to make a sweeping generalization about having a bad culture.

Anything personal in toronto, response to, Tell me about yourself Nearly every job candidate is asked to tell the interviewer about him or herself. And nearly every job candidate shares far more than necessary when answering this question. Don#39;t respond with your life story where you were born, your personal habits, etc., said Executive Career Services#39; Steve Provenzano, author of Top Secret Resumes and Cover Letters (ECS DTP, Inc., 2013). Make your answer relevant to the company and the job you seek to fill. 2000! Sharon Good of Good Life Coaching also noted that candidates should stick to sharing professional strengths and experiences rather than personal hobbies and interests. The only time you should share personal information is if you have some kind of limitation, like a handicap or external responsibility that will affect your potential daily tasks. You may not want to say it in the first interview, but it#39;s important to be honest and essay, admit it if it#39;s going to essay help prevent you from essay, doing the job as described, Good said. Warren! My weakness is that I#39;m a workaholic/perfectionist. Another fairly common interview question asks for a candidate#39;s greatest weakness. Since interviewees don#39;t want to make themselves look bad for their potential employer, most respond with a weakness that is actually beneficial to the company, like being a workaholic or a perfectionist.

One thing that drives recruiters crazy is hearing a strength pitted as a weakness, Zimenoff told BusinessNewsDaily. The hiring manager is asking this question to see if candidates can admit they are not perfect, and toronto, demonstrate that they can take feedback and action to improve. Be prepared to answer this question with an actual weakness that you can improve upon, such as taking criticism too harshly or getting too wrapped up in the details of a project. Christopher! You should also be able to tell the interviewer how you have resolved or plan to essay resolve the the red room essay help, issue. Most hiring managers close the interview by toronto, asking if the candidate has any other questions about the company or the warren, position. Regardless of whether or not it#39;s true, telling the interviewer that he or she has covered everything and that you have nothing else to ask can be a potentially bad answer. Essay Toronto! Saying this can imply a lack of interest, Weeks said. If you can#39;t think of anything that hasn#39;t been addressed, ask for elaboration on something that had already been talked about. There are countless things running through your mind before a job interview, but above all, make sure you#39;re thoroughly prepared to answer anything your interviewer might ask which includes knowing what not to say in response.

Originally published on BusinessNewsDaily . Nicole received her Bachelor#39;s degree in Media, Culture and Communication from New York University. She began freelancing for ap english 2000 Business News Daily in toronto, 2010 and joined the team as a staff writer three years later. She currently serves as the managing editor. Reach her by email, or follow her on the red room help Twitter.

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columbus goals essay Archive of Articles. Archive of Free Life. The Mystery of Fascism. by David Ramsay Steele. Mussolini - as he would like to have been remembered. You're the Great Houdini! Soon after he arrived in Switzerland in 1902, 18 years old and looking for work, Benito Mussolini was starving and penniless. All he had in his pockets was a cheap nickel medallion of Karl Marx.

Following a spell of vagrancy, Mussolini found a job as a bricklayer and union organizer in the city of Lausanne. Quickly achieving fame as an agitator among the essay Italian migratory laborers, he was referred to by a local Italian-language newspaper as the essays 2000 great duce [leader] of the Italian socialists. He read voraciously, learned several foreign languages, (2) and sat in on Pareto's lectures at the university. The great duce 's fame was so far purely parochial. Upon his return to Italy, young Benito was an undistinguished member of the Socialist Party. He began to toronto, edit his own little paper, La Lotta di Classe (The Class Struggle), ferociously anti-capitalist, anti-militarist, and anti-Catholic. He took seriously Marx's dictum that the working class has no country, and vigorously opposed the Italian military intervention in Libya. Jailed several times for involvement in strikes and anti-war protests, he became something of a leftist hero. Before turning 30, Mussolini was elected to the National Executive Committee of the Socialist Party, and made editor of its daily paper, Avanti!

The paper's circulation and Mussolini's personal popularity grew by leaps and bounds. Mussolini's election to the Executive was part of the capture of control of the essay Socialist Party by the hard-line Marxist left, with the expulsion from the Party of toronto those deputies (members of parliament) considered too conciliatory to the bourgeoisie. The shift in Socialist Party control was greeted with delight by on the history Lenin and essay toronto other revolutionaries throughout the world. From 1912 to 1914, Mussolini was the Che Guevara of his day, a living saint of leftism. Rubric? Handsome, courageous, charismatic, an essay erudite Marxist, a riveting speaker and writer, a dedicated class warrior to the core, he was the peerless duce of the Italian Left. He looked like the head of any future Italian socialist government, elected or revolutionary. In 1913, while still editor of Avanti! , he began to publish and edit his own journal, Utopia , a forum for controversial discussion among leftwing socialists.

Like many such socialist journals founded in hope, it aimed to create a highly-educated cadre of revolutionaries, purged of dogmatic illusions, ready to public law case study, seize the moment. Two of those who collaborated with Mussolini on Utopia would go on toronto to help found the on chronic pulmonary Italian Communist Party and toronto one to help found the German Communist Party. (3) Others, with Mussolini, would found the apush exam Fascist movement. The First World War began in toronto, August 1914 without Italian involvement. Should Italy join Britain and France against Germany and room essay Austria, or stay out of the toronto war? (4) All the top leaders and intellectuals of the Socialist Party, Mussolini among them, were opposed to Italian participation. In October and November 1914, Mussolini switched to a pro-war position. He resigned as editor of the red Avanti! , joined with pro-war leftists outside the Socialist Party, and launched a new pro-war socialist paper, Il Popolo d'Italia (People of toronto Italy). (5) To the Socialist Party leadership, this was a great betrayal, a sell-out to the whoremasters of the bourgeoisie, and Mussolini was expelled from the Party.

It was as scandalous as though, 50 years later, Guevara had announced that he was off to Vietnam, to help defend the room South against North Vietnamese aggression. Italy entered the war in May 1915, and essay Mussolini enlisted. In 1917 he was seriously wounded and hospitalized, emerging from the war the most popular of the pro-war socialists, a leader without a movement. Post-war Italy was hag-ridden by civil strife and political violence. Sensing a revolutionary situation in the wake of Russia's Bolshevik coup , the left organized strikes, factory occupations, riots, and political killings. Socialists often beat up and sometimes killed soldiers returning home, just because they had fought in the war. Assaulting political opponents and wrecking their property became an everyday occurrence.

Mussolini and a group of adherents launched the essay on the of tango Fascist movement (6) in 1919. The initiators were mostly men of the left: revolutionary syndicalists and former Marxists. (7) They took with them some non-socialist nationalists and futurists, and essay toronto recruited heavily among soldiers returning from the war, so that the bulk of rank-and-file Fascists had no leftwing background. The Fascists adopted the apush black shirts (8) of the anarchists and Giovinezza (Youth), the song of the front-line soldiers. Apart from toronto, its ardent nationalism and pro-war foreign policy, the exam Fascist program was a mixture of radical left, moderate left, democratic, and liberal measures, and for more than a year the new movement was not notably more violent than other socialist groupings. (9) However, Fascists came into conflict with Socialist Party members and in 1920 formed a militia, the squadre (squads). Including many patriotic veterans, the essay squads were more efficient at arson and terror tactics than the violently disposed but bumbling Marxists, and obstructive pulmonary disease often had the tacit support of the police and army. By 1921 Fascists had the upper hand in physical combat with their rivals of the left. The democratic and liberal elements in Fascist preaching rapidly diminished and in essay toronto, 1922 Mussolini declared that The world is turning to the right. Obstructive? The Socialists, who controlled the unions, called a general strike. Toronto? Marching into public school law case some of the major cities, blackshirt squads quickly and forcibly suppressed the strike, and most Italians heaved a sigh of relief. This gave the blackshirts the idea of essay toronto marching on Rome to seize power.

As they publicly gathered for the great march, the government decided to avert possible civil war by bringing Mussolini into office; the King begged Mussolini to school law case, become Prime Minister, with emergency powers. Instead of a desperate uprising, the March on Rome was the triumphant celebration of a legal transfer of toronto authority. The youngest prime minister in Italian history, Mussolini was an adroit and indefatigable fixer, a formidable wheeler and dealer in apush rubric, a constitutional monarchy which did not become an essay toronto outright and permanent dictatorship until December 1925, and essay even then retained elements of unstable pluralism requiring fancy footwork. He became world-renowned as a political miracle worker. Toronto? Mussolini made the trains run on time, closed down the Mafia, drained the Pontine marshes, and solved the on chronic obstructive pulmonary tricky Roman Question, finally settling the political status of the Pope. Cole Porter -- sang Mussolini's praises. Mussolini was showered with accolades from sundry quarters. Winston Churchill called him the greatest living legislator. Cole Porter gave him a terrific plug in a hit song.

Sigmund Freud sent him an autographed copy of essay toronto one of his books, inscribed to the Hero of Culture. (10) The more taciturn Stalin supplied Mussolini with the plans of the May Day parades in Red Square, to the red room help, help him polish up his Fascist pageants. The rest of il Duce 's career is essay, now more familiar. He conquered Ethiopia, made a Pact of ap english 2000 Steel with Germany, introduced anti-Jewish measures in 1938, (11) came into the war as Hitler's very junior partner, tried to strike out on his own by invading the Balkans, had to be bailed out by toronto Hitler, was driven back by the Allies, and obstructive pulmonary then deposed by the Fascist Great Council, rescued from imprisonment by SS troops in one of the most brilliant commando operations of the war, installed as head of a new Italian Social Republic, and killed by Communist partisans in essay, April 1945. Given what most people today think they know about Fascism, this bare recital of facts (12) is a mystery story. Ap English Essays? How can a movement which epitomizes the extreme right be so strongly rooted in the extreme left? What was going on in the minds of dedicated socialist militants to turn them into equally dedicated Fascist militants? What They Told Us about Fascism. In the 1930s, the perception of essay toronto fascism (13) in the English-speaking world morphed from an exotic, even chic, Italian novelty (14) into essay history an all-purpose symbol of evil.

Under the influence of leftist writers, a view of fascism was disseminated which has remained dominant among intellectuals until today. It goes as follows: Fascism is capitalism with the mask off. It's a tool of toronto Big Business, which rules through democracy until it feels mortally threatened, then unleashes fascism. Mussolini and essay on the of tango Hitler were put into power by Big Business, because Big Business was challenged by the revolutionary working class. (15) We naturally have to explain, then, how fascism can be a mass movement, and essay one that is neither led nor organized by Big Business. The explanation is that Fascism does it by fiendishly clever use of ritual and symbol. Fascism as an intellectual doctrine is empty of serious content, or alternatively, its content is an incoherent hodge-podge. Fascism's appeal is a matter of emotions rather than ideas.

It relies on hymn-singing, flag-waving, and other mummery, which are nothing more than irrational devices employed by the Fascist leaders who have been paid by Big Business to manipulate the masses. As Marxists used to say, fascism appeals to the basest instincts, implying that leftists were at a disadvantage because they could appeal only to noble instincts like envy of the rich. Since it is irrational, fascism is sadistic, nationalist, and racist by obstructive disease nature. Leftist regimes are also invariably sadistic, nationalist, and racist, but that's because of regrettable mistakes or pressure of difficult circumstances. Leftists want what's best but keep meeting unexpected setbacks, whereas fascists have chosen to commit evil. More broadly, fascism may be defined as any totalitarian regime which does not aim at the nationalization of toronto industry but preserves at least nominal private property.

The term can even be extended to any dictatorship that has become unfashionable among intellectuals. (16) When the Soviet Union and People's China had a falling out in apush essay rubric, the 1960s, they each promptly discovered that the other fraternal socialist country was not merely capitalist but fascist. Essay? At the most vulgar level, fascist is a handy swear-word for such hated figures as Rush Limbaugh or John Ashcroft who, whatever their faults, are as remote from historical Fascism as anyone in public life today. The consequence of 70 years of indoctrination with a particular leftist view of fascism is that Fascism is now a puzzle. Apush Exam? We know how leftists in the 1920s and 1930s thought because we knew people in college whose thinking was almost identical, and because we have read such writers as Sartre, Hemingway, and essay Orwell. But what were Fascists thinking? Some Who Became Fascists.

Robert Michels was a German Marxist disillusioned with the Social Democrats. He became a revolutionary syndicalist. In 1911 he wrote Political Parties , a brilliant analytic work, (17) demonstrating the impossibility of participatory democracy--a phrase that was not to be coined for half a century, but which accurately captures the early Marxist vision of socialist administration. (18) Later he became an essay on the history Italian (changing Robert to Roberto) and toronto one of the leading Fascist theoreticians. Hendrik de Man was the leading Belgian socialist of his day and recognized as one of the two or three most outstanding socialist intellects in Europe--many in the 1930s believed him to be the most important socialist theoretician since Marx. He is the most prominent of the numerous Western European Marxists who wrestled their way from Marxism to Fascism or National Socialism in the interwar years. Christopher? In more than a dozen thoughtful books from The Remaking of a Mind (1919), via The Socialist Idea (1933), to Aprs Coup (1941) de Man left a detailed account of the essay toronto theoretical odyssey which led him, by essay history 1940, to acclaim the Nazi subjugation of Europe as a deliverance. His journey began, as such journeys so often did, with the conviction that Marxism needed to be revised along idealist and psychological lines. (19) Two avant-garde artistic movements which contributed to the Fascist worldview were Futurism and Vorticism. Futurism was the brainchild of Filippo Marinetti, who eventually lost his life in the service of toronto Mussolini's regime. You can get some idea of the Futurist pictorial style from the credits for the Poirot TV series. Ap English Essays 2000? Its style of poetry was a defining influence on Mayakovsky.

Futurist arts activities were permitted for some years in the Soviet Union. Futurism held that modern machines were more beautiful than classical sculptures. It lauded the esthetic value of speed, intensity, modern machinery, and modern war. Pound, found to essay, be mentally ill because he supported fascism Vorticism was a somewhat milder variant of Futurism, associated with Ezra Pound and the painter and novelist Wyndham Lewis, an American and a Canadian who transplanted to London. Pound became a Fascist, moved to ap english 2000, Italy, and was later found mentally ill and incarcerated by the occupying Americans. The symptoms of toronto his illness were his Fascist beliefs. He was later released, and chose to move back to exam rubric, Italy in 1958, an unreprentant Fascist.

In 1939 the avowed fascist Wyndham Lewis retracted his earlier praise for toronto Hitler, but never renounced his basically fascist political worldview. Lewis was, like George Bernard Shaw, one of those intellectuals of the 1930s who admired Fascism and on the Communism about equally, praising them both while insisting on their similarity. Fascism must have been a set of ideas which inspired educated individuals who thought of themselves as extremely up-to-date. But what were those ideas? Five Facts about toronto, Fascism. Over the last 30 years, scholarship has gradually begun to bring us a more accurate appreciation of what Fascism was. (20) The picture that emerges from public school law case, ongoing research into toronto the origins of Fascism is not yet entirely clear, but it's clear enough to show that the truth cannot be reconciled with the conventional view. We can highlight some of the unsettling conclusions in five facts: Fascism was a doctrine well elaborated years before it was named. Essays 2000? The core of the toronto Fascist movement launched officially in the Piazza San Sepolcro on 23rd March 1919 was an intellectual and organizational tradition called national syndicalism. As an intellectual edifice, Fascism was mostly in place by about 1910.

Historically, the history taproot of Fascism lies in the 1890s--in the toronto Crisis of Marxism and in the interaction of apush exam nineteenth-century revolutionary socialism with fin de sicle anti-rationalism and anti-liberalism. Fascism changed dramatically between 1919 and 1922, and again changed dramatically after 1922. Essay Toronto? This is what we expect of any ideological movement which comes close to power and then attains it. Bolshevism (renamed Communism in 1920) also changed dramatically, several times over. Many of the older treatments of Fascism are misleading because they cobble together Fascist pronouncements, almost entirely from after 1922, reflecting the pressures on a broad and rubric flexible political movement solidifying its rule by compromises, and suppose that by this method they can isolate the character and essay toronto motivation of Fascist ideology.

It is as if we were to warren, reconstruct the ideas of Bolshevism by collecting the pronouncements of the Soviet government in toronto, 1943, which would lead us to conclude that Marxism owed a lot to Ivan the Terrible and Peter the school law case Great. Fascism was a movement with its roots primarily in the left. Its leaders and initiators were secular-minded, highly progressive intellectuals, hard-headed haters of existing society and toronto especially of warren essay its most bourgeois aspects. There were also non-leftist currents which fed into Fascism; the most prominent was the essay toronto nationalism of essays Enrico Corradini. This anti-liberal, anti-democratic movement was preoccupied with building Italy's strength by accelerated industrialization. Toronto? Though it was considered rightwing at the time, Corradini called himself a socialist, and similar movements in essay on the history of tango, the Third World would later be warmly supported by the left. Fascism was intellectually sophisticated. Fascist theory was more subtle and more carefully thought out than Communist doctrine. As with Communism, there was a distinction between the theory itself and the line designed for a broad public. Fascists drew upon such thinkers as Henri Bergson, William James, Gabriel Tarde, Ludwig Gumplowicz, Vilfredo Pareto, Gustave Le Bon, Georges Sorel, Robert Michels, Gaetano Mosca, Giuseppe Prezzolini, Filippo Marinetti, A.O. Olivetti, Sergio Panunzio, and Giovanni Gentile.

Here we should note a difference between Marxism and Fascism. The leader of a Marxist political movement is always considered by his followers to be a master of theory and a theoretical innovator on the scale of Copernicus. Toronto? Fascists were less prone to any such delusion. Mussolini was more widely-read than Lenin and a better writer, but Fascist intellectuals did not consider him a major contributor to the body of Fascist theory, more a leader of genius who could distil theory into action. Fascists were radical modernizers. By temperament they were neither conservative nor reactionary. Fascists despised the status quo and were not attracted by exam essay a return to bygone conditions. Even in power, despite all its adaptations to the requirements of the toronto immediate situation, and despite its incorporation of more conservative social elements, Fascism remained a conscious force for modernization. (21) Two Revisions of Marxism. Fascism began as a revision of Marxism by law case Marxists, a revision which developed in successive stages, so that these Marxists gradually stopped thinking of themselves as Marxists, and eventually stopped thinking of themselves as socialists. Toronto? They never stopped thinking of themselves as anti-liberal revolutionaries.

The Crisis of Marxism occurred in the 1890s. Marxist intellectuals could claim to speak for mass socialist movements across continental Europe, yet it became clear in those years that Marxism had survived into a world which Marx had believed could not possibly exist. The workers were becoming richer, the working class was fragmented into sections with different interests, technological advance was accelerating rather than meeting a roadblock, the rate of profit was not falling, the ap english number of toronto wealthy investors (magnates of capital) was not falling but increasing, industrial concentration was not increasing, (22) and in all countries the workers were putting their country above their class. In high theory, too, the hollowness of Marxism was being exposed. The long-awaited publication of Volume III of Marx's Capital in 1894 revealed that Marx simply had no serious solution to essay, the great contradiction between Volumes I-II and the real behavior of prices.

Bhm-Bawerk's devastating critiques of essay toronto Marxian economics (1884 and 1896) were widely read and discussed. Eduard Bernstein -- a Marxist revisionist. The Crisis of Marxism gave birth to the Revisionism of Eduard Bernstein, which concluded, in effect, that the goal of revolution should be given up, in favor of piecemeal reforms within capitalism. (23) This held no allure for men of the on the of tango hard left who rejected existing society, deeming it too loathsome to essay, be reformed. Revisionists also began to school law case study, attack the essay fundamental Marxist doctrine of historical materialism--the theory that a society's organization of production decides the apush essay character of all other social phenomena, including ideas. At the beginning of the twentieth century, leftists who wanted to toronto, be as far left as they could possibly be became syndicalists, preaching the apush general strike as the way to demonstrate the workers' power and overthrow the essay bourgeois order. Syndicalist activity erupted across the world, even in obstructive, Britain and the United States. Promotion of the general strike was a way of defying capitalism and at the same time defying those socialists who wanted to essay, use electoral methods to christopher warren, negotiate reforms of the system.

Syndicalists began as uncompromising Marxists, but like Revisionists, they acknowledged that key tenets of Marxism had been refuted by the development of modern society. Most syndicalists came to essay, accept much of Bernstein's argument against essays 2000, traditional Marxism, but remained committed to the total rejection, rather than democratic reform, of existing society. They therefore called themselves revolutionary revisionists. They favored the idealist revision of Marx, meaning that they believed in a more independent role for ideas in social evolution that that allowed by Marxist theory. In setting out to revise Marxism, syndicalists were most strongly motivated by the desire to be effective revolutionaries, not to essay, tilt at windmills but to apush essay rubric, achieve a realistic understanding of the way the toronto world works. In criticizing and re-evaluating their own Marxist beliefs, however, they naturally drew upon the intellectual fashions of the day, upon ap english essays 2000, ideas that were in essay, the air during this period known as the fin de sicle . The most important cluster of such ideas is anti-rationalism. Many forms of anti-rationalism proliferated throughout the nineteenth century. The kind of the red room essay help anti-rationalism which most influenced pre-fascists was not primarily the view that something other than reason should be employed to decide factual questions (epistemological anti-rationalism). Essay? It was rather the view that, as a matter of sober recognition of reality, humans are not solely or even chiefly motivated by rational calculation but more by intuitive myths (practical anti-rationalism).

Therefore, if you want to understand and influence people's behavior, you had better acknowledge that they are not primarily self-interested, rational calculators; they are gripped and moved by myths. Rubric? (24) Paris was the fashion center of the intellectual world, dictating the rise and fall of ideological hemlines. Here, anti-rationalism was associated with the philosophy of essay toronto Henri Bergson, William James's Pragmatism from across the Atlantic, and the social-psychological arguments of Gustave Le Bon. Such ideas were seen as valuing action more highly than cogitation and as demonstrating that modern society (including the established socialist movement) was too rationalistic and too materialistic. Bergson and James were also read, however, as contending that humans did not work with an exam essay objectively existing reality, but created reality by imposing their own will upon the world, a claim that was also gleaned (rightly or wrongly) from Hegel, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche. Essay Toronto? French intellectuals turned against Descartes, the rationalist, and rehabilitated Pascal, the defender of faith. In the same spirit, Italian intellectuals rediscovered Vico.

Practical anti-rationalism entered pre-Fascism through Georges Sorel (25) and his theory of the myth. This influential socialist writer began as an orthodox Marxist. An extreme leftist, he naturally became a syndicalist, and soon the best-known syndicalist theoretician. Sorel then moved to defending Marx's theory of the law case class struggle in a new way--no longer as a scientific theory, but instead as a myth, an understanding of the world and the future which moves men to action. When he began to essay, abandon Marxism, both because of its theoretical failures and because of ap english 2000 its excessive materialism, he looked for an alternative myth.

Experience of current and recent events showed that workers had little interest in the class struggle but were prone to patriotic sentiment. By degrees, Sorel shifted his position, until at the end of his life he became nationalistic and essay toronto anti-semitic. (26) He died in 1922, hopeful about Lenin and essay more cautiously hopeful about Mussolini. A general trend throughout revolutionary socialism from toronto, 1890 to 1914 was that the most revolutionary elements laid an increasing stress upon leadership, and warren downplayed the autonomous role of the toiling masses. This elitism was a natural outcome of the revolutionaries' ardent wish to have revolution and the stubborn disinclination of the essay toronto working class to become revolutionary. On The History? (27) Workers were instinctive reformists: they wanted a fair shake within capitalism and nothing more. Since the workers did not look as if they would ever desire a revolution, the small group of conscious revolutionaries would have to play a more decisive role than Marx had imagined. That was the conclusion of Lenin in 1902. (28) It was the conclusion of toronto Sorel. Essay On The History Of Tango? And it was the conclusion of the syndicalist Giuseppe Prezzolini whose works in the century's first decade Mussolini reviewed admiringly. (29) The leadership theme was reinforced by the theoretical writings of, Mosca, Pareto, and essay Michels, especially Pareto's theory of the Circulation of Elites. All these arguments emphasized the vital role of active minorities and school law case study the futility of expecting that the masses would ever, left to themselves, accomplish anything. Further corroboration came from Le Bon's sensational best-seller of 1895--it would remain perpetually in print in a dozen languages-- The Psychology of Crowds , which analyzed the irrational behavior of humans in groups and drew attention to essay, the group's proclivity to place itself in the hands of a strong leader, who could control the room essay help group as long as he appealed to certain primitive or basic beliefs. (30) The initiators of Fascism saw anti-rationalism as high-tech.

It went with their fast cars and airplanes. Fascist anti-rationalism, like psychoanalysis, conceives of itself as a practical science which can channel elemental human drives in a useful direction. A Marxist Heresy? Some people have reacted to Fascism by saying that it's just the same as socialism. Essay Toronto? In part, this arises from the fact that fascism is christopher warren, a word used loosely to denote all the non-Communist dictatorships of the 1920s and essay 1930s, and by extension to refer to the most powerful and horrible of these governments, that of German National Socialism. The Nazis never claimed to obstructive disease, be Fascists, but they did continually claim to be socialists, whereas Fascism, after 1921, repudiated socialism by name. Toronto? Although Fascism had some influence on the National Socialist German Workers' Party, other influences were greater, notably Communism and German nationalism.

A. Pulmonary? James Gregor has argued that Fascism is a Marxist heresy, (31) a claim that has to be handled with care. Marxism is a doctrine whose main tenets can be listed precisely: class struggle, historical materialism, surplus-value, nationalization of the means of production, and so forth. Toronto? Nearly all of those tenets were explicitly repudiated by the founders of Fascism, and these repudiations of Marxism largely define Fascism. Yet however paradoxical it may seem, there is a close ideological relationship between Marxism and essay Fascism. We may compare this with the relationship between, say, Christianity and Unitarianism. Unitarianism repudiates all the toronto distinctive tenets of the red room essay Christianity, yet is still clearly an offshoot of Christianity, preserving an affinity with its parental stem. In power, the actual institutions of Fascism and Communism tended to converge. In practice, the toronto Fascist and National Socialist regimes increasingly tended to conform to what Mises calls the German pattern of Socialism. (32) Intellectually, Fascists differed from rubric, Communists in that they had to a large extent thought out essay, what they would do, and they then proceeded to do it, whereas Communists were like hypnotic subjects, doing one thing and rationalizing it in terms of a completely different and exam rubric altogether impossible thing. Fascists preached the accelerated development of a backward country.

Communists continued to employ the Marxist rhetoric of world socialist revolution in the most advanced countries, but this was all a ritual incantation to consecrate their attempt to accelerate the development of toronto a backward country. Fascists deliberately turned to nationalism as a potent myth. Communists defended Russian nationalism and warren essay imperialism while protesting that their sacred motherland was an internationalist workers' state. Fascists proclaimed the end of democracy. Communists abolished democracy and called their dictatorship democracy. Fascists argued that equality was impossible and hierarchy ineluctable. Communists imposed a new hierarchy, shot anyone who advocated actual equality, but never ceased to toronto, babble on about the equalitarian future they were building. Essays 2000? Fascists did with their eyes open what Communists did with their eyes shut. This is the truth concealed in the conventional formula that Communists were well-intentioned and Fascists evil-intentioned. Though they respected the irrational as a reality, the initiators of essay Fascism were not themselves swayed by wilfully irrational considerations. (33) They were not superstitious. Mussolini in 1929, when he met with Cardinal Gasparri at school study, the Lateran Palace, was no more a believing Catholic than Mussolini the violently anti-Catholic polemicist of the pre-war years, (34) but he had learned that in his chosen career as a radical modernizing politician, it was a waste of essay time to bang his head against the brick wall of institutionalized faith.

Leftists often imagine that Fascists were afraid of a revolutionary working-class. Apush Exam Essay? Nothing could be more comically mistaken. Most of the early Fascist leaders had spent years trying to get the essay toronto workers to become revolutionary. As late as June 1914, Mussolini took part enthusiastically, at risk of his own life and limb, in the violent and confrontational red week. The initiators of Fascism were mostly seasoned anti-capitalist militants who had time and essay obstructive pulmonary again given the working class the benefit of the doubt. The working class, by essay not becoming revolutionary, had let these revolutionaries down. Preferred Fascism to public school, Marxism. In the late 1920s, people like Winston Churchill and Ludwig von Mises saw Fascism as a natural and salutory response to essay toronto, Communist violence. (35) They already overlooked the fact that Fascism represented an room essay independent cultural phenomenon which predated the Bolshevik coup . It became widely accepted that the future lay with either Communism or Fascism, and many people chose what they considered the lesser evil. Evelyn Waugh remarked that he would choose Fascism over Marxism if he had to, but he did not think he had to. It's easy to essay, see that the rise of Communism stimulated the rise of Fascism. But since the public study existence of the Soviet regime was what chiefly made Communism attractive, and essay since Fascism was an independent tradition of revolutionary thinking, there would doubtless have been a powerful Fascist movement even in the absence of a Bolshevik regime.

At any rate, after 1922, the rubric same kind of influence worked both ways: many people became Communists because they considered that the most effective way to combat the essay toronto dreaded Fascism. Two rival gangs of murderous politicos, bent on establishing their own unchecked power, each drummed up support by pointing to the horrors that the public school law case study other gang would unleash. Whatever the shortcomings of any such appeal, the essay horrors themselves were all too real. (36) From Liberism to the Corporate State. In Fascism's early days it encompassed an element of what was called liberism, the on chronic pulmonary view that capitalism and essay the free market ought to warren essay, be left intact, that it was sheer folly for the state to involve itself in production.

Marx had left a strange legacy: the conviction that resolute pursuit of the class struggle would automatically take the essay working class in the direction of room essay help communism. Toronto? Since practical experience offers no corroboration for essay on the history of tango this surmise, Marxists have had to choose between pursuing the class struggle (making trouble for capitalism and essay hoping that something will turn up) and essay obstructive trying to seize power to introduce communism (which patently has nothing to do with strikes for higher wages or with such political reforms as factory safety legislation). As a result, Marxists came to essay, worship struggle for essay history of tango its own sake. And since Marxists were frequently embarrassed to talk about problems a communist society might face, dismissing any such discussion as utopian, it became easy for them to argue that we should focus only on the next step in the struggle, and not be distracted by speculation about the remote future. Traditional Marxists had believed that much government interference, such as protective tariffs, should be opposed, as it would slow down the development of the productive forces (technology) and thereby delay the revolution. For this reason, a Marxist should favor free trade. (37) Confronted by a growing volume of legislative reforms, some revolutionaries saw these as shrewd concessions by the bourgeoisie to take the edge off class antagonism and toronto thus stabilize their rule.

The fact that such legislative measures were supported by democratic socialists, who had been co-opted into the established order, provided an additional motive for revolutionaries to take the other side. All these influences might persuade a Marxist that capitalism should be left intact for the foreseeable future. In Italy, a further motive was that Marxists expected the revolution to essays, break out in the industrially advanced countries. No Marxist thought that socialism had anything to offer a backward economy like Italy, unless the revolution occurred first in essay, Britain, America, Germany, and France. As the prospect of any such revolution became less credible, the issue of Italian industrial development was all that remained, and that was obviously a task for capitalism. After 1919, the christopher warren essay Fascists developed a theory of the state; until then this was the one element in Fascist political theory which had not been elaborated.

Its elaboration, in essay toronto, an extended public debate, gave rise to the totalitarian view of the state, (38) notoriously expounded in Mussolini's formula, Everything in the state, nothing against the state, nothing outside the state. Unlike the later National Socialists of Germany, the Fascists remained averse to outright nationalization of industry. But, after a few years of comparative non-intervention, and some liberalization, the Fascist regime moved towards a highly interventionist policy, and Fascist pronouncements increasingly harped on the corporate state. All traces of liberism were lost, save only for the insistence that actual nationalization be avoided. Before 1930, Mussolini stated that capitalism had centuries of essay history useful work to do (a formulation that would occur only to a former Marxist); after 1930, because of the world depression, he spoke as if capitalism was finished and the corporate state was to replace it rather than providing its framework. As the dictatorship matured, Fascist rhetoric increasingly voiced explicit hostility to the individual ego. Essay Toronto? Fascism had always been strongly communitarian but now this aspect became more conspicuous.

Fascist anti-individualism is summed up in the assertion that the christopher warren death of a human being is like the toronto body's loss of a cell. Christopher Warren Essay? Among the toronto increasingly histrionic blackshirt meetings from 1920 to 1922 were the funeral services. When the name of a comrade recently killed by the Socialists was called out, the whole crowd would roar: Presente! Man is not an atom, man is essentially social--these woolly clichs were as much Fascist as they were socialist. Anti-individualism was especially prominent in the writings of official philosopher Giovanni Gentile, who gave Fascist social theory its finished form in apush exam essay, the final years of the toronto regime. (39) The Failure of Fascism. Fascist ideology had two goals by the red room essay help which Fascism's performance may reasonably be judged: the creation of a heroically moral human being, in a heroically moral social order, and the accelerated development of industry, especially in backward economies like Italy. The fascist moral ideal, upheld by writers from Sorel to essay, Gentile, is something like an inversion of the caricature of apush essay a Benthamite liberal. The fascist ideal man is not cautious but brave, not calculating but resolute, not sentimental but ruthless, not preoccupied with personal advantage but fighting for ideals, not seeking comfort but experiencing life intensely.

The early Fascists did not know how they would install the social order which would create this new man, but they were convinced that they had to destroy the bourgeois liberal order which had created his opposite. Even as late as 1922 it was not clear to Fascists that Fascism, the third way between liberalism and socialism, would set up a bureaucratic police state, but given the circumstances and fundamental Fascist ideas, nothing else was feasible. Fascism introduced a form of essay state which was claustrophobic in its oppressiveness. The result was a population of decidedly unheroic mediocrities, sly conformists scared of their own shadows, worlds removed from the kind of dynamic human character the Fascists had hoped would inherit the Earth. As for Fascism's economic performance, a purely empirical test of results is christopher, inconclusive. In its first few years, the Mussolini government's economic measures were probably more liberalizing than restrictive. The subsequent turn to intrusive corporatism was swiftly followed by toronto the world slump and then the war. But we do know from numerous other examples that if it is left to run its course, corporatist interventionism will cripple any economy. (40) Furthermore, economic losses inflicted by the war can be laid at Fascism's door, as Mussolini could easily have kept Italy neutral.

Fascism both gave unchecked power to a single individual to obstructive pulmonary, commit such a blunder as to take Italy to war in 1940 and made this more likely by extolling the benefits of war. In the toronto panoramic sweep of history, Fascism, like Communism, like all forms of socialism, and like today's greenism and warren anti-globalism, is the toronto logical result of specific intellectual errors about human progress. Fascism was an essay attempt to pluck the material fruits of liberal economics while abolishing liberal culture. (41) The attempt was entirely quixotic: there is no such thing as economic development without free-market capitalism and there is no such thing as free-market capitalism without the recognition of toronto individual rights. Warren Essay? The revulsion against liberalism was the outcome of misconceptions, and the futile attempt to supplant liberalism was the application of further misconceptions. Essay Toronto? By losing the war, Fascism and National Socialism spared themselves the terminal sclerosis which beset Communism. The Man Who Is Seeking When Mussolini switched from anti-war to room help, pro-war in November 1914, the other Socialist Party leaders immediately claimed that he had been bought off by the bourgeoisie, and this allegation has since been repeated by many leftists. But any notion that Mussolini sold out is more far-fetched than the theory that Lenin seized power because he was paid by the German government to take Russia out of the war. As the paramount figure of the essay toronto Italian left, Mussolini had it made. He was taking a career gamble at very long odds by provoking his own expulsion from the Socialist Party, in addition to risking his life as a front-line soldier. (42) Like Lenin, Mussolini was a capable revolutionary who took care of finances.

Once he had decided to on the history, come out as pro-war, he foresaw that he would lose his income from the Socialist Party. He approached wealthy Italian patriots to get support for Il Popolo d'Italia , but much of the money that came to Mussolini originated covertly from Allied governments who wanted to bring Italy into essay the war. Similarly, Lenin's Bolsheviks took aid from exam rubric, wealthy backers and from the essay German government. (43) In both cases, we see a determined group of apush revolutionaries using their wits to essay, raise money in pursuit of their goals. Jasper Ridley argues that Mussolini switched because he always wanted to be on the winning side, and dare not swim against apush essay, the tide of public opinion. (44) This explanation is feeble. Essay? Mussolini had spent all his life in an antagonistic position to the majority of Italians, and with the founding of a new party in 1919 he would again deliberately set himself at odds with the majority. Since individuals are usually more influenced by the pressure of room their reference group than by toronto the opinions of the whole population, we might wonder why Mussolini did not swim with the tide of the Socialist Party leadership and the majority of the Party membership, instead of swimming with the tide of those socialists inside and outside the warren essay Party who had become pro-war.

Although his personality may have influenced the timing, or even the actual decision, the pressure for Mussolini to change his position came from a long-term evolution in his intellectual convictions. From his earliest years as a Marxist revolutionary, Mussolini had been sympathetic to syndicalism, and then an actual syndicalist. Unlike other syndicalists, he remained in the Socialist Party, and as he rose within it, he continued to toronto, keep his ears open to those syndicalists who had left it. On many issues, his thinking followed theirs, more cautiously, and often five or ten years behind them. From 1902 to 1914, Italian revolutionary syndicalism underwent a rapid evolution. Always opposed to parliamentary democracy, Italian syndicalists, under Sorel's influence, became more committed to extra-constitutional violence and school study the necessity for essay toronto the revolutionary vanguard to ignite a conflagration. As early as 1908, Mussolini the on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease syndicalist Marxist had come to essay toronto, agree with these elitist notions and of tango began to employ the term gerarchia (hierarchy), which would remain a favorite word of essay toronto his into the Fascist period. Many syndicalists lost faith in essay help, the revolutionary potential of the working class. Seeking an alternative revolutionary recipe, the essay most advanced of these syndicalists began to essay obstructive pulmonary, ally themselves with the nationalists and to essay toronto, favor war. Mussolini's early reaction to on the history of tango, this trend was the disgust we might expect from toronto, any self-respecting leftist. (45) But given their premises, the syndicalists' conclusions were persuasive.

Nkrumah and friends face the camera. The logic underlying their shifting position was that there was unfortunately going to be no working-class revolution, either in of tango, the advanced countries, or in less developed countries like Italy. Italy was on its own, and essay Italy's problem was low industrial output. (46) Italy was an exploited proletarian nation, while the richer countries were bloated bourgeois nations. The nation was the myth which could unite the productive classes behind a drive to expand output. These ideas foreshadowed the Third World propaganda of the 1950s and 1960s, in which aspiring elites in essay, economically backward countries represented their own less than scrupulously humane rule as progressive because it would accelerate Third World development. From Nkrumah to Castro, Third World dictators would walk in Mussolini's footsteps. (47) Fascism was a full dress rehearsal for post-war Third Worldism. Nixon and friend caught by the camera. Many syndicalists also became productionists, urging that the essay workers ought not to strike, but to take over the factories and keep them running without the bosses. While productionism as a tactic of industrial action did not lead anywhere, the productionist idea implied that all who helped to expand output, even a productive segment of the exam rubric bourgeoisie, should be supported rather than opposed. From about 1912, those who closely observed Mussolini noted changes in his rhetoric.

He began to essay, employ the words people and nation in preference to proletariat. (Subsequently such patriotic language would become acceptable among Marxists, but then it was still unusual and somewhat suspect.) Mussolini was gradually becoming convinced, a few years later than the most advanced leaders of the extreme left, that Marxist class analysis was useless, that the proletariat would never become revolutionary, and that the nation had to be the vehicle of development. An elementary implication of this position is that leftist-initiated strikes and violent confrontations are not merely irrelevant pranks but actual hindrances to progress. When Mussolini founded Utopia , it was to on the of tango, provide a forum at toronto, which his Party comrades could exchange ideas with his friends the revolutionary syndicalists outside the Party. He signed his articles at this time The Man Who Is Seeking. The collapse of the Second International on the outbreak of war, and the lining up of the mass socialist parties of school law case study Germany, France, and Austria behind their respective national governments, confirmed once again that the syndicalists had been right: proletarian internationalism was not a living force. The future, he concluded, lay with productionist national syndicalism, which with some tweaking would become Fascism. Mussolini believed that Fascism was an essay international movement. He expected that both decadent bourgeois democracy and dogmatic Marxism-Leninism would everywhere give way to Fascism, that the twentieth century would be a century of Fascism. Like his leftist contemporaries, he underestimated the resilience of both democracy and on chronic disease free-market liberalism.

But in substance Mussolini's prediction was fulfilled: most of the world's people in the second half of the twentieth century were ruled by governments which were closer in practice to Fascism than they were either to liberalism or to Marxism-Leninism. The twentieth century was indeed the Fascist century. But Fascism lived on. Most of the world's people in the second half of the essay toronto twentieth century were ruled by governments which were closer in practice to Fascism than they were either to essays 2000, liberalism or to Marxism-Leninism. This article first appeared in essay, LIBERTY magazine. Their website can be found at http://www.libertysoft.com/liberty/index.html. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader. This is warren, available. and on many free CDs. From 1912 to 1914, Mussolini was the Che Guevara of essay toronto his day, a living saint of leftism. Apush Rubric? Handsome, courageous, charismatic, an erudite Marxist, a riveting speaker and writer, a dedicated class warrior to the core, he was the essay toronto peerless duce of the Italian Left.

He looked like the apush rubric head of any future Italian socialist government, elected or revolutionary. Mussolini was showered with accolades from sundry quarters. Winston Churchill called him the greatest living legislator. Cole Porter gave him a terrific plug in a hit song. Sigmund Freud sent him an essay toronto autographed copy of one of his books, inscribed to the Hero of Culture. The more taciturn Stalin supplied Mussolini with the plans of the May Day parades in Red Square, to help him polish up his Fascist pageants. As Marxists used to say, fascism appeals to the basest instincts, implying that leftists were at a disadvantage because they could appeal only to noble instincts like envy of the rich. Since it is irrational, fascism is ap english, sadistic, nationalist, and essay toronto racist by nature.

Leftist regimes are also invariably sadistic, nationalist, and racist, but that's because of regrettable mistakes or pressure of difficult circumstances. Vorticism was a somewhat milder variant of Futurism, associated with Ezra Pound and warren the painter and novelist Wyndham Lewis, an American and a Canadian who transplanted to London. Pound became a Fascist, moved to essay toronto, Italy, and was later found mentally ill and history incarcerated by the occupying Americans. The symptoms of his illness were his Fascist beliefs. He was later released, and chose to move back to Italy in 1958, an unreprentant Fascist. Many of the older treatments of Fascism are misleading because they cobble together Fascist pronouncements, almost entirely from after 1922, reflecting the essay pressures on exam essay a broad and flexible political movement solidifying its rule by compromises, and suppose that by toronto this method they can isolate the character and motivation of essay on the history of tango Fascist ideology. Toronto? It is christopher essay, as if we were to reconstruct the ideas of essay toronto Bolshevism by collecting the pronouncements of the Soviet government in 1943, which would lead us to conclude that Marxism owed a lot to pulmonary disease, Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great. Here we should note a difference between Marxism and Fascism. Toronto? The leader of rubric a Marxist political movement is always considered by his followers to be a master of theory and essay toronto a theoretical innovator on the scale of Copernicus.

Fascists were less prone to any such delusion. Mussolini was more widely-read than Lenin and a better writer, but Fascist intellectuals did not consider him a major contributor to essay on the, the body of Fascist theory, more a leader of genius who could distil theory into action. The Crisis of toronto Marxism gave birth to the Revisionism of Eduard Bernstein, which concluded, in public school law case study, effect, that the goal of revolution should be given up, in favor of piecemeal reforms within capitalism. This held no allure for men of the hard left who rejected existing society, deeming it too loathsome to be reformed. A general trend throughout revolutionary socialism from 1890 to 1914 was that the most revolutionary elements laid an increasing stress upon leadership, and downplayed the autonomous role of the toiling masses. This elitism was a natural outcome of the revolutionaries' ardent wish to have revolution and the stubborn disinclination of the working class to essay toronto, become revolutionary. The Nazis never claimed to be Fascists, but they did continually claim to essay, be socialists, whereas Fascism, after 1921, repudiated socialism by name.

Although Fascism had some influence on the National Socialist German Workers' Party, other influences were greater, notably Communism and German nationalism. Leftists often imagine that Fascists were afraid of a revolutionary working-class. Nothing could be more comically mistaken. Most of the early Fascist leaders had spent years trying to get the workers to essay, become revolutionary. As late as June 1914, Mussolini took part enthusiastically, at risk of his own life and christopher warren limb, in the violent and confrontational red week. The initiators of essay Fascism were mostly seasoned anti-capitalist militants who had time and again given the working class the benefit of the doubt. The working class, by not becoming revolutionary, had let these revolutionaries down. Unlike the later National Socialists of Germany, the Fascists remained averse to outright nationalization of on the history of tango industry.

But, after a few years of comparative non-intervention, and some liberalization, the Fascist regime moved towards a highly interventionist policy, and Fascist pronouncements increasingly harped on essay toronto the corporate state. All traces of liberism were lost, save only for pulmonary the insistence that actual nationalization be avoided. The fascist moral ideal, upheld by writers from Sorel to Gentile, is something like an inversion of the caricature of a Benthamite liberal. The fascist ideal man is not cautious but brave, not calculating but resolute, not sentimental but ruthless, not preoccupied with personal advantage but fighting for ideals, not seeking comfort but experiencing life intensely. In the panoramic sweep of essay toronto history, Fascism, like Communism, like all forms of christopher warren socialism, and like today's greenism and anti-globalism, is the logical result of specific intellectual errors about human progress. Fascism was an attempt to pluck the material fruits of liberal economics while abolishing liberal culture. The attempt was entirely quixotic: there is no such thing as economic development without free-market capitalism and there is no such thing as free-market capitalism without the recognition of individual rights. These ideas foreshadowed the Third World propaganda of the 1950s and 1960s, in which aspiring elites in economically backward countries represented their own less than scrupulously humane rule as progressive because it would accelerate Third World development. From Nkrumah to Castro, Third World dictators would walk in Mussolini's footsteps.

Fascism was a full dress rehearsal for post-war Third Worldism.