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Ap Lit Essay 2000

Ap english essays 2000

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business plan lcvp You#39;re a Self-Employed Independent Professional. And you went into business to make a difference. You love helping your clients grow and 2000, succeed. As an independent professional, you may be a coach, consultant, trainer or business person who works directly with individuals or groups. But you#39;re not attracting as many clients as you#39;d like. And you want to know what really works to consistently attract your ideal clients. My name is Robert Middleton and for more than 30 years I’ve worked with thousands of wireless paper independent professionals who were ready to find their own authentic marketing voice and attract more of their ideal clients.

On this home page is an overview of everything included on this website. It#39;s full of useful information about marketing for independent professionals and information about how I help them attract more clients. Section 1 - Free Stuff - Ideas that can help you immediately with your marketing. The Marketing Plan Workbook. This free, 42-page workbook helps you work through the core parts of the marketing process. Complete with fill-in forms and essays 2000, checklists. This is a good place to start if you want to to wrie, become a better marketer of your services.

7 Principles of Marketing. How exactly does marketing work for ap english 2000 independent professionals? This overview gives you the big picture through these 7 key marketing principles. Jack Essay! Understand these and you#39;ll have a good grasp of 2000 what it takes to attract clients. Marketing Scorecard.

How well are you currently doing with your marketing? Take just a couple quick minutes to school essays, fill out this scorecard and find out. You may be surprised. Many people think they#39;re doing fine with their marketing but discover major areas where they need to improve. Essays! Your Marketing Mindset. If you ever get stuck in your marketing, you#39;ll find this useful. It explores 12 common marketing mindsets that may be holding you back from grad nursing school marketing yourself effectively. Ap English Essays 2000! And then it gives you alternatives to to wrie a research, those mindsets. Where are you stuck? Videos on my Key Marketing Principles.

The four videos on this page give you the big picture about what works in marketing your professional services. You#39;ll find a link to eight more videos that go into 2000 even more depth at the bottom of the page. Take the time to watch these for a very inexpensive, yet incisive, marketing education. Section 2 - Ideas - Core marketing ideas for independent professionals. Graduate Admission! The Game of Marketing. If you think of marketing as a game with well-defined rules and strategies to ap english, win, it can make marketing a whole lot easier and more fun. This section gives you an overview of the game of marketing that I call Marketing Ball. Dempsey! The Mindset of Marketing.

Certain mindsets will help your marketing and others will hinder it. Essays 2000! This section discusses how we get attached to usb research paper, certain marketing mindsets that get us off track and make us avoid marketing. Marketing Messages. A marketing message is anything you say that communicates the value of your professional services. Here I explain the four key components to any successful marketing message.

Your Audio Logo. When someone asks you what you do, I call the response to that question an Audio Logo. It needs to get immediate attention and interest or nothing will happen. Marketing Syntax. Ap English 2000! It#39;s not just what you say in your marketing message, it#39;s the essays graduate admission order, or syntax, in which you say it. Ap English! You#39;ll get more attention if you understand the most effective syntax for all your marketing communications. Marketing Conversations. When you initially engage with a prospective client what do you say? Or more importantly, what do you ask? In this section, I discuss the best questions to ask prospective clients. Marketing Strategies.

The way you get the word out about your business and services is through various marketing strategies. In this section, I talk about the key components of thesis developing an action plan for ap english essays 2000 a marketing strategy. Section 3 - The More Clients Club - Online Marketing Training. The More Clients Club. In 2009 I put all my main programs, courses and tutorials together into one place online. The Club is for self-directed people who want to learn about how to attract clients. Includes hundreds of hours of nursing school recordings and ap english, dozens of Expert Interviews. Everything is hands-on and how-to.

Section 4 - Action Plan Marketing Programs and Services. Nursing School Essays! Marketing Coaching Program. If you#39;re looking for ap english hands-on assistance with your marketing, this page will explain exactly how I work with you. Most of my individual clients have been in business for master thesis social some time and are looking at how to take their professional services practice to ap english 2000, the next level of success. This program is customized for each client. Marketing Action Group.

This is an ongoing marketing support and mastermind group designed to help you move into action. Master! With from 24 to 30 participants, we give you the tools and support to go into action. Ap English Essays 2000! Includes live weekly video-conference sessions, online materials, and feedback on an interactive forum. The Website Toolkit. Not happy with your website and not sure how to develop the content for it? This program takes you through every single page of paper a professional service business website and through written and ap english, recorded materials and samples shows you what should go onto each page of your website and how to wireless usb research paper, write it for maximum impact. Section 5 - About Us - A little about Action Plan Marketing and ap english essays 2000, Robert Middleton. Is this You? I work only with independent professionals such as management consultants, business coaches corporate trainers and financial professionals.

This page tells you more about the kind of clients I work with. See if you fit the profile. Case Studies. Here you#39;ll find a number of case studies about clients I#39;ve worked with over the years. I#39;ve been offering services, programs and marketing coaching to independent professionals since 1984. I#39;ve worked with thousands of clients in programs and hundreds individually. This is just a small sampling. About Us. This page talks a little bit about my company, Action Plan Marketing.

Includes a short, overview video about my approach. Take just 86 seconds to jack dempsey essay, watch it. About Robert Middleton. This page is ap english 2000, more about me personally and how I got into usb research paper helping independent professionals with their marketing. Hard to believe I#39;ve been doing this for 33 years! Contact Us. If you#39;d like to contact me, have a question, or are interested in perhaps working with me, all the details are on this page.

Section 6 - The Action Blog and Now. The Action Blog. I#39;ve been writing a weekly email marketing newsletter since 1997. And I#39;ve been posting the articles from the ap english essays newsletter onto paper, the Action Blog for several years. This is some of the best material on ap english essays the website, so take your time to browse through a number of articles. Now. This is a page that talks about what I#39;m doing in jack, my business now. I update it every few months. You might want to get started with the Marketing Plan Workbook and also get on my e-lsit for the More Clients email newsletter below. Get my Marketing Plan Workbook and more: A copy of my Marketing Plan Workbook. And four other marketing bonuses that will give you:

Ways to develop a powerful marketing message weekly marketing tips access to ap english essays 2000, my interactive marketing forum interviews with top marketing experts. To get your free stuff, fill out the form to the right or click here for more details. Wireless Usb Research! Get the Workbook and your other Bonuses now! We value your online privacy. When you get the ap english 2000 Marketing Plan Workbook and bonuses your name and school, email address will not be sold or rented to anyone ever. I#39;ve been doing this for 20 years and know you don#39;t want to ap english essays, be spammed with endless emails. You are free to thesis, opt-out at any time at the bottom of any email we send you. Attracting your ideal clients is fun once you know. the keys to effective professional services marketing.

210 riverside drive. boulder creek, ca 95006. Ap English Essays! Copyright 2016 - Action Plan Marketing - Robert Middleton - All rights reserved.

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netstream resume NetStream ?? Flash Player ? AIR ????? Flash Media Server ???? Flash Player ? AIR ?????????????????????NetStream ??? NetConnection ????????? ??????? NetStream.publish() ???,????? NetStream.play() ??????????????????????????????????????? NetStream ??????????????????(??? NetStream.send() ??)? ?? SWF ?????????,?????????????,??,?????????????????? SWF ???? Adobe AIR ? Flash Player 9.0.115.0 _cn ?????????? MPEG-4 ????(?? F4V?MP4?M4A?MOV?MP4V?3GP ? 3G2)??????(?????? H.264 ???/? HEAAC v2 ????)?? Sorenson ? On2 ????????????,H.264 ????????????????????HE-AAC v2 ? AAC(? MPEG-4 ????????????????)???,??????? (SBR) ?????? (PS) ????????????????????????????????,??? http://www.adobe.com/go/hardware_scaling_cn ? Flash Media Server ??? ???? NetConnection ??? ?? NetConnection.connect() ????????????????? ???? NetStream ??,???????????? ?? NetStream.attachAudio() ???????????????,???? NetStream.attachCamera() ?????????? ?? NetStream.publish() ????????????,???????????????,????????????????????????????,??????????????? ??????????? play() ?????? publish() ???,?????????? NetConnection.connect() ????????? Video.attachNetStream() ?????????,???? NetStream.play() ??????? ?????? Flash Media Server? ?? NetConnection ? NetStream ???,?????????????????????,?? NetStream.send() ????????? ??????????:??????????????????????? ???????,???????????? @setDataFrame ?? NetStream.send() ??????? ?????????????? onMetaData ??????,??????????;??????,??? NetStream.send() ??? ??????????????????????? bufferTime ??????,?????????????;??,????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ??,???????? 15 ??????,?? bufferTime ??? 15;??????? 15 ?????????????????? ???? 0.1(?????)? ???????????????,??? bufferLength ??? ??: ???????????(???)????????????,??? Netstream.bufferTime ? 0? ?????????,???????????????????????????????????????????,??????????????? ? Flash Player 9.0.115.0 ??,??? NetStream.pause() ?,Flash Player ????????? Flash Player 9.0.115.0 ??,?????? Flash Player ????????,????????? ??????, NetStream.bufferLength ?????? 60 ????? NetStream.bufferTime ?(?????????)???,?? bufferTime ? 20 ?,? NetStream.bufferLength ???? 20*2 (40) ? 60 ??,Flash Player ???????,??????,? bufferLength ? 60 ??,Flash Player ?????????? bufferTime ? 40 ?,? bufferLength ???? 40*2 (80) ? 60 ??,? Flash Player ???????,??????,? bufferLength ? 80 ???,Flash Player ???????? bufferLength ?????????????? pause() ??????? bufferLength ??? 600 ???? bufferTime * 2 ??(????????),Flash Player ???????? bufferLength ??? 0???,?? bufferTime ? 120 ?,? bufferLength ?? 600 ??,Flash Player ??????;?? bufferTime ? 360 ?,? bufferLength ?? 720 ??,Flash Player ??????? ?? :??,????????????,???????? NetStream.pause() ?????,???????????????? Flash Media Server ??????????????????????????? ?????, bufferTime ??????????????????????????????????,??????????;????????????????????????????????????,?????????????????????????????????? ?????, bufferTime ???????????????????????????? ??,????????? 15 ???????????,?? bufferTime ??? 15;Flash ?? 15 ?????????????????? ???????,?? bufferTime ? 0,Flash ??????????(??? 10 ??)??????????(??,??????),?????????????,?? bufferTime ??????? ????????????????????????? bytesTotal ??????,?????????????;??,????????????????????? ?????????????????,?????????????????????????????????????(?????)?? NetStream ??,?????????????? ????????,??????? ??? NetStream ???? RTMP ???,?????? ???????? ??????????????,?????? BitmapData.draw() ????????????,???????? true ? ?????? checkPolicyFile ????? true ????,???? BitmapData.draw() ,??????? SecurityError ??,?????????????? ????????????????????,???? checkPolicyFile ??? true ??????????????,????????????? ??? checkPolicyFile ??? true ,??? NetStream.play() ???, Flash Player ? AIR ????????????????????,??????????????(?? NetStream.play() ??????)??,??????????????????????, Flash Player ? AIR ??????????,??????: ???????????????? ????????? Security.loadPolicyFile() ??????????????????? ??????????? NetStream.play() ? URL ??????????????,??? URL ??????????,?????? /crossdomain.xml ? ??????, Flash Player ? AIR ???????????????????????,??????????? play() ? URL ?(??????????)??????,??????????????????????? allow-access-from ???????? ??? checkPolicyFile ??? true ,??????????????????????????????????????(??? BitmapData.draw() ),??? NetStream ???? onMetaData ? NetStatus ??? ??? checkPolicyFile ??? true ,???????????,????????????????,???????,????????? SecurityError ??? ????????? HTTP ???? URL ?????,????? checkPolicyFile ? ??????????? NetStream.play() ?????? URL ????????????????? HTTP ????????? URL,?????????????????????? URL,? URL ?????????? ???????????,??? ?ActionScript 3.0 ??? ??“Flash Player ???”??? ??????????????? ????? this ,??? NetStream ??? ??? client ??????????,????????????? ??????????(? Flash Media Server);??????,??????? ? NetStream ???????(AMF ??)?NetStream ?????? NetConnection ??????? objectEncoding ???? ActionScript 3.0 SWF ?????? Flash Player 9 ????????????,?????????????????,??? NetConnection ?? objectEncoding ?????? ??????????????????????? NetConnection.defaultObjectEncoding ????????, null ???? NetConnection.connect() ??????????????????????????????????? ?? NetStream ??????????????,??? SoundTransform ?? Flash Media Server ?????,???????????????,???????????????????;???? 1000 ???????????? ?????,???????????,??????,? time ??????? ?????????????,???????,???????????????????????? ????????????????????????, time ???????? ???? NetStream.play() ?? reset ??? 1 ? true ,???? NetStream.close() ,????????? 0? ?????????? NetConnection ??????????? ?????? NetStream ????????,????????? Microphone ?????????????????? attachAudio ???? Flash Media Server?????????????????????????(??????????)??????? ?????? publish() ??????????????,????????????????????? NetStream.play() ??? ???????? Microphone ??? soundTransform ??????????????? ??????????,??? theCamera ??? null ,????????????????????????? ????? Flash Media Server;??????,??????? ????????,???? NetStream.publish() ??????? ?????????????? NetStream.play() ? Video.attachCamera() ??,??????????? ???? snapshotMilliseconds ??????????,?????????????????????????????(????? 0)??????(??????????)? ??????????????? ???????? snapshotMilliseconds ????? attachCamera() ,????????????????????? ??,?????????,??????????? ??????????,?????????????????,??????????? snapshotMilliseconds ??????????? Camera.setMode() ??? fps ?????? snapshotMilliseconds ?,???????????????????? Camera.setMode() ?? fps ?,?????????????? ??,?????? 5 ???????,???? 100 ??????????????????: ????? 5 ?????? NetStream.attachCamera(myCamera, 500) ??,???? 100 ??????????? 500 ??,????????? 50 ??????(100 ??,??????????? 500 ??)? ??????? fps ?? 1/300(? 300 ???,?? 5 ????)? Camera.setMode() ??,?????? NetStream.attachCamera(source) ??,???????? 500 ????????????? 500 ???????,???????????,????? 5 ??? ??????????? 500 ??,??????;????????,??????????????,???????,?????????????????,??????????? ???????????,? time ????? 0,????????????????????? HTTP ????????????? ?????????????????????,?????????????????????????????????????????,??? Flash Media Server? ???? Flash Media Server,???????? NetStream.play() ???????? NetStream.publish() ??????????? ???: ????????? close() ,???????,???????????????????????????????????,?????????? ????????? close() ,???????????,??????????????????????????? ???????????,????? flash.net.NetStream.play(false) ??????????? ?????????????????,????????????????????????????,??? resume() ?????????????(?????,????),??? togglePause() ? ? Flash Player 9.0.115.0 ??,??? NetStream.pause() ?,Flash Player ????????? Flash Player 9.0.115.0 ??,?????? Flash Player ????????,????????? ??????, NetStream.bufferLength ?????? 60 ????? NetStream.bufferTime ?(?????????)???,?? bufferTime ? 20 ?,? NetStream.bufferLength ???? 20*2 (40) ? 60 ??,Flash Player ???????,??????,? bufferLength ? 60 ??,Flash Player ?????????? bufferTime ? 40 ?,? bufferLength ???? 40*2 (80) ? 60 ??,? Flash Player ???????,??????,? bufferLength ? 80 ???,Flash Player ???????? bufferLength ?????????????? pause() ??????? bufferLength ??? 600 ???? bufferTime * 2 ??(????????),Flash Player ???????? bufferLength ??? 0???,?? bufferTime ? 120 ?,? bufferLength ?? 600 ??,Flash Player ??????;?? bufferTime ? 360 ?,? bufferLength ?? 720 ??,Flash Player ??????? ?? :??,????????????,???????? NetStream.pause() ?????,???????????????? ????????,??????? Video ????? Video.attachNetStream() ??;?????????????????????????????????????????,??? NetStream.attachAudio() ??,??? Microphone ???????????? ??????????????,????? DisplayObjectContainer.addChild() ??????????????????;????? Sound ???????????????????,??? DisplayObjectContainer.addChild() ??? ??????????,???? netStatus ?????????????,??? close() ??? ???? Flash Media Server ??????????,????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????,?????????????????????,?????????????? ??,?????? SWF ??? HTML ???? object ? embed ??? allowNetworking ??,???? Flash Player ???? SWF ???????? Flash Media Server ??? Flash Media Server ???????,??????????????(? bolero )? ???? MP3 ??,????????? mp3: ????? MP3 ??? ID3 ??,????????? id3: ? ???? Flash Media Server, play() ???????: ????????????????????? Flash Media Server,?????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? NetStream ??,??? play() ??: ?? Flash Media Server ????,??????????,??????????????????????????????????? NetConnection.connect() ????????????????????????????;???????????????????? ??,?????????????????????,???????????????? lectureSeries ??????? lecture.flv ???????? /yourAppsFolder/lectureSeries/streams/Monday ?????: ?????????????????????,??????????? ?? lecture.flv ???????? /yourAppsFolder/lectureSeries/streams/Tuesday ?????? ???????????,???????? name ???????,???????? /yourAppsFolder/appName/streams/_definst_(??“????”)?????? ?????????????,??? NetConnection.connect() ??? ???????????,??? NetStream.play() ??? ? Flash Media Server ????????? publish() ?,??????? onPublish ??????????????????????? ?????????,??????? onUnpublish ??? ??????,??? Flash Media Server Server-Side ActionScript Language Reference (?Flash Media Server ???? ActionScript ?????)? ?????????????????? netStatus ?????,????????????????????,? netStatus ???? NetStream.Publish.BadName ????????????????,??? netStatus ??? ??????? Flash Media Server;??????,??????? ?????? NetStream.play() ???????????????,?????? ??,????????????????,?????????????????????????? ?????????????,?? false ??????????? NetStream.time ?????? ??????? Flash Media Server;??????,??????? ?????? NetStream.play() ???????????????,????????,????????????????,??????????????????????? ?????????????,?? false ??????????? NetStream.time ?????? ??????? Flash Media Server;??????,??????? ?????? NetStream.play() ???????????????,????????,???????????????????????????? ????????,?? FPS ?? 0??????????,??? NetStream.currentFPS ? ??? FPS ????????????????,Flash Media Server ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????,?????? I ?(????);??,????????,???????????????????????????????,??????????????,?????????? ??????????????????? (DRM) ????? ??????????????(????????? I ?)???????????????????(?????)? ?????????????????????:???(? I ?)? P ???????????;? P ???????,?????????????????????,???? 10 ? 50 ????????? ? Flash Media Server ?, seek() ????? Application.xml ?????? EnhancedSeek ???????? ?? EnhancedSeek ? false ,?????????????????????,??????????????????? ??,?????? 0 ??? 10 ?????????,?? 4 ?????????? 0 ???????? 4 ??????? ?????????(?? 10 ??)??,???????? ???????????,???????????????????,?????????????????? ?? EnhancedSeek ? true (???),?????????????????? P ?? offset ??????????????,????????????????,?????????????????????????? On2,??????????????????????????? P ???????? ????????????????????????????????????,?? Flash Media Server ???????????????,?? NetStream ???????????,??, ns.HandlerName ? Flash Player ? AIR ???????????????????????????????????????, Flash Player ? AIR ????????????????? ????? send() ??,???????????? Flash Media Server ?????? ??????????????????????,???????????????????,??????????????????????????,???????????????????????????,??????????????????? ??????????????? Flash Media Server ?????,??? @setDataFrame ????????,????????,??: @setDataFrame ???? Flash Media Server ????????????? onMetaData ????????????? onMetaData ???????????????????? metaData ??????????????? Object ? Array ??????????????????????;????????????,??? Flash Media Server ??? ???? @clearDataFrame ???????????????: ?????????????? DRM ??????? AsyncErrorEvent.ASYNC_ERROR ???? asyncError ????? type ???? ? NetStream ?????????????? (DRM) ?????(????????????????)???? ?? NetStream ??? setDRMAuthenticationCredentials() ??????????????????????,???????????????? NetStream ???????? DRMAuthenticateEvent ??? DRMAuthenticateEvent.DRM_AUTHENTICATE ???? drmAuthenticate ????? type ???? ?? DRMErrorEvent.type = flash.events.DRMErrorEvent.DRM_ERROR. ? NetStream ???????????? (DRM) ???????????? DRM ???????????,?????????,??? DRMErrorEvent ?????????????????????????????????????????????? DRMErrorEvent.DRM_ERROR ???? drmError ????? type ???? ??????????? (DRM) ??????(????????????????????)??? DRMStatusEvent.DRM_STATUS ???? drmStatus ????? type ???? ?? ioError ????? type ???? ? NetStream ???????????????? netStatus ?????? info ??,????????????????(????????????)?????? ?? netStatus ????? type ???? ????????????????????? ?????????????,??????????????????,????????????????????????? ?? Flash Media Server ????????????,??? Flash Media Server ??? ????? Flash Media Server? ??? Flash Player ? AIR API ????,??????????????????????? addEventListener() ???????? EventDispatcher ???????????? ??,???????????,??????????????:

NetStream ??? client ????????? NetStream ???????? NetStream ??????,???????????????? NetStream ?????,????? NetStream ?????????????????,??????????????????????????? ?????,??????????????,??? time ??????????????????????????,????????????? ?????,??????,?????????????????????????????????????,???????????????????????????? ?????????????,??? Flash ???????“????”?????????,???????????????? onMetaData ???????????????????????, onMetaData ????????????,????????????? onCuePoint ????????????????????,???????????? ??,????????????????????,??? onCuePoint ?????????????? ???????? onMetaData ????????,?????????????????????????? time ??????? NetStream.seek() ??,???????????? ? Flash Player ??????????????????????????????????????? JPEG?PNG ? GIF ????? flash.display.Loader.loadBytes() ??????????????????? ??????? Flash Media Server;??????,??????? ???? addEventListener() ??????? EventDispatcher ???????????????????????,???????? imageData ??? ?????? NetStream.play() ?????????????????? onImageData ???????? AMF0 ??????????????????? ????????????????????????????? Flash Media Server ????????????,??? Flash Media Server ??? ??????? Flash Media Server;??????,??????? ???????,??? Flash Player ? AIR API ????,??????????????????????? addEventListener() ???????? EventDispatcher ???????????? ??,???????????,??????????????: NetStream ??? client ????????? NetStream ????????NetStream ??????,???????????????? NetStream ?????,????? NetStream ?????????????????,??????????????????????????? Flash Video Exporter ????(1.1 ???????)??????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????? NetStream.play() ?????????????????? ??????,??????????????????????,?????? ???,?????????????,??????? NetStream.time ???????? ? NetStream ???????????? ????????????,???????? netStatus ??????????????? ???? NetStream ????????????????????(????? NetStream.Play.Switch ??),??? NetStream ????????(????? NetStream.Play.Complete ??),???????????????? ???????,??????????????????????? ????? Flash Media Server;??????,??????? ??? Flash Player ? AIR API ????,??????????????????????? addEventListener() ???????? EventDispatcher ???????????? ??,???????????,??????????????: NetStream ??? client ????????? NetStream ????????NetStream ??????,???????????????? NetStream ?????,????? NetStream ?????????????????,??????????????????????????? ? Flash Player ???????????????????????????? UTF-8 ??,???????? 3GP ???????????????????????? Flash Media Server;??????,??????? ???? addEventListener() ??????? EventDispatcher ???????????????????????,???????? textData ??? ?????? NetStream.play() ?????????????????? ??????????? NetStream.play() ??????????? (DRM) ??????????????????? “DRM.encryptedFLV” ? ?? status ????? type ???? 2004-2008 Adobe Systems Incorporated.

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Ap Lit Essay 2000

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Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? T he race industry and its elite enablers take it as self-evident that high black incarceration rates result from discrimination. At a presidential primary debate this Martin Luther King Day, for instance, Senator Barack Obama charged that blacks and whites “are arrested at very different rates, are convicted at 2000, very different rates, [and] receive very different sentences . . . for the same crime.” Not to be outdone, Senator Hillary Clinton promptly denounced the “disgrace of a criminal-justice system that incarcerates so many more African-Americans proportionately than whites.” If a listener didn’t know anything about crime, such charges of jack essay, disparate treatment might seem plausible. 2000! After all, in 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of all state and federal prisoners, though they’re under 13 percent of the national population. About one in 33 black men was in prison in 2006, compared with one in 205 white men and one in 79 Hispanic men. Paper! Eleven percent of all black males between the 2000, ages of 20 and 34 are in prison or jail. The dramatic rise in the prison and jail population over the last three decades—to 2.3 million people at the end of 2007 (see box)—has only thesis amplified the racial accusations against the criminal-justice system. The favorite culprits for high black prison rates include a biased legal system, draconian drug enforcement, and even prison itself. Essays! None of these explanations stands up to scrutiny. The black incarceration rate is overwhelmingly a function of black crime.

Insisting otherwise only worsens black alienation and further defers a real solution to to wrie the black crime problem. R acial activists usually remain assiduously silent about ap english 2000, that problem. But in wireless usb research paper, 2005, the black homicide rate was over seven times higher than that of whites and essays Hispanics combined, according to the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics. From 1976 to nursing essays 2005, blacks committed over 52 percent of all murders in America. In 2006, the black arrest rate for ap english essays 2000 most crimes was two to nearly three times blacks’ representation in the population. Blacks constituted 39.3 percent of all violent-crime arrests, including 56.3 percent of all robbery and 34.5 percent of all aggravated-assault arrests, and jack essay 29.4 percent of all property-crime arrests. The advocates acknowledge such crime data only indirectly: by charging bias on the part of the system’s decision makers. As Obama suggested in ap english essays, the Martin Luther King debate, police, prosecutors, and judges treat blacks and whites differently “for the thesis social, same crime.”

Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data. As long ago as 1978, a study of ap english 2000, robbery and aggravated assault in eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in victim identifications and in arrests—a finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. Moving up the master, enforcement chain, the ap english 2000, campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. Obama describes this alleged postarrest treatment as “Scooter Libby justice for essays graduate admission some and Jena justice for others.” Jena, Louisiana, of ap english essays, course, was where a D.A. Wireless Usb Research Paper! initially lodged attempted second-degree murder charges against essays black students who, in December 2006, slammed a white student’s head against a concrete beam, knocking him unconscious, and then stomped and kicked him in the head while he was down. Master! As Charlotte Allen has brilliantly chronicled in The Weekly Standard , a local civil rights activist crafted a narrative linking the 2000, attack to an unrelated incident months earlier, in which three white students hung two nooses from a schoolyard tree—a display that may or may not have been intended as a racial provocation. This entrepreneur then embellished the tale with other alleged instances of redneck racism—above all, the initial attempted-murder charges. An enthusiastic national press responded to the bait exactly as intended, transforming the “Jena Six” into victims rather than perpetrators. In the seven months of ensuing headlines and protests, Jena became a symbol of systemic racial unfairness in America’s court system. If blacks were disproportionately in prison, the nursing school essays, refrain went, it was because they faced biased prosecutors—like the one in Jena—as well as biased juries and judges.

Backing up this bias claim has been the holy grail of criminology for decades—and the prize remains as elusive as ever. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and sentencing. Essays! They concluded that “large racial differences in criminal offending,” not racism, explained why more blacks were in case study to effective communication, prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. A 1987 analysis of Georgia felony convictions, for example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and essays other legally relevant variables. Jack! A 1994 Justice Department survey of ap english, felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did and that they were less likely to be found guilty at trial. Master Thesis! Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, however—an outcome that reflected the gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records. Another criminologist—easily as liberal as Sampson—reached the same conclusion in 1995: “Racial differences in patterns of offending, not racial bias by police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,” Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . Ap English 2000! (Tonry did go on master thesis to impute malign racial motives to drug enforcement, however.) The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in essays 2000, prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest. This consensus hasn’t made the slightest dent in the ongoing search for systemic racism. An entire industry in the law schools now dedicates itself to flushing out prosecutorial and jack judicial bias, using ever more complicated statistical artillery.

The net result? A few new studies show tiny, unexplained racial disparities in sentencing, while other analyses continue to find none. Any differences that do show up are trivially small compared with the 2000, exponentially greater rates of wireless usb research paper, criminal offending among blacks. No criminologist would claim, moreover, to have controlled for every legal factor that affects criminal-justice outcomes, says Patrick Langan, former senior statistician for the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Ap English! Prosecutors and dempsey judges observe the heinousness of a defendant’s conduct, for example, but a number-crunching researcher has no easy way to discover and quantify that variable. Some criminologists replace statistics with High Theory in their search for racism. 2000! The criminal-justice system does treat individual suspects and a research paper criminals equally, they concede. But the problem is how society defines crime and criminals. 2000! Crime is a social construction designed to marginalize minorities, these theorists argue.

A liberal use of scare quotes is wireless virtually mandatory in ap english, such discussions, to essays admission signal one’s distance from primitive notions like “law-abiding” and “dangerous.” Arguably, vice crimes are partly definitional (though even there, the law enforcement system focuses on them to the extent that they harm communities). But the social constructivists are talking about all crime, and it’s hard to see how one could “socially reconstruct” assault or robbery so as to convince victims that they haven’t been injured. U nfair drug policies are an equally popular explanation for black incarceration rates. Legions of pundits, activists, and academics charge that the war on drugs is 2000 a war on minorities—a de facto war at best, an intentional one at worst. Playing a starring role in this conceit are federal crack penalties, the source of the graduate, greatest amount of misinformation in the race and essays incarceration debate. Crack is a smokeable and highly addictive cocaine concentrate, created by grad school, cooking powder cocaine until it hardens into pellets called “rocks.” Crack produces a faster—and more potent—high than powder cocaine, and it’s easier to use, since smoking avoids the ap english 2000, unpleasantness of needles and is more efficient than snorting. Under the 1986 federal Anti-Drug Abuse Act, getting caught with five grams of crack carries a mandatory minimum five-year sentence in federal court; to trigger the same five-year minimum, powder-cocaine traffickers would have to get caught with 500 grams. On average, federal crack sentences are three to six times longer than powder sentences for equivalent amounts.

The media love to essays graduate admission target the federal crack penalties because crack defendants are likely to be black. 2000! In 2006, 81 percent of federal crack defendants were black, while only 27 percent of federal powder-cocaine defendants were. Since federal crack rules are more severe than those for powder, and crack offenders are disproportionately black, those rules must explain why so many blacks are in prison, the conventional wisdom holds. But consider the usb research paper, actual number of crack sellers sentenced in federal court each year. In 2006, 5,619 were tried federally, 4,495 of them black. Essays! From 1996 to 2000, the federal courts sentenced more powder traffickers (23,743) than crack traffickers (23,121). It’s going to take a lot more than 5,000 or so crack defendants a year to account for the 562,000 black prisoners in wireless paper, state and ap english 2000 federal facilities at usb research paper, the end of 2006—or the 858,000 black prisoners in custody overall, if one includes the essays, population of to wrie a research, county and city jails.

Nor do crack/powder disparities at the state level explain black incarceration rates: only 13 states distinguish between crack and powder sentences, and they employ much smaller sentence differentials. The press almost never mentions the federal methamphetamine-trafficking penalties, which are identical to essays 2000 those for crack: five grams of meth net you a mandatory minimum five-year sentence. Nursing Essays! In 2006, the 5,391 sentenced federal meth defendants (nearly as many as the crack defendants) were 54 percent white, 39 percent Hispanic, and 2 percent black. But no one calls the federal meth laws anti-Hispanic or anti-white. N evertheless, the federal crack penalties dominate discussions on race and essays 2000 incarceration because they seem to provide a concrete example of egregious racial disparity. This leads to a commonly expressed syllogism: crack penalties have a disparate impact on essays graduate blacks; disparate impact is racist; therefore, crack penalties are racist. This syllogism has been particularly prominent recently, thanks to the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s 2007 decision to lighten federal crack penalties retroactively in the name of racial equity.

The press has covered this development voraciously, serving up a massive dose of crack revisionism aimed at proving the racist origins of the war on 2000 crack. Paper! Crack was never a big deal, the revisionist story line goes. But when Boston Celtics draft pick Len Bias died of a crack overdose in 1986, the media went into 2000 overdrive covering the crack phenomenon. “Images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of crack, and the street crime it was presumed to stoke” circulated, as the New York Times archly put it in a December 2007 article. A “moral panic” (Michael Tonry’s term) ensued about an imaginary threat from a powerless minority group. Whites feared that addicted blacks would invade their neighborhoods. Sensational stories about “crack babies” surfaced. All this hysteria resulted in the unnecessary federal crack penalties. Since the 1980s, the master thesis, revisionist narrative continues, experts have determined that powder and crack show more pharmacological “similarities than differences,” in the Times ’s words, and that crack is ap english no more damaging to fetuses than alcohol. The belief that crack was an inner-city scourge was thus a racist illusion, and study barriers to effective the sentencing structure to quell it a racist assault. Ap English! Or, as U.S. A Research Paper! District Judge Clyde Cahill put it, in what one hopes is not a representative sample of the federal judicial temperament: “Legislators’ unconscious racial aversion towards blacks, sparked by unsubstantiated reports of the effects of crack, reactionary media prodding, and an agitated constituency, motivated the legislators . . 2000! . to produce a dual system of punishment.”

Leave aside the grad nursing school, irony of the press’s now declaring smugly that the press exaggerated the ravages of crack. (The same New York Times that now sneers at “images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of crack” ran searing photos of crack addicts in 1993 that included a woman kneeling before a crack dealer, unzipping his fly, a baby clinging to her back; such degraded prostitutes, known as “strawberries,” were pervasive casualties of the ap english 2000, epidemic.) The biggest problem with the to wrie, revisionist narrative is its unreality. The assertion that concern about 2000, crack resulted from “unconscious racial aversion towards blacks” ignores a key fact: black leaders were the first to case study communication sound the 2000, alarm about the grad nursing school, drug, as Harvard law professor Randall Kennedy documents in essays, Race, Crime, and the Law . Paper! Harlem congressman Charles Rangel initiated the federal response to the epidemic, warning the House of Representatives in March 1986 that crack had made cocaine “frightening[ly]” accessible to youth. A few months later, Brooklyn congressman Major Owens explicitly rejected what is now received wisdom about media hype. “None of the press accounts really have exaggerated what is ap english essays actually going on,” Owens said; the bsi i, crack epidemic was “as bad as any articles have stated.” Queens congressman Alton Waldon then called on his colleagues to act: “For those of us who are black this self-inflicted pain is the worst oppression we have known since slavery. . . . Let us . . . pledge to crack down on crack.” The bill that eventually passed, containing the crack/powder distinction, won majority support among black congressmen, none of whom, as Kennedy points out, objected to it as racist. These politicians were reacting to a devastating outbreak of inner-city violence and addiction unleashed by the new form of cocaine. Because crack came in small, easily digestible amounts, it democratized what had been a rarefied drug, making an intense high available to people with very little money. The crack market differed radically from the discreet phone transactions and private deliveries that characterized powder-cocaine distribution: volatile young dealers sold crack on ap english 2000 street corners, using guns to case barriers communication establish their turf.

Crack, homicides, and assaults went hand in ap english 2000, hand; certain areas of New York became “like a war zone,” retired DEA special agent Robert Stutman told PBS’s Frontline in 2000. Nursing School Essays! The large national spike in violence in the mid-1980s was largely due to the crack trade, and its victims were overwhelmingly black inner-city residents. Though the ap english 2000, elites are furiously rewriting crack history, many people who lived through it are not. In April 2007, Los Angeles prosecutor Robert Grace won the conviction of case barriers to effective communication, a crack dealer who had raped and 2000 strangled to death ten strawberries between 1987 and 1998. The “crack epidemic was one of the worst things that happened to the black and brown community,” Grace asserts. Matthew Kennedy managed an grad school essays infamous public housing project in Watts during the ap english, crack epidemic. “Some of us remember how bad it was,” he says. When children avoid school for fear of essays graduate, getting shot by drug gangs, “you’ve just lost that generation.” Lawrence Tolliver has witnessed his share of shootings outside his South Central barbershop. Essays 2000! “Sometimes it was so bad you had to scout the horizon like a gazelle at dempsey essay, a watering hole in Africa,” he recalls. It takes shameless sleight of ap english essays, hand to turn an master effort to ap english protect blacks into a conspiracy against to wrie a research them. If Congress had ignored black legislators’ calls to increase cocaine-trafficking penalties, the outcry among the ap english essays 2000, groups now crying racism would have been deafening. Yes, a legislative bidding war drove federal crack penalties ultimately to dempsey essay an arbitrary and essays excessive point; the reduction of those penalties is appropriate.

But what led to the crack-sentencing scheme wasn’t racism but legal logic. Prosecutors rely on usb research heavy statutory penalties to induce defendants to spill the beans on essays 2000 their criminal colleagues. “An amazing public spirit is school engendered when you tell someone he is facing 150 years to life but has the possibility of getting out after eight if he tells you who committed a string of homicides,” says Walter Arsenault, who headed the ap english 2000, Manhattan district attorney’s homicide-investigation unit in the 1980s and study bsi i barriers 1990s. R ace activists endlessly promote the claim that the draconian federal crack laws are sweeping up mere sad sacks with a little extra crack to spare. But anyone who fits that description is exempt from the federal sentencing scheme. Traffickers with only a modest criminal history who didn’t injure others or have a gun when arrested can escape the ap english 2000, mandatory federal sentences if they don’t lie to the government about their offense (there is no requirement to rat out others). Essays Graduate Admission! In 2006, only 15.4 percent of crack-cocaine defendants qualified for this safety-valve provision, compared with 48.4 percent of powder-cocaine offenders; in 2000, even fewer crack defendants qualified—12.6 percent. Crack sellers seldom merit the escape clause because their criminal histories tend to ap english 2000 be much more severe than powder sellers’ and because they’re more likely to have or use weapons. Study Bsi I! The congressional distinction between crack and powder sellers, it turns out, had a firm grounding.

Equally misleading is the criticism that few crack “kingpins” can be found in federal prison. This is not surprising, because “kingpins” in the traditional sense—heads of major drug-importing rings—don’t exist in the crack world. Crack is not imported but cooked up locally. Its supply and distribution scheme is more horizontal than vertical, unlike that of powder cocaine and heroin. Federal crack enforcement wasn’t about stopping the flow of illegal drugs into the country; it was about ap english, stopping urban violence.

And that violence was coming from street dealers. C ritics follow up their charges about crack with several empirical claims about drugs and essays graduate admission imprisonment. None is true. The first is ap english that drug enforcement has been the most important cause of the overall rising incarceration rate since the 1980s. Yet even during the most rapid period of population growth in case study bsi i barriers to effective communication, prisons—from 1980 to 1990—36 percent of the growth in ap english 2000, state prisons (where 88 percent of the nation’s prisoners are housed) came from violent crimes, compared with 33 percent from essays drug crimes.

Since then, drug offenders have played an even smaller role in state prison expansion. Ap English Essays! From 1990 to 2000, violent offenders accounted for 53 percent of the census increase—and all of the increase from 1999 to jack essay 2004. Next, critics blame drug enforcement for rising racial disparities in prison. Ap English 2000! Again, the jack, facts say otherwise. In 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of the 1,274,600 state prisoners. Ap English! If you remove drug prisoners from that population, the percentage of black prisoners drops to master 37 percent—half of a percentage point, hardly a significant difference. (No criminologist, to 2000 the best of my knowledge, has ever performed this exercise.) The rise of drug cases in the criminal-justice system has been dramatic, it’s important to acknowledge. In 1979, drug offenders were 6.4 percent of the state prison population; in 2004, they were 20 percent. Even so, violent and property offenders continue to dominate the ranks: in 2004, 52 percent of state prisoners were serving time for violence and wireless paper 21 percent for property crimes, for ap english essays 2000 a combined total over three and a half times that of state drug offenders.

In federal prisons, drug offenders went from 25 percent of all federal inmates in 1980 to 47.6 percent of all federal inmates in 2006. Drug-war opponents focus almost exclusively on federal, as opposed to state, prisons because the proportion of drug offenders is highest there. But the federal system held just 12.3 percent of the nation’s prisoners in study bsi i barriers communication, 2006. S o much for the claim that blacks are disproportionately imprisoned because of the ap english essays 2000, war on drugs. But a final, even more audacious, argument maintains that incarceration itself, not criminals, causes crime in black neighborhoods. Because blacks have the highest prison rate, this argument holds, incarceration constitutes an unjust and disproportionate burden on them. A Research! This idea has gained wide currency in the academic world and in anti-incarceration think tanks.

Columbia University law professor Jeffrey Fagan offered a representative version of the ap english 2000, theory in a 2003 law review article coauthored with two public health researchers. Sending black males to master prison “weakens the general social control of children and especially adolescents,” Fagan writes. Ap English 2000! Incarceration increases the number of admission, single-parent households. With adult males missing from ap english 2000 their neighborhoods, boys will be more likely to get involved in crime, since they lack proper supervision. The net result: “Incarceration begets more incarceration [in] a vicious cycle.” A few questions present themselves. Nursing School Essays! How many convicts were living in a stable relationship with the mother (or one of the mothers) of their children before being sent upstate? (Forget even asking about ap english 2000, their marriage rate.) What kind of positive guidance do men who are committing enough crimes to end up in prison, rather than on probation (an exceedingly high threshold), provide to young people? Further, if Fagan is right that keeping criminals out of prison and on the streets preserves a community’s social capital, inner cities should have thrived during the 1960s and early 1970s, when prison resources contracted sharply. To Wrie Paper! In fact, New York’s poorest neighborhoods—the subject of Fagan’s analysis—turned around only in the 1990s, when the ap english, prison population reached its zenith. Fagan, like many other criminologists, conflates the effects of prison and crime. Neighborhoods with high incarceration rates suffer disproportionate burdens, he claims.

Firms are reluctant to locate in such areas, decreasing job opportunities. Police pay closer attention to these high-incarceration zones, increasing the chance that any given criminal within them will wind up arrested. Thus, incarceration “provides a steady supply of offenders for more incarceration.” But if business owners think twice about certain communities, it’s because they fear crime, not a high concentration of ex-convicts per se. Nursing School Essays! It’s unlikely that prospective employers even know the essays 2000, population of ex-cons in a neighborhood; what they are aware of is its crime rates. And an employer who hesitates to hire an wireless usb research paper ex-con is almost certainly reacting to his criminal record, even if he has been given community probation instead of prison. Likewise, if the police give extra scrutiny to neighborhoods with many ex-convicts, it’s because those convicts commit a lot of crime.

Finally, putting more criminals on probation, rather than sending them to prison—as Fagan and others advocate—would only increase law enforcement surveillance of high-crime neighborhoods. This popular “social ecological” analysis of incarceration, as Fagan and other criminologists call it, treats prison like an outbreak of infectious disease that takes over certain communities, felling people on a seemingly random basis. “As the risks of going to jail or prison grow over time for persons living in those areas, their prospects for marriage or earning a living and family-sustaining wage diminish as the ap english 2000, incarceration rates around them rise,” Fagan says. This analysis elides the role of individual will. Fagan and others assume that once one lives in a high-incarceration—that is, high-crime—area, one can do little to jack avoid prison. But even in the most frayed urban communities, plenty of people choose to ap english avoid the essay, “Life.” Far from ap english 2000 facing diminished marriage prospects, an upstanding, reliable young man in the inner city would be regarded as a valuable catch. No one doubts that having a criminal record—whether it results in community probation or prison—is a serious handicap. People convicted of crimes compete for jobs at a clear disadvantage with those who have stayed crime-free. But for all the popularity of the view that the system is to blame, it’s not hard to find dissenters who believe that individuals are responsible for the decision to dempsey break the law. Essays! “My position is not hard,” says public housing manager Matthew Kennedy. Paper! “You don’t have to do that crime.” Kennedy supported President Bill Clinton’s controversial 1996 “one-strike” rule for public housing, which allowed housing authorities to evict drug dealers and other lawbreaking tenants on their first offense. “I’m trying to protect the good people in my community,” Kennedy explains. “A criminal record is preventable. It’s all on you.” Kennedy has no truck with the essays, argument that it is unfair to send ex-offenders back to prison for violations of their parole conditions, such as staying away from essays their gang associates and hangouts. “Where do they take responsibility for their own actions?” he wonders. “You’ve been told, ‘Don’t come back to this community.’ Why would you come back here? You’ve got to ap english essays 2000 change your ways, change the habits that got you in there in the first place.” Though you’d never know it from reading the master, academic literature, some people in ap english essays 2000, minority communities even see prison as potentially positive for individuals as well as for communities. “I don’t buy the idea that there’s no sense to prison,” says Clyde Fulford, a 54-year-old lifelong resident of the William Mead Homes, a downtown Los Angeles housing project.

Having raised his children to be hardworking, law-abiding citizens, Fulford is a real role model for his neighborhood, not the specious drug-dealing kind posited by the “social ecological” theory of incarceration. “I know a lot of people who went to prison,” Fulford says. “A lot changed they life for the better. Prison was they wake-up call.” Is prison unavoidable and thus unfair? “They knew they was going to pay. Jack Dempsey Essay! It’s up to that person.” What if the prisoners hadn’t been locked up? “Many would be six feet under.” R obert Grace, the Los Angeles prosecutor, is acutely aware of the fragility and preciousness of the rule of law. Essays! “As a civilized society, we can’t allow what’s happening in Latin America to take over here,” he says. “Venezuela and Mexico are awash in graduate admission, appalling violence because they don’t respect the law.” Thus, when prominent figures like Barack Obama make sweeping claims about racial unfairness in the criminal-justice system, they play with fire. Ap English 2000! “For any political candidate to make such claims out of expediency is wrong,” Grace says. “If they have statistics that back up the claim, I’d like to case study barriers to effective communication see them. But to create phony perceptions of injustice is as wrong as not doing anything about the real thing.” The evidence is clear: black prison rates result from crime, not racism. America’s comparatively high rates of incarceration are nothing to celebrate, of course, but the alternative is far worse. The dramatic drop in crime in the 1990s, to which stricter sentencing policies unquestionably contributed, has freed thousands of law-abiding inner-city residents from the ap english 2000, bondage of fear.

Commerce and street life have revived in those urban neighborhoods where crime has fallen most. The pressure to divert even more offenders from prison, however, will undoubtedly grow. If a probation system can finally be crafted that provides as much public safety as prison, we should welcome it. But the continuing search for wireless paper the chimera of criminal-justice bigotry is a useless distraction that diverts energy and attention from the crucial imperative of helping more inner-city boys stay in school—and out of trouble. Punishment and Crime. Those who tar the criminal-justice system as racist often make a broader claim: incarceration doesn’t even lower crime, making the nation’s skyrocketing prison rolls a particularly senseless injustice.

Incarceration foes are right about one thing: the U.S. prison population has swollen dramatically over the last three decades. The per-capita rate of 2000, imprisonment increased three times from 1973 to 2000; the number of state and essay federal prisoners grew fivefold between 1977 and 2000 2007, from 300,000 to 1.59 million. When inmates in paper, jails are included, the total number in correctional facilities at the end of 2007 was 2.3 million, according to the Pew Center on the States. Ap English Essays 2000! One in 100 adults is in custody. This expansion represents a resounding rejection of the reigning crime philosophy of the 1960s. The 1967 report of the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and case bsi i barriers to effective communication Administration of Justice, a classic Great Society document, argued that society could reduce crime only by eliminating poverty and racism, ideally through government-funded social programs.

Consistent with this theory, prison capacity began dropping during the sixties and only stopped falling during the late 1970s, when crime reached intolerable levels. Ap English 2000! Thereafter, the states started adding prison beds and passing laws to keep offenders locked up longer and to reduce judicial discretion to issue very lenient sentences. Few subjects have proved more contested in criminology than whether this prison buildup lowered crime—and, if so, by jack dempsey, how much. Anyone entering the essays 2000, thickets of incarceration studies should abandon all commonsense assumptions, such as that locking away, say, a burglar, would reduce burglary rates. Dempsey Essay! Not so, say the criminologists, and at first glance, the crime data from the ap english essays, late-twentieth-century prison expansion seem to support them. Only after 1991 was the rise in incarceration consistently accompanied by grad nursing, decreasing crime rates; in the 1980s, crime went up and down, even as the essays, prison population steadily grew. And now that crime is falling, the criminology world finds itself even more puzzled by why the prison population keeps increasing.

Two of the study bsi i communication, most common theories as to why prison doesn’t lower crime are logically weak and empirically ungrounded. Ap English 2000! The first is that locking a criminal up won’t decrease crime, since another criminal will replace him. A Research Paper! Yet while crimes meeting an illicit consumer demand may operate within a supply-and-demand framework, opportunities for violence and property crimes hit no natural ceiling. There are plenty of 2000, potential victims of violence and theft to go around; a potential robber need not wait for a competitor to go to jail before he can begin his own crime spree. The second theory to explain why prison doesn’t work applies the school, law of diminishing returns to incarceration. As we lock up ever more people, we start scraping the bottom of the criminal barrel, the critics say. The prisoners we incarcerate become more innocuous than those picked up initially, so we get a diminishing bang for the buck for every new prisoner sent away. However impeccable the economic reasoning behind this claim, there is no empirical evidence for ap english 2000 it. Case Study Bsi I! The diminishing-returns argument assumes that the ap english essays 2000, universe of unapprehended and unincarcerated criminals is shrinking. It is not. Case Study To Effective! The chances of getting caught and sent to prison remain extraordinarily low.

The JFA Institute, an anti-incarceration advocacy group, estimated in 2007 that in only 3 percent of violent victimizations and essays property crimes does the offender end up in prison. Paper! In 2004, only 1.6 percent of burglars were in prison, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The people in prison today, says statistician Patrick Langan, are “not very different from prisoners in the past, in terms of their prior records.” In the overwhelming majority of ap english 2000, cases, whatever the admission, race of the convicted, prison remains what it has always been: a lifetime achievement award for persistence in criminal offending. Absent recidivism or a violent crime, the criminal-justice system will do everything it can to 2000 keep you out of the study barriers, state or federal slammer. It can be disconcerting for essays 2000 the average law-abiding citizen to hear a prosecutor’s typology of the crime universe: most thefts, for example, are considered “nonserious crimes” that do not merit prison sentences, unless they concern a huge amount of money or took place in the victim’s presence. Steal an graduate unoccupied car or burgle an 2000 unoccupied home and you’ll probably get probation; hijack a car from dempsey essay a driver or stick up a pedestrian, however, and you’ll probably go to prison. Columbia University law professor Dan Richman had a chance to test the “harmless offenders in prison” claim as chair of New York City’s Local Conditional Release Commission. Richman studied the criminal profile of Rikers jail inmates in late 2004.

Jails are supposed to be where the most “innocuous” lawbreakers end up—those with misdemeanor convictions or sentences of less than a year. “It struck me how serious the offenders were,” he says. “I’d come from the academy, where there’s persuasive writing about over-incarceration. Ap English! I had assumed there would be mostly first-time offenders in jail, but it wasn’t true.” About 40 percent of the inmates had prior felony convictions, Richman discovered, and the inmates’ most recent offenses, which had put them in jail this time around, were usually serious. People in for assault would have pleaded down from attempted manslaughter; possession pleaded down from distribution. “These weren’t people who were there by accident,” says Richman. One can also test the theory that locking away offenders doesn’t lower crime by seeing what prisoners do when they get out. Case Barriers! The Bureau of Justice Statistics studied the essays, postprison careers of over 272,000 state prisoners released in 1994.

Within three years, 67.5 percent of the group had been rearrested for essays graduate admission 744,000 new felonies and ap english essays 2000 serious misdemeanors. Wireless Usb Research Paper! How many additional crimes they committed during those three years before getting arrested is unknown; estimates of the essays 2000, number of crimes that a typical unapprehended criminal commits per year range from zero to several hundred. And the ex-cons’ post-release crime spree seems not to have resulted from the negative effects of dempsey, prison itself, since convicts who spent the longest time behind bars had significantly lower rearrest rates than others. Not all criminologists and law professors dispute that prison lowers crime. University of 2000, Chicago economist Steve Levitt hypothesized in 1996 that had incarceration rates not risen sharply from 1971 to 1993, violent crime would have been 70 percent higher and master thesis property crime almost 50 percent higher. More typical estimates attribute 10 to ap english essays 25 percent of the 1990s crime drop to incarceration. To Wrie A Research Paper! And Berkeley law professor Franklin Zimring rejected the diminishing-returns argument against incarceration in his 2007 book The Great American Crime Decline . The fact that crime started dropping consistently only at the end of the decades-long prison buildup makes perfect sense, he argued, since that’s when the greatest number of criminals were off the streets. Heather Mac Donald is a contributing editor of City Journal and the John M. Olin Fellow at the Manhattan Institute. Her latest book, coauthored with Victor Davis Hanson and 2000 Steven Malanga, is The Immigration Solution.

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Heather Mac Donald discusses Is the to wrie a research, Criminal-Justice System Racist? A quarterly magazine of urban affairs, published by the Manhattan Institute, edited by Brian C. Anderson. New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-7000. Send a question or comment using the form below. This message may be routed through support staff.