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bears history essays The following outline is intended as to provide one example of michelle obama, how to write an essay. Treat it as food for thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of which you might incorporate into your own method for writing essays. It is useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the what should the thesis, method of choice for assessment in history. The chief reason is that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of a topic. Obama. We want you to essay essays, show us that not only have you acquired a knowledge of the topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by it. Essays test understanding by asking you to select and obama thesis at princeton re-organise relevant material in order to produce your own answer to the set question. An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and insights, but it must be the product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Essays which do not answer the question can only student, be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic.
Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the michelle obama thesis at princeton, topic. Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process. 2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the shakespeare essay essays, texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer.
The evidence almost always permits a variety of solutions, and michelle thesis different approaches generate divergent conclusions. There are, however, limits to the field of possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the what should statement in a, historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for each historical question there will be a body of evidence which is recognised as being relevant to it. This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the events and phenomena under discussion. A good answer will need to harmonise with all of this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem. It follows from all of at princeton, this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of about new years, possible solutions or which fail to take account of received evidence even though there is no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the subject of the question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of information will you need to answer the michelle, question, and how will you have to treat it? Circling the key words in the question is sometimes a helpful first step in working out exactly what you need to do. It is changing essay useful to note that there is usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of organising an michelle obama thesis answer which follows naturally from the format of the question and which will put the fewest obstacles in the way of the reader: 'Explain' and shakespeare influence essays 'why' questions demand a list of reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and illustrated. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by thesis at princeton, reasons, explanation and evidence.
You must show why your assessment is the best by considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. It might be useful to define and earthquake thesis statement defend the obama thesis, criteria on which your judgement depends. Qualatative Research Paper. That is, to explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the function of some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. Thus, the michelle obama, subject of the question is the 'Y' rather than the 'X' element. That is, the question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of measure. One way of answering the question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in roles of women essay turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the towns, the role of Jewish banking in the agrarian economy, their influence on Christian intellectual life, .. [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in michelle at princeton which you pulled together the results of your test cases: It has been seen that the essays, Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the obama thesis, universities but almost none on that of the established monastic orders.. What Statement In A. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to identify the issue at stake and to produce a reasoned response. You may respond, for michelle at princeton example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to qualatative paper, explain why agreement is the best response, why it would be wrong to obama thesis, disagree. You should consider the merits of a variety of responses.
If possible you should always examine the essay about new years, book or article from michelle obama thesis at princeton which the roles, quotation has been taken in order to discover what its author meant by michelle thesis, it, to discover how the author has understood the issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the qualatative research, identification of similarities and differences. One method of obama thesis, tackling such an essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of similarity and contrast, and to devote a section of the essay to each area - a section in which you would assess the essays, degree of similarity and reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the various 'sub-conclusions'. Michelle Obama Thesis. It needs to should the thesis, be stressed that none of these types of question calls for a narrative approach . You will never be asked to produce a narrative of what happened. Obama Thesis At Princeton. In rare circumstances, a few sentences of narrative may form part of the evidence cited in support of a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to a logical structure in which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. The analytical and expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing.
The aim of your initial reading should be to identify an argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the topic falls. Articles in reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the issues. Citing such works will undermine the research, credibility of your essay. Do not forget to michelle, make notes as you go.
Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the essay question and of the topic it bears upon. But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to paper, draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research. Obama Thesis At Princeton. It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and rough notes on supporting examples. It may be useful to begin by thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by looking the natural way of answering it.
In order to essay about, draw up a plan you will need to evaluate its merits: What points will I need to make in michelle thesis at princeton order to sustain this argument? Are there alternative points of view which will have to be considered and refuted in order to make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to changing roles of women essay, support the points which are crucial to my argument? Do I need to michelle at princeton, know more about the examples I'm planning to use? Perhaps there is another way of looking at this piece of evidence which I'll have to mention or even refute? Having decided on the line of argument you intend to use, and identified areas where you need more material, search the reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for changing of women essay books and articles which will help you to solve these problems. Go and collect the information, making notes and adding notes to your plan as you go along. Do not forget to make careful bibliographical notes for every book and article you consult.
You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the obama thesis at princeton, previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and about books with better things to say about the topic. Obama. Do not panic. Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the information I've already begun to collect? Much will depend upon how confident you now feel about your argument. Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for council a better one. It is obama thesis at princeton better to what should statement in a, start again than to write an essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to michelle obama thesis at princeton, '5. Drawing up a Plan'.
Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to shakespeare influence essays, write your essay. If you've carried out steps one to five properly, it should be possible to write the first draft up in two or three hours. (a) Writing an michelle obama at princeton Introduction. An introduction should show how you intend to answer the about, question, by (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to michelle obama thesis at princeton, take, by (2) giving an overview of the organisation of what follows, and by (3) indicating the sort of material or evidence you will be using. Research Paper. It is an michelle obama thesis effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the question as briefly as possible with your first sentence. Influence Essay. The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the essay.
Intelligent use of paragraphing is crucial to the success of an obama at princeton essay. Often, it is best to qualatative paper, organise the paragraphs so that each makes and defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. (By 'premise' is meant a point which is part of and essential to the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the topic leaving the michelle obama thesis at princeton, marker to shakespeare, join the dots to michelle obama, comprise an roles essay answer are not acceptable, since they fail to demonstrate understanding. It is a good idea to use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph. These ought not to be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for michelle at princeton example, be appropriate as a way of introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on the development of medieval Europe. It is also possible to assess the extent of the catastrophe by looking at about the level of demand for michelle land in the major urban centres. In Genoa, for new years example, land prices fell sharply from a high in 1310 of. [several sentences of examples] . Michelle Thesis At Princeton. The dramatic fall in the prices of land within urban centres implies an what should equally sharp fall in the numbers of people wanting to live in cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in the actual number of people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in the topic sentence is developed naturally by the second sentence of the paragraph. It is better to avoid trying the explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from one to obama at princeton, another are much more effective!
Signposting your evidence will give the essay that all important sense of critical depth and originality: Seapower was a crucial to European expansion. This much is illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. Southwards and eastwards expansion in the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of effective fleets of warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in the late eleventh-century conquests of thesis statement, Sicily and thesis at princeton Sardinia, when. [and so on.] You need to give the marker a sense of where your opinions end and of where the supporting evidence begins. But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and bore the reader. If the supporting evidence is not a well-known and research irrefutable fact, it will probably need to be given the additional support of a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of evidence being deployed you have chosen to follow. It will sometimes be useful to quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. It is often better to put things in your own words while still clearly signalling the source of the idea and using a footnote (e.g. 'According to Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion.
All essays need a carefully thought out conclusion which follows logically from the points made and affirmed in the course of obama thesis at princeton, your essay. It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the qualatative, one which follows logically from the points and michelle evidence you have assembled. (d) Footnoting. Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the first draft or as you write. Sometimes, it is best to go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of your writing. On the other hand, it is useful to consider what will need to qualatative, be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the rhetorical apparatus of a formal essay and give weight and power to obama, an argument. For the same reason, it is best to put the notes at the bottom of the page rather than at the end of the essay. It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and widely), and saves the essay about, marker flicking back and forth. The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and work on something else. Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of at princeton, putting things. You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow.
You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. About New Years. You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in a different order? If the essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to achieve this by cutting and pasting paragraphs. Your essay should have a clear and thesis at princeton consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward. You will need to essay, edit: for grammar, spelling and punctuation; to remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and michelle thesis at princeton jargon; to ensure that the footnotes and council bibliography conform with the required style sheet; and for the coherence and quality of your writing.
You should always check the printed text of your essay before submitting it. The eye tends to overlook errors on the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. 'Their' and 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by at princeton, a word processor regardless of which one you should actually have used in a given context. The ability to write good essays does not come to about, many people easily. Michelle Obama Thesis At Princeton. It is a skill which requires constant attention and essays student practice. It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is a key to success in many walks of life. There is, therefore, every incentive to apply yourself to michelle obama, the development of this art.
Credits: This guide was devised and developed by Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).
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FACT CHECK: Michelle Obama s Thesis - Snopes com
lyric an essay First published in The Believer, July, 2003. The Genre Artist. If a story takes place, as we are told stories do, then who or what does it take that place from, and why is an acquisition verb—take—necessary to obama at princeton describe the research, activity of stories? Maybe it’s an unfair, literalizing question. Not all figures of speech need to be prodded for accuracy (although shouldn’t a phrase relating to stories, which are made of at princeton language, have some passing precision?). Stories would keep taking place whether or not we worried about paper what it meant for them to do so, or worried about what stories actually did instead. But if we poked at this strange phrase, which suggests a theft of setting in order for narrative to occur, we might also deduce that if a place is taken for something to happen in it, then this taking must happen at a specific time (that’s what the thesis, word “happen” asks us to believe, anyway). The verb “take” presumes duration, implies a moment (unless we take a break from time or take the opportunity to no longer experience time , options that are difficult, at best, to secure, unless we die). It is this specific time that is meant to concern us when we encounter what is likely the most well known (i.e., terrifying) story opener of all: once upon about new years a time.
Imbedded in this innocent phrase, which I would like to prod for the rest of this paragraph until it leaks an interesting jelly, is a severally redundant claim of occurrence, perhaps the first thing a reader, or listener, must be promised (reader: consumer of artificial time). For the sake of contrast, to look at a more rigorously dull example, the opener “I have an thesis idea” does not offer the about, same hope, or seduction, or promise (particularly if I am the “I”). Even the verb is static and suggests nothing approximating a moment. Time is being excluded, and look at michelle obama at princeton, all the people already falling asleep. “Once upon a time” is far more promising (something happened, something happened!). Changing Of Women! We might need to michelle at princeton believe that the clock is ticking before we begin to invest our sympathies, our attentions, our energy. Fiction has, of course, since dropped this ingratiating, hospitable opener in favor of subtler seductions, gentler heraldings of story. Shakespeare Essay Essays! But it is rare not to feel the michelle thesis at princeton, clock before the first page is done, a verb moving the people and furniture around (whereas “having an idea” does not allow us to picture anything, other than, possibly, a man on a toilet).
The physical verbs are waiting to assert themselves, to provide moments that we are meant to believe in, and verbs, traditionally, are what characters use to stir up the trouble we call fiction. Shakespeare Essays! Without physical verbs we have static think pieces, essays, philosophical musings. There is no stirring, because generally there is nobody there holding a spoon. This will be an interesting distinction to remember. Maybe this is obama thesis at princeton as it should be, since Proust said the duty of the literary artist was to tell the truth about time. Aside from research blanching at the notion of obama at princeton duty, which is one of the required notions to blanch at, it seems clear to me that Proust’s edict, interpreted variously, has served as a bellwether for most thriving traditions of fiction (which held true, of qualatative research course, before Proust articulated it).
If fiction has a main theme, a primary character, an occupation, a methodology, a criteria, a standard, a purpose (is there anything else left for fiction to obama thesis have?), it would be time itself. Fiction is the production of false time for readers to experience. Most fiction seeks to the thesis in a become time . Without time, fiction is nonfiction. Yes, that’s arguable—we have Borges, Roussel, Christine Brooke-Rose, and thesis Robbe-Grillet, after all, among others, to tell us otherwise, and it is in part their legacy, their followers (witting or not), whose pages will be shaken here until we have something that counts for a portrait of this anti-story tradition. One basic meaning of narrative, then: to create time where there was none.
A fiction writer who tells stories is a maker of changing roles time. Not liking a story might be akin to not believing in its depictions of time. It sounds facile to say that stories occur, but it is part of the larger, relentless persuasion that time both is and envelops the michelle obama thesis at princeton, practice we call story. We cannot easily separate the two. Yet if time is the qualatative research paper, most taken-for-granted aspect of michelle obama fiction writing, it would seem precisely like the good hard wall a young, ambitious writer would want to bang his head against, in qualatative paper order to walk and talk newly in michelle thesis the world of fiction (that’s still the desire, right?). Qualatative Research! To the writer searching for michelle at princeton, the obstacle to surpass , time would look plenty worthy a hurdle. If something must be overcome, ruined, subverted in what the thesis in a order for fiction to thesis stay matterful (yes, maybe the metaphor of progress in influence essay essays literary art is pretentious and tired at this point (there’s time again, aging what was once such a fine idea)), then time would be the thing to beat, the thing fiction seemingly cannot do without, and therefore, to grow or change, must.
John Haskell is among an intriguing new group of writers chiseling away at the forms of fiction writing without appearing exhaustingly experimental (read: unreadable). Haskell is working primarily without or around time, producing fiction that might appear more essayistic, discursive, inert, philosophical, and, well, literally timeless (which is not yet to say that his debut book is for the ages ). Michelle Thesis At Princeton! Yes, I said “inert,” because things do not have to move to roles of women essay be interesting. Think mountain. Think dead person. Michelle Obama! Think thought. I say “think,” because Haskell is statement a thinker, and obama thesis at princeton although he writes often about film, you could not film what he writes. I Am Not Jackson Pollock contains some storylike moments, but it is primarily a new kind of fiction, one that, curiously, hardly seems interested in fiction at all (which is not to suggest that it reads autobiographically—the opposite is true, which makes a great case for secret-keeping).
Haskell might be indebted to roles essay Borges, but not in the way most so-called imaginative writers are. There’s no obsession with infinity and worlds within worlds, no conceptual masterminding at work to showcase a stoner’s tripped-out, house-of-Escher mentality, not much that would qualify as being made up. Haskell is more interested in using modest, unassuming forms of nonfiction, as did Borges or Sterne (albeit Haskell does not perpetrate extravagant untruths): the essay, the report, the biographical sketch, the obama thesis at princeton, character analysis (this last is Haskell’s favorite, from real people like Glenn Gould and Jackson Pollock, to film characters like Anthony Perkins’s innkeeper in Psycho , to Topsy, the thesis statement, first elephant executed by electricity). Thesis At Princeton! Haskell does not write characters so much as he writes about them, and shakespeare essay it is this willful instinct toward exposition that is so curiously distinctive and unusual in at princeton the story-driven world of most new fiction. A fair question here might be this: where is the fiction in this, if these “stories” of Haskell’s refuse story and then faithfully essay to supply information, respectable information, analysis, and reflection, just as nonfiction might? And one fair answer might be: John Haskell’s primary fiction, overriding his entire project, the place where his fiction is located, is thesis precisely in michelle obama thesis at princeton his puzzling gesture of calling these pieces fiction in the first place.
He is fictionalizing his genre. Or, in other words, his fiction is genre itself. Haskell is not an artist in a particular genre, he is an artist of genre. To do what Haskell does is to take several genuine risks, which occasions a word or two about student council risk. What could a writer in our country possibly be risking, other than his own pride, livelihood, or publishability, which are not exactly noble losses should they actually be lost? (Many of us began writing without pride and publishability anyway, and I’m not exactly clear what livelihood is.) Yet risk is the most urgent exhortation of what we are supposed to take when we write fiction (which is somehow different from the kind of taking a story does when it takes place). Fiction is praised when it is called “risky,” but this sort of risk usually involves shattering, shameful disclosures. (I could fill the rest of this essay with examples of shattering, shameful disclosures, but maybe just one will do: while wrestling with my dog, experimenting on a new hold called “the Sumatra,” we ended up horizontal on the lawn, head to obama thesis at princeton toe, and statement thereupon commenced a directed nuzzling, a purposeful mouth-to-balls activity, that in some quarters of academe is referred to as the sixty-nine, which then became a standard “variation” on thesis the “Sumatra,” well into adulthood (especially into adulthood)). With secret-telling having become its own lucrative industry, it’s hard to shakespeare influence essay essays fathom what a risk of michelle obama thesis at princeton subject-matter might be (though I’m certain better, scarier secrets are approaching in next season’s books, however ill-equipped my imagination is to conceive them). Risks of form, on the other hand, might seem more provocative, more inherently interesting to those attuned to the established modes and earthquake thesis statement means of fiction writing (Hey, you guys!), but the risk more often cited in these cases is the financial sort that a publisher takes in publishing such work. They risk not selling enough books.
And they are sorry but they cannot take that risk (it is thesis interesting that the writer is supposed to about be risky while the publisher is not). Risk might very well have a more palpable financial meaning than an artistic one. Thesis At Princeton! So while it is no longer clear what literary risk is—perhaps the essay essays, term has been molested to death, like those other harassed words: edgy, innovative, startling, stunning—it could be more appropriate to say that within the larger, hapless chance-taking of writing at all (when indifference is about the scariest, and likeliest, response most of us might face), writing fiction without story seems especially curious, willfully self-marginalizing, and therefore very much worth considering. (No, not all obscure literary gestures are “interesting,” but something akin to playing golf without one’s body, as John Haskell might be doing, is.) The shopworn adage “show-don’t-tell” reinforces the ethos that fiction must have a story, and warns a writer away from discursive, essayistic moments and exposition, which apparently amount to michelle at princeton a kind of essay quicksand for the writer (a statement that presupposes motion as a valuable aspect of fiction writing). Haskell’s quicksand is rich as a batter and quite worth getting trapped in, although so much inertia can feel confining.
If we are to be cast in michelle mud, and then smothered, we want our demise to essays student council be fascinating. Telling is supposedly insufficient, it cannot produce a quality demise, since it does not dramatize a moment, or in obama fact does not even supply a moment at all. Telling is stingy with time. Qualatative Paper! Yet even though we “tell” a story, we only do it well when we do not actually tell it, but show that story occurring in michelle thesis time. What Should The Thesis Statement! Does telling fail because it discriminates against the notion of michelle obama moments entirely? Take this paragraph in Haskell’s story, “The Faces of Joan of Arc.”
Hedy Lamarr, through most of the movie, takes the side of those in about new years authority, which is michelle obama thesis at princeton not the same as having authority. Obedience is a way of about new years reconciling oneself to a lack of authority or a lack of choice. But it’s not the only way. This is a funny (read: not-so-funny) way to start a section in michelle obama at princeton a story, but this is Haskell in earthquake his psychological mode, and it’s a tone he turns to frequently, which can make parts of this book sound eerily similar to the DSM-IV-TR Case Studies: A Clinical Guide to Differential Diagnosis . His exposition is dutiful and persistent, but he oddly does not seem to obama thesis at princeton be using it to generate sympathy, which is what a narrative writer might hope for after disclosing details of character. Minimalism in fiction, which at its best extracted psychology purely from shakespeare surfaces, would be anathema to Haskell. Michelle Thesis At Princeton! One of his favorite things to do, his pet point throughout the book, is to probe the interior conflicts within a character, but the effect is rather more coldly intellectual than warmly empathic: She creates a space between what she does and shakespeare influence who she feels she is, so at obama thesis at princeton, least she can live with a little peace.He wanted to let whatever it was inside of him come out, and then change it, and by changing that he was hoping everything else would change. Inside that bubble he could relax and influence essay let who he was come out.
She waited until what the michelle, camera wanted was fairly close to about new years what she wanted, and although this wasn’t a perfect arrangement, she could pretend to michelle at princeton stand it. … the man wanted to bring out whatever it was inside the boy. Haskell is shakespeare essay essays expert at clarifying the moments when his characters feel estranged from michelle obama thesis at princeton themselves. The defiance of essays student Haskell’s title is at princeton a form of self-denial echoed throughout most of these stories. Student! He is so shrewd at michelle obama, depicting this sort of moment, that for him it is apparently sufficient to carry whole stories. Once he has achieved the revelation, he seems ready to paper end his story. At Princeton! If he has a deficiency, it’s his inability to convert his fascinations into earthquake thesis statement whole pieces of writing that prove the artistic adequacy of his idea. Obama At Princeton! If Haskell is desperate to show us how people hide from themselves and conspire against their own better interests, working as multiple identities in agonizing contexts—which is, after all, a familiar enough idea routinely explored, or dramatized, by many writers—then it’s upon should the thesis in a him to make our experience of this idea immediate, visceral, and obama at princeton potently refreshed.
Maybe it’s not upon him , but when the idea is centralized, as it is in about new years Haskell’s work, and michelle obama thesis at princeton narrative is deliberately excluded, there is a risk when that idea does not seem novel. To be fair, Haskell has no real comforting tradition to fall back on, to essays guide him in his efforts, so he must invent for himself what an ending, in this sort of writing, might look like. It’s an at princeton original path he has chosen, and it will be rewarding to watch this exceptional writer as he navigates this new territory for fiction. When a prose writer such as Haskell surmises a distinction between story and fiction, as he so intriguingly has, a critic can safely ask after the absent story and not be upbraided for assuming that fiction must have one. A writer thus interested anyway in dividing the statement, two projects risks an error of category, or at the least risks being read incorrectly (not that reading correctly sounds like a very compelling thing to be doing). But when, for obama, example, David Markson, an expository novelist who fired the shakespeare essay essays, starting gun for fictions of information and proved that pure exposition can be alarmingly moving, who purposefully tells instead of shows, is dismissed in The New York Times for failing to michelle thesis provide a story in his novel Reader’s Block , no discussion follows about why, exactly, fiction must have one (at 150 words in the book review, how could any discussion follow?). Nor do we learn what a story might have looked like in such an exquisitely felt book that, to what should the thesis statement in a summarize, catalogs the michelle obama thesis at princeton, various ways historical figures have hated whole races of people and/or died by their own hands. (Yes, you should read this book.) Markson should have presumably, under the fiction-must-have-a-story criteria , zeroed in on one of his hundreds of characters and gone deep, doing that good old-time psychological work, the earthquake thesis, person-making stuff, dramatizing how such an interesting fellow had gone on to hate Jews and/or kill himself.
Markson should have used more words like “then.” He should have sequenced. Thesis! He seems to have forgotten that literature is supposedly a time-based art. Markson’s amnesia is one of the happy accidents of the last decade of fiction writing. By eschewing a fetishistic, conventional interest in character, or a dutiful allegiance to earthquake thesis statement moment creation, to obama at princeton occurrence itself, Markson accomplishes what a story, slogging through time and obedient to momentum, arguably could not: a commanding, obsessive portrait of essays council single behaviors throughout history, a catalog of atrocity that overwhelms through relentless example. In truth, it’s a novel that can be read as an essay, but unlike most essays, it’s lyrically shrewd, poetry in the form of history, and it’s brave enough to provide creepy, gaping holes where we normally might encounter context (the burden of the conventional essayist). This might explain a new category of writing, the lyric essay, swelling special issues of literary magazines (such as The Seneca Review ) and, in particular, a new, provocative anthology: The Next American Essay , edited (orchestrated, masterminded, realized) by John D’Agata, the form’s single-handed, shrewd champion. The lyric essayist seems to enjoy all of the michelle thesis, liberties of the fiction writer, with none of a fiction writer’s burden of unreality, the nasty fact that none of this ever really happened that a fiction writer daily wakes to. One can never say of the lyric essayist’s work that “it’s just fiction,” a vacuous but prevalent dismissal akin to criticizing someone with his own name. The lyric essay is a rather ingenious label, since the essayist supposedly starts out with something real, whereas the shakespeare, fiction writer labors under a burden to prove, or create, that reality, and can expect mistrust and doubt from michelle at princeton a reader at the outset. About! In fiction, lyricism can look like evasion, special pleading, pretension. In the essay, it is michelle obama thesis at princeton apparently artistic, a lovely sideshow to The Real that, if you let it, will enhance what you think you know.
The implied secret here is that one of the smartest ways to changing essay write fiction today is to say that you’re not, and then do whatever you very well please. Fiction writers take note. Some of the best fiction is these days being written as nonfiction. The Next American Essay proceeds chronologically from 1975 to thesis 2003, from thesis statement John McPhee (a re-animated Monopoly game) to Jenny Boully (all footnotes, no text), with D’Agata practicing his own artful transitions before each piece, waxing witty, smart, personal, mute, cleverly obtuse, passionate, lucid, myopic. D’Agata’s transitions alone, which show how alive an anthology can be, and would make any editor envious, provide a toolbox of michelle thesis at princeton categorically adulterous leapfrogs that could outfit a whole new generation of writers with the skills to launch an changing roles of women impressive and michelle obama thesis at princeton relevant movement of writing. Research Paper! D’Agata as editor seems capable of reconfiguring almost anyone’s writing, like Robert Ashley collating found music into his own opera. Thesis At Princeton! D’Agata decides what’s beautiful and of women makes it so through expert arrangement. Michelle Obama At Princeton! There are writers here, Sherman Alexie among them, who must have been surprised to discover their stories qualified as lyric essays. D’Agata justifies the choice of shakespeare influence Alexie by claiming that fiction is a protective term, providing shelter for difficult material, which is at princeton really essayistic in nature.
All fiction writers should be so lucky. The flagship practitioner of the lyric essay, who seems early on to have inspired D’Agata’s editorial imagination, is the Canadian poet Anne Carson. Under the banner of poetry, Carson has produced some of the most rigorously intelligent and beautiful writing of the last ten years: essays, stories, arguments, poems, most provocatively in her early collection, Plainwater . Her piece, “Short Talks,” which she describes as one-minute lectures, and which moves through the history of shakespeare philosophy like a flip-book of civilization, offering stern commandments and at princeton graceful fall-aways, simultaneously qualifies as fiction, poetry, and essay, and is championed protectively by ambassadors from each genre. The loose criteria for the lyric essay seems to about new years invoke a kind of nonfiction not burdened by research or fact, yet responsible (if necessary) to sense and poetry, shrewdly allegiant to no expectations of genre other than the obama thesis at princeton, demands of its own subject. If that sounds strangely like fiction, several of the writers included here, Harry Mathews, Carole Maso, and Lydia Davis among them, first published their pieces in that genre, and will no doubt continue to. Others, like Carson or Boully or Joe Wenderoth, have consistently termed their work poetry. Thalia Field has published her singular writing under the label of fiction, although it seems better read as poetry. Here, of course, it is an essay, as are works of autobiography. David Antin shows up with more of his astonishingly boring diaries, continuing his decades-long ruse of roles essay consequence. Thankfully he cannot single-handedly ruin an obama thesis anthology. David Shields provides a Lishian catalog of cliches that accrue curious meanings and about expose how revealing banal language can actually be.
And stalwarts like Joan Didion, David Foster Wallace, and Susan Sontag throw in with fierce, ambitious contributions that actually always were essays, although this lack of genre-hopping is in the minority. Sadly absent from what is thesis at princeton otherwise one of the most significant anthologies published in research years are a few true voices of the michelle at princeton, essay who would have fit right in with these other inspired eccentrics, among them: Daniel Harris, Lawrence Weschler, Joy Williams, and Dallas Wiebe. One instantly wonders how the thesis, chosen genre appellation liberates or constricts the writer, and whether or not John Haskell, absent from D’Agata’s all-star selection, would have fared better (whatever that might mean) under a different label, with someone like D’Agata warming-up for michelle obama at princeton, him. Might he be more appreciated as a lyric essayist, an should statement artist of information not saddled by conventional readerly expectations? I ask because Haskell seems to suffer slightly when evaluated as a fiction writer, when one brings hopes of story to his book, which are hard not to michelle obama bring. There’s the implied tedium of fiction not driven by story, particularly if a reader is expecting one (of course tedium, as Robbe-Grillet showed, can have its thrills). With storyless fiction, one suspects an intellectual lesson is at hand, instead of the thesis entertainment (this must either be fun or it must be good for me), with a reader’s pleasure not high on the author’s agenda. Michelle At Princeton! Expectation can flatten a reader’s willingness to forestall desires for essay new years, story. It is similar to thesis at princeton feeling forever trapped in a flashback, waiting for the current scene. What The Thesis Statement! A reader saves attention and energy if he senses that what he’s reading is not primary, the thing itself, and that the real story is ahead, and thesis at princeton attention is the commodity the writer is striving to create, at all costs. Haskell’s book could very nearly be shelved uncontested in the film studies section of the bookstore, and here it might perform its rogue fictionalizations with more astonishment, reversing his style of ambush, so to speak, since it is much more a collection of film studies with bursts of unreality, than it is a burst of unreality with moments of film studies.
It might just be that the genre bending fiction writers—John Haskell, David Markson among them—so far, lack a champion like John D’Agata, although there’s no reason to think that he won’t be luring more fiction writers into his protective, liberating fold, where these categories can cease to matter. Essay! Once upon obama at princeton a time there will be readers who won’t care what imaginative writing is called and will read it for its passion, its force of intellect, and for its formal originality.
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What is the michelle obama thesis Best Font for a Resume (+10 Examples Tips) What are the best fonts for a resume? Well, the best resume fonts are those that are easy to read. That’s the bottom line. If you use a common resume font that’s easy to read, you win. That’s all you have to do. No, there are no magical font that will get you more interviews. Some typefaces do seem to have a psychological impact on the reader. Would you like to research know which great resume fonts can make you seem more truthful or professional? Of course, you would.
In this article you will find: The best resume fonts compared to the worst. Beautiful examples of how the best resume fonts look. Pros and cons for each recommended resume font to thesis at princeton make your decision easier. Psychological tips on standard fonts to use on a resume. Are you writing a resume for the first time? Or are you a professional who could use some tips on how to make a resume stand out? Either way, we've got you covered.
Read our full guide: How To Create A Resume: A Step-By-Step Guide (+30 Examples) 20 Samples of the changing of women Worst and Best Resume Fonts. Let’s start with Calibri. Microsoft replaced Times New Roman with Calibri as the default font for Word in 2007. So, when you write your resume in Word without changing the font you’re using Calibri. And there’s nothing wrong with that. Pro: As a default font, Calibri will not get messed up when a hiring manager opens your resume files. Michelle Thesis! Plus it’s a professional and easy-to-read font. Con: As a default font, many other job seekers will also use Calibri.
That means your resume might not stand out from the others. If you want a less common font, put some thought into selecting one instead of going with what you’re given. Webdings isn’t even a font. Essays Council! It’s a typeface that uses pictures instead of letters. So, unless you’re trying to send a secret message, there is michelle thesis no occasion to ever use Webdings on your resume. Want to know the secret to writing a resume that gets your professional message across loud and clear? Have you heard of opening with a resume summary? If not, then you should read our guide: How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See Two Swiss designers created Helvetica.
And they named the council typeface after the Latin word for Switzerland, “Helvetia.” There are those that say Helvetica is the best font for obama thesis a resume. Helvetica is earthquake thesis statement a pretty, easy-to-read sans serif font. The only problem is that Helvetica is not free. You aren’t going to find it listed under fonts in Microsoft Word. You are going to have to buy it if you want to use it and don’t have a Mac. Pro: A lot of professionals rank Helvetica as one of the michelle obama more beautiful Sans Serif fonts. What are Sans Serif fonts? Sans Serif fonts are those that do not have the feet on letters like the “T” in Times New Roman.
Designers describe them as fresh, modern, and good for resumes. Both the essay new years New York City metro and major corporations like BMW use Helvetica for their signs. Con: Helvetica only comes preloaded on Macs. Otherwise, you have to michelle at princeton buy the font to about new years use it. A Bloomberg article attacked Courier as one of the worst resume fonts. That’s because Courier screams: “ I want my resume to look like I wrote it on obama thesis, a typewriter! ” You are not Jack Kerouac. You did not sit down and write your entire resume in one go on a typewriter. (If you did, you might want to shakespeare essays consider rewriting your resume.) So, your resume shouldn’t look like you wrote it on a typewriter. Luckhurst is also one of those that believes Helvetica is the most beautiful font for resumes. Thesis! That’s for essays you to decide.
If you want your resume to thesis look professional, it's better to spend time choosing the right resume format. What Should Statement! Do you know which resume format is best for michelle obama thesis you? Find out by roles of women, reading our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Arial looks like Helvetica. So much so that the thesis at princeton main difference seems to be that Arial is free. Plus it’s a very standard typeface that’s easy and comfortable to read. Pro: Arial is the default font for Google Docs. It’s also a standard font for Microsoft Word which means it will show up on most computers. Con: If you’re looking for a modern resume font that’s going to changing roles stand out a little bit, Arial isn’t it.
You might want to michelle obama thesis go with Garamond or other less obvious fonts. Or you might want to just pay for Helvetica. Yes, I shouldn’t have to research tell anyone to avoid Comic Sans. Comic Sans is for writing the thesis at princeton dialogue that appears in earthquake thesis the speech bubbles of comic books. It was not designed for thesis at princeton serious documents. Research Paper! That’s why it has become the font that other fonts push down on the playground. With that said, it’s pretty obvious why you should never, ever use it on your resume. But what should you put on a resume? Are you sure you aren't forgetting anything? Just in case you want to find out, read our guide: What To Put On A Resume To Make It Perfect [Tips Examples] Georgia is the thesis font used by changing essay, the New York Times online.
It’s also used by Yahoo, Amazon, and michelle Twitter. The designers wanted to create a font that’s easy to read online, making it ideal if you plan to send your resume as a PDF. Pro: You can find Georgia across writing platforms. Con: Georgia is accessible and a fine replacement font for what statement Times New Roman. That may lead many other job seekers to use Georgia. So, again, if you want to stand out you might want to go with something else. Now, there are no rules about not using Times New Roman. In fact, it is the most standard resume font. But that’s why you might want to avoid it. Imagine you’re the hiring manager. You’re scanning one resume after another in Times New Roman.
Then you come across a resume written in Georgia. Michelle Obama Thesis! It’s a similar font, but it's just different enough to be refreshing. Essays Student Council! You might actually favor the michelle resume written in Georgia for that simple fact alone. That’s why Georgia is one of the best fonts for a resume. It’s just refreshing enough to changing roles outshine resumes using standard fonts like Times New Roman. Want to know another refreshing resume secret? Add hobbies and interests to your resume to show off a bit of your personality. Don't believe me?
Read our guide: +20 Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) Matthew Carter created Verdana over at Microsoft. He designed the michelle thesis font so that it is shakespeare influence essay essays easy to read in small print on obama at princeton, computer screens. While he named it after his daughter Anna, the font is not as well-loved as that little girl. Yet, Verdana remains a good choice for digital versions of resumes. Pro: Great for research job seekers who need to squeeze more onto their resumes. Especially if you know the hiring manager is at princeton going to essay read it online and not in print. Con: If you’re looking for a “wow” resume font, keep looking. Verdana doesn’t look all that different from Arial and Arial looks like Helvetica. In 2010, Ikea ditched a personalized version of Futura in favor of Verdana. The Ikea catalog is the third most printed document after the Bible and thesis Harry Potter.
The Swedish furniture company felt that it was time to bridge the gap between digital and print. So, they chose Verdana. Futura looks good in print, but it can cause some hiccups for readers trying to consume text-heavy documents online. The Ikea Verdanagate controversy pit older aesthetic fonts against more practical modern fonts. Essays! (Futura is from the 1920’s) Let’s say you do need a versatile font like Verdana that will look good both on obama thesis, your PDF and print resume. Just think about it. Earthquake! Ikea is a master at maximizing the michelle use of minimized space. A good trick for resume writers. Maybe that translates to their choice of font? You be the judge.
Having trouble squeezing information onto changing roles essay your resume? How long should a resume be in the first place? Find out everything you need to know about resume length in our dedicated guide: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Garamond is a font with a long history. I won’t bore you with the details. But, Garamond fonts come from 15th and 16th-century designs. Why is that important? Well, at its age, Garamond is timeless. And a timeless font is a good resume font.
Claude Garamond was a French punchcutter and lived from 1480 to obama at princeton 1561. His designs formed the basis for the Adobe version of statement, Garamond. Later, Jean Jannon designed a typeface that most other digital versions of obama thesis, Garamond resemble. Regardless of the version, Garamond commands respect and charms its admirers. Pro: Among those who make it their business to know about fonts, Garamond is a favorite. It’s classy. Plus, Garamond meets all the requirements of what the thesis in a, a good resume font. Easy to read? Check. Attractive? Check.
Not something everyone and obama their mom uses? Check. Con: The Harry Potter books - Garamond. It’s just a magical font. I guess there are those who could say that Garamond is so timeless that it might make your resume feel dated.
Okay, so you want an essay, old school, classic looking font. That’s why Garamond is great. It’s French. Michelle At Princeton! It’s old. New Years! It’s classy. Fake Ancient Egyptian chic isn’t the answer.
Papyrus may be a great font for The Return of the Mummy , but it’s not a great font for obama thesis at princeton your resume. Changing Roles Of Women Essay! It’s just as kitsch and childish as Comic Sans. Michelle! Avoid it. Instead, add accomplishments to your resume. Adding achievements to council your resume is the fastest way to make it classy. Don't know how? Need ideas?
We've got you covered: Achievements To Put On A Resume - Complete Guide (+30 Examples) Unlike Garamond, Proxima Nova is a modern font. Mark Simonson created the font as late as 2005. Proxima Nova is for you if you’d rather go for michelle at princeton a sleek, modern resume font. Earthquake Thesis Statement! It’s the font of choice for websites like Buzzfeed, Mashable, and Flickr. Pro: You don’t have to buy Proxima Nova if you’re using Google docs to make your resume. Con: Proxima Nova is not a Microsoft Word font. So, if that’s the program you’re using to make your resume, you can’t use Proxima Nova unless you buy it. Want to at princeton go with the opposite of modern? Why not Trajan? Trajan’s designer had had Roman inscriptions in mind when he made the font for Adobe. The font is all in caps, with no lowercase letters.
So, using Trajan may make you feel like the essays student council Caesar of resumes. But, it will just make your resume look like a Steven Spielberg movie poster. Leading with an outdated resume objective will also make your resume look bad. Read our guide to find out michelle obama thesis at princeton how to essays council write a modern resume objective that will land you a job: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) Lukasz Dziedzic, a Polish typeface designer, created Lato. It’s an open source font which means you can download and use it for free. Dziedzic was designing the font for a large corporate client in the beginning. That’s why the typeface has both serious and friendly qualities. He said the dual nature of the font gave it the “feeling of the summer.” He named the font Lato, which is the Polish word for obama thesis at princeton summer. Pro: Lato is a corporate font.
So, you can rest assured that it will work well on your resume. Con: Lato is essay new years not a standard Microsoft Word font. That might mean that it will not load when some hiring managers open your resume. Let’s say you want to go for thesis at princeton something more personal and less corporate. Wouldn’t a font that looks like handwriting work well? No. Changing Roles Essay! You should personalize many aspects of the job-seeking process.
Tailor your resume to the job description or write a personal email to obama at princeton the hiring manager. But don’t choose a popular resume font that looks handwritten. They’re kitschy and thesis unprofessional like that picture of dogs playing poker. Don't know how to tailor your resume to a job description? It's one of the best things you can do for michelle your resume. Read our full guide to shakespeare influence essay essays find out how to tailor your resume: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description In an michelle obama thesis, experiment for the New York Times, writer Errol Morris made a quiz to see if fonts changed the influence way people respond to information. The quiz was a true or false question presented in several different fonts. At Princeton! Takers were told that their answers would let them know if they were optimists or pessimists. The results showed that Baskerville inspired people to shakespeare influence essay select “true” more often. Pro: Hiring managers may find your resume more truthful if you use Baskerville.
Con: Baskerville, like Garamond and obama Didot, is an essay about new years, older font and can give your resume a dated look. If you’re applying for obama at princeton a job in qualatative research paper a startup, choosing a hipper font might have more impact. Speaking of impact Okay, so most of obama thesis at princeton, these preferred resume fonts are boring and common. Essay! Let’s go for something with impact. Hey, isn’t there a font called Impact? Why, yes. Obama Thesis! But you can’t use it on of women essay, your resume. Because Impact is a bold font that’s difficult to read in the body of a resume.
So, if you want to make an impact, don’t use impact as a font. Making an impact on a resume is michelle at princeton about putting all the right skills in all the right places. Need to know what skills are the best for resumes? Read our guide: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) Didot is an essay essays, elegant font designed by Firmin Didot just before the French Revolution. Didot is not as old and classic as Garamond.
But it was born during the michelle obama Enlightenment and the reign of Marie Antoinette. So, it’s a good font for dressing up your resume. At the student council same time, many professionals associate the font with fashion. Fashion brands like Ralph Lauren and Marks Spencer use Didot on their websites. So, keep in mind that there is a time and place for thesis at princeton Didot. Essay! You don’t want your resume to thesis at princeton suffer the same fate as Marie Antoinette.
Only use Didot under the right circumstances. Pro: Elegant font design that qualifies as the safest choice if you must go with something fancy. Con: You must buy Didot if you want to use it on your resume. That’s the biggest drawback and the reason why we’ve put it last on changing of women, our list of fonts. Also, Didot works best for fashion industry resumes. Try something a little less ball gown and michelle thesis a little more business casual for corporate resumes. Villain Font: Vivaldi (Or any other swoopy, cursive font) Ask yourself. Would this font look great on my wedding invitations? Or would Heathcliff find my love letters more romantic if I used this font?
If you answer “yes” to either question when choosing a font, then you shouldn’t use it for essay about your resume. That’s because fancy, cursive fonts are difficult to at princeton read. And “hard to read font” translates to “bad resume font.” So, do not use fonts like Vivaldi under any circumstances. If it must be fancy, make it Didot. Pro Tip: Remember that different fonts are easier to read on screen and in print. Make sure you choose a font that works both ways. Print out a copy of influence, your resume to make sure. Also, when choosing a font size for a resume keep it between 10-12 points . Making your resume font size smaller just to smash in obama thesis extra information is a big no-no.
Choosing a proper resume font is earthquake all about making sure your resume is easy on michelle thesis, the eyes of whoever is reading it. You’ll also want to make sure that you’re using a universal font. One that will open on new years, every computer and michelle thesis appease Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. There is some psychology behind how fonts work on the subconscious. Shakespeare! That said, in the world of professional resume fonts, readability is king. Have a perfect resume font that didn’t make our list but got you your last job?
Share it with us in at princeton the comments. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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1776 By David Mccullough Essays and Research Papers. At Princeton? ? 1776 by David McCullough “Liberty, when it begins to take root, is a plant of rapid growth.” This quote in about new years, . Obama? a letter to James Madison, from George Washington, on March 2nd, 1788, explains that once the push for liberty comes through and change is made, it is like the essay new years snowball effect. At this point of the war, there were constant losses for the Continental Army they were lacking faith and hope for their liberty. Michelle Thesis At Princeton? The soldier’s enlistments were also very near to their end and time was going. American Revolutionary War , Army , Battle of what should the thesis in a Princeton 891 Words | 3 Pages. 1776 by David McCullough: A Book Review. History 2700-02 Derek Smith 2/4/07 1776 , Book Review It was a good year for a revolution, 1776 . But it didn't start off . quite as well as the michelle obama at princeton colonists would have liked. When George Washington agreed to of women, take command of the American forces in 1775, he probably didn't realize what he was truly getting himself into.
Washington took command of an army made up of old men and young boys that had either come from their farms or the street. The army was short on weapons and gunpowder, lacked uniforms. American Revolutionary War , Army , Battle of michelle obama thesis Trenton 965 Words | 3 Pages. Shamia Swanks Professor Timothy Knight US History 1301 21 September 2011 1776 by David McCullough . David McCullough wrote a revealing novel about the struggles and challenges America faced during the year of 1776 as the war for American independence commenced. Thesis? “ 1776 ” shed light on michelle thesis at princeton the hardships the country faced in order for us to live the life of freedom we do today. Essay? The American army was composed of regular everyday people with a lack of military experience, but under the leadership of General. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Continental Army 503 Words | 2 Pages. David McCullough’s 1776 is a well written book, starting with its title.
It's a story about the war, yet no actual fighting . happens for most of the book. George Washington is often diminished compared to other characters in the book, and readers almost feel sorry for the usually infamous characters such as the loyalists, Hessians, and obama thesis at princeton, even King George III. Another surprise is that David McCullough , best known for roles essay, Rushmore-size biographies of underrated presidents, wrestles America's founding year. American Revolutionary War , Battles of michelle thesis Lexington and Concord , Continental Army 1171 Words | 3 Pages. 1776 by David Mccullough Book Summary. Book Review on: 1776 by David McCullough The Non-Fiction Historical Book 1776 By . David McCullough is a historically accurate and in depth view of The American Revolution; starting from The Battle of Bunker Hill, Boston, Brooklyn, New York, Fort Washington, and essay about, ending its Analysis at the Battle of Trenton in 1776 . There are many fascinating features, trends, themes, and obama thesis, characteristics used in 1776 that make the book a fluent and enjoyable read. Also the qualatative research book gives a very detailed and informative.
American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Continental Army 711 Words | 2 Pages. Book Critique: 1776 by David Mccullough. 1776 , a brilliant book by Pulitzer Prize-winning author David McCullough , retells the story of America’s brutal . battle for obama at princeton, independence throughout the American Revolution. In an qualatative paper informative tone, McCullough brings the American Revolution to life as he reiterates America’s history through the incorporation of details pertaining to each of the important figures of the michelle thesis at princeton war as well as the story format of his well-researched book. Through the use of visual aids such as maps and council, pictures depicting battles. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Articles of Confederation 556 Words | 2 Pages. 1776 David McCullough Simon and Shuster May 2005 In the book 1776 , David . McCullough covers numerous series of events. In the beginning he starts with the war against the American Colonies by michelle thesis at princeton, King George III up until the great American victory at Trenton. Student? Washington led an army of Americans, from many areas, which had no experience and were not well trained.
Henry Knox, a bookseller, and Nathaniel Green, a Quaker, were both inexperienced generals in General Washington’s army. Another army. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , David McCullough 1157 Words | 3 Pages. ? 1776 David McCullough Simon Schuster 1904 Summary The book 1776 covers a . series of michelle obama at princeton even from the statement of qualatative research paper war against the American colonies by obama, King George the III in 1775, to the victory at Trenton in 1776 . The army led by George Washington had various backgrounds and ages of the men, most of them were inexperienced with no training. On the other hand, the what should the thesis statement in a British army, The British Redcoats, was well equipped and experience and obama, were being led by of women, General William Howe. It. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Battle of Princeton 925 Words | 4 Pages.
John Adams, by David McCullough The book, John Adams, by David McCullough , is michelle obama thesis, a powerfully . written biography of one of essay our nation's greatest heroes. This biography explores Adams' life in obama thesis, great depth, unveiling a side to his life unbeknownst to those who have never studied his life in great detail. Through diary entries, letters, and various other documents, the reader grasps a sense of what Adams' day to day life was like, and is also able to grasp the enormity of his lifetime accomplishments. Abigail Adams , Founding Fathers of the United States , James Madison 1735 Words | 5 Pages. History 1301 April 1st 2012 McCullough , David . 1776 . New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005, 386 pp. Word Count- . What Should The Thesis? 1157 David McCullough’s novel 1776 is a compelling story of America’s war for independence. We have all read chapters and heard the at princeton related history of the thesis war of 1776 , but David McCullough takes the epic story even further.
The book covers the entire year of 1776 from the beginning of the war until the end. The author provides an extremely detailed description of both sides of. American Revolutionary War , Army , Battle of Trenton 1164 Words | 3 Pages. 1776 chronicled the epic times and critical historical events on a grand scale. McCullough told of the michelle lives of three great . American Presidents: John Adams, Theodore Roosevelt and Harry Truman. He recounted the what should the thesis statement in a massive manpower efforts and michelle, political will required to construct the Brooklyn Bridge and earthquake statement, the Panama Canal.
This book covers one year, albeit a critical year, in the conflict between the world's greatest power, Great Britain, and thesis at princeton, the freedom-seeking colonies that would ultimately succeed England. American Revolutionary War , Battle of Trenton , British Army 981 Words | 3 Pages. ? 1776 Book Review Throughout history, one of the most memorable wars for Americans will be the American Revolution. This was a time when the . Qualatative Paper? thirteen American colonies broke off from the mother country of England and fought for their independence. David McCullough writes about the American Revolution in his non-fictional historical book 1776 . This book helps readers better understand the conditions the soldiers and generals were in, the obama thesis point of view from many of the generals, and some important. Of Women Essay? American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Army 1280 Words | 4 Pages. ?Robert Jones Mr. Thompson American History October 4, 2014 1776 by David Maccullough Throughout the 18th century, tensions had . been steadily increasing between Great Britain and the American colonies. Michelle Obama? The colonists were only upset because of the taxes and restrictions Parliament constantly bombarded them with, and King George III knew this.
After the French and Indian War ended in 1763 with the essays Treaty of Paris, Britain now owned a vast majority of the north American continent. With the threat. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Boston 1087 Words | 3 Pages. 1763-1877 Sections 04,05,11 Course #s 10537, 10556, 10581 Archer Physics Building MWF Spring 2014 Textbook: American History; Connecting With The . Past, Vol.1 Alan Brinkley, McGraw-Hill, 14th ed. ISBN-978-0077379506- required Supplemental Text: 1776 , David McCulloch, Holt-McDougal, ISBN 978-0743226721- required Supplemental Text: Sam Houston and obama thesis, the American Southwest, Randolph Campbell, Pearson, 3rd ed. ISBN-978-0321385727- required Assessment/Test Schedule and Due Dates This course will consist. American Civil War , American Revolution , Book 1989 Words | 5 Pages. The Chapter Summaries of research paper 1776 by David Mccullough. Michelle? 1776 1: Chapter 1 introduces King George III and of women essay, the conditions in England prior to and during the deployment of British troops to Boston. . Described as “a person of simple tastes and obama, few pretensions,” the king is shown to slowly feel disdain towards America. 2: Chapter 2 depicts the essay essays conditions in America. Michelle Obama? It outlines the leaders of the army and a few who were representing the colonies.
It described the American army to qualatative research, be made of “undisciplined, poorly armed volunteer force of farmers,” with. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Army 383 Words | 2 Pages. Medeiros Honors History Mr. Chew 2/14/15 1776 Book Review 1776 is a book by historian David . McCullough , winner of the Pulitzer Prize and national bestseller, based on the American Revolution against the British. Michelle Thesis At Princeton? The book moves through countless different battles between the Americans and the British, involving fascinating facts of the war and the people immensely involved such as Nathanael Green, Henry Knox, and multifarious others.
McCullough talks about the paltry and considerable wars and. American Revolutionary War , Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism , David McCullough 417 Words | 2 Pages. Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year . starting on Friday of the shakespeare 11-day slower Julian calendar. Events January 10: Common Sense published January–February January 1 – American Revolutionary War: Burning of Norfolk: The town of Norfolk, Virginia, is thesis, destroyed by the combined actions of the British Royal Navy and occupying Patriot forces. January 10 – American Revolution: The radical. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Continental Army 1214 Words | 4 Pages. 1776 Book Review 1776 focuses on one year of the American Revolution and paper, the military history. Michelle At Princeton? The colonies went from . being under King George the essays III to fighting for their independence in one year. This was the year that George Washington became the American commander and the declaration of independence was signed.
The book focused on the battles that happened and michelle obama, the individuals involved in it. The novel started with a dramatic scene as King George the III traveled. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Battle of council Trenton 1199 Words | 3 Pages. Michelle Obama Thesis? Assignment #4 Hed 116-005 1. Throughout his struggle, David did many things to try and help his survival on a day to day basis. In . David's worst of times he would pass the time by fantasizing to help ease his mind and or to block out whatever horrific game his mother wanted to play. I fantasized i was a prince or a comic book hero, David often would imagine. What Should The Thesis Statement? When David's hunger pains became more than he could bare he resulted to eating scraps from the garbage, dog food bowls, and.
2006 albums , American films , David 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Summer Reading Assignment David McCullough’s 1776 is an at princeton insightful and honest account of America’s first war; the research . Revolutionary war. Obama Thesis At Princeton? In the book, David McCullough describes events and skirmishes that led up to the independence of the United States of America and the events that followed it. The book primarily focuses on the military aspects of the revolutionary war. Shakespeare Essays? The variety of firsthand account, quotes, and perspectives of both the thesis at princeton Americans and the British make 1776 an extremely well crafted. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 456 Words | 2 Pages.
1776 by David McCullough tells the the thesis statement in a story of General George Washington during the Revolutionary War, in the year . of our nation’s birth, 1776 . McCullough gives the reader a fantastic understanding of the Revolutionary War by focusing mainly on military aspects of obama at princeton both the British and Continental army. In seven lively chapters, the author explains the actions and decisions that led Britain to wage war against roles of women essay the American Colonies and how all of American’s hope for Independence relied on George Washington. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Battle of Long Island 348 Words | 1 Pages. The Importance of John Adams 1763-1776. Obama At Princeton? The Importance of John Adams 1763- 1776 “Fear is the foundation of statement most governments,” (1) quoted by the fearless leader John Adams. John . Adams played significant roles during the years of at princeton 1763 through 1776 . He was in support of self-governing and council, independence which caused him to become the leader of the Boston Massacre. Between 1765 and 1776 , Adams’s involvement in radical politics ran apace with the escalation of events. In 1770, he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives.
American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Continental Congress 1621 Words | 5 Pages. The book 1776 by David McCullough tells the story of the military aspects of the obama thesis American Revolution. . McCullough writes the book from both the British and American point of views, creating a better understanding of new years what both sides were undergoing during the war. Not only michelle obama, does he have a degree from Yale, but McCullough has also been awarded with the nations highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In addition to this, he has been awarded the Pulitzer Prize twice. He has also written. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Army 788 Words | 2 Pages. 1776 : A Superior War Novel Pulitzer Prize winner, David McCullough , authored the intense and well-researched . novel 1776 about the tumultuous times of paper American independence from the British Empire. He recreates scenes of heroic battles as well as dramatic encounters between diplomats with outstanding details to support his writing. In his acknowledgments, McCullough informs the reader that the material in his novel came from over 25 libraries, archives and historic sites in both the United. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 738 Words | 2 Pages.
Sydney 3/28/2013 What are the consequences of David Hume's view on induction and self for managers? What are the consequences of . David Hume's view on induction and self for managers? David Hume was born in Scotland in 1711. He is known as a philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, especially for advocating empiricism and skepticism. He had strongly influenced in the history of michelle obama Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment. Qualatative Research Paper? ( David Hume, n.d., para. 3). He is seen as one of the greatest. Bundle theory , David Hume , Falsifiability 1676 Words | 5 Pages. Michelle Obama At Princeton? 1776 , the essays student council year of our Independence, has been told through the michelle obama thesis incredible penmanship of essays council author David McCullough for . the sake of educating us common folk on the events of that year. At Princeton? He focuses primarily on the military aspects of the influence Revolution, such as the obama battles at Dorchester Heights, Long Island, and Trenton.
Furthermore, he went through the should the thesis military chain of command for both the Americans and the British. Thesis? Prestigious general William Howe led the redcoats against the Americans, who were led by. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Continental Army 574 Words | 2 Pages. Study Guide for 1776 by Mccollough. 1776 by David McCullough Characterization: George Washington: Washington was 43 year old when he was . appointed by the Continental Congress to paper, be Commander-in-Chief of the American army. He had almost no formal schooling, and was a self-educated man. He was a brave man who was totally dedicated to America, the country he loved.
He was strong and rarely showed his discouragement or despair, even though he suffered greatly through the course of the at princeton American Revolution. After seeing Washington. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Continental Army 1577 Words | 5 Pages. actually formulated the theories that had great importance and significance in the time that they lived and is still prevalent today? Who deserves a place in . the International Economist Hall of about Fame? Today, I am here to present to you why the michelle obama at princeton economist, David Ricardo, is important to the development of economic theory and qualatative research paper, therefore, presenting why he deserves to obama thesis, be in earthquake statement, the International Economist Hall of Fame. Thesis? By using the criteria of what contribution Ricardo made to the development of qualatative paper economic thought. Adam Smith , Classical economics , Comparative advantage 1514 Words | 4 Pages. 1776 Essay It has been said that the Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4th, . 1776 , but there many trials and tribulations that American independence faced. There were people, events and michelle, issues that were obstacles of American Independence. New Years? John Dickinson of Pennsylvania, slavery and the invasion of at princeton redcoats in New York were all obstacles of American Independence.
John Dickinson was not a loyalist, but did. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , John Adams 477 Words | 2 Pages. David was the virtual art dictator of France for a generation. Student Council? Extending beyond painting, his influence determined the course of michelle thesis fashion, . furniture design, and interior decoration and was reflected in the development of moral philosophy. About New Years? His art was a sudden and decisive break with tradition, and from this break quot;modern artquot; is dated.
David studied with Vien, and after winning the Prix de Rome (which had been refused him four times, causing him to michelle obama, attempt suicide by starvation) he accompanied. Earthquake Thesis? Charlotte Corday , French Revolution , Jacques-Louis David 2196 Words | 7 Pages. of sculptures, one of the first that comes to obama, mind is David . This statue was created of statement marble between 1501 and michelle thesis, 1504 and stands over 14 feet . high. David is a symbol that represents strength and anger. The statue had intended political connotations for essays student, the ruling of the Medici family. Michelangelo used David as model of heroic courage to demonstrate that spiritual strength can be more effective than arms. Michelangelo insisted that David should stand as a symbol of the republic and act as a. Carrara , David , Florence 779 Words | 3 Pages. David Suzuki Introduction Challenge means ‘A task or situation that tests someone's abilities’ (Google Dictionary) and David . Suzuki has experienced such tests many times in michelle obama, his life. David was born in Vancouver on the 24th of March 1936. He is a third generation Canadian. His grandparents were from Japan and his many life challenges were due to his nationality because of the attack in Pearl Harbour brought upon by Japan. Because of David’s nationality, he, his parents and his three sisters were.
David , David Suzuki , David Suzuki Foundation 1948 Words | 5 Pages. are the three statues of paper David , by Donatello (Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi), Michelangelo (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni), and . Bernini (Gian Lorenzo Bernini). The statues are modeled after the biblical David , who was destined to michelle obama at princeton, become the second king of Israel. Also most famously known as the slayer of the thesis statement Philistine giant Goliath with a stone and a sling. The sculptures are all based on thesis at princeton the same biblical hero, but differ from one another. Each David is about, unique in michelle, its own certain. Shakespeare? David , Donatello , Florence 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Donatello’s David I have chosen Donatello’s David as the obama at princeton source of analysis for this paper.
David was designed . and created by Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi, but he was known as Donatello. Roles Of Women? Donatello was an early Renaissance Italian painter and sculptor from Florence. Obama Thesis? He was known for utilizing perspective illusion in his work. David was perhaps one of the greatest sculptor created during the Renaissance period and influence essay, was also the first large-scale bronze nude statue of that time. At Princeton? David was a nude. Bronze sculpture , Donatello , Florence 575 Words | 3 Pages. As we examine the heroes of the faith outlined for us in the Old Testament, we would be hard pressed to find a more faithful man that King . Should Statement? David . After the death of King Saul, David became the King of the Hebrew people. Obama Thesis At Princeton? David , who was meek and qualatative research paper, pious, steadfastly believed in the true God and tried to do His will. He had endured much persecution from Saul and other enemies but did not become bitter, did not lift his hand against Saul, as he was the michelle at princeton Lord’s anointed, but placed all his hope in God, and. Bathsheba , David , God 1045 Words | 3 Pages.
David Copperfield The novel David Copperfield, written by Charles Dickens, deals with the life and essay about, times of . David Copperfield. About a century ago in michelle thesis at princeton, a small town in England, David was born on a Friday at the stroke of midnight, which is considered a sign of essay essays bad luck. Obama? David's father has already died and his aunt comes to stay with him and shakespeare influence, his mother as this novel gets off to a very slow start. Soon David becomes aware that his mother has relations with another man and asks one of his servants. Bleak House , Charles Dickens , David Copperfield 1018 Words | 3 Pages. David of thesis Michelangelo vs David of Bernini. Changing Roles Of Women? David - Michelangelo vs. Bernini The Baroque period of the 17th century had both incorporated and obama thesis at princeton, rejected the ideals of the earthquake statement antecedent High . Renaissance art. Like High Renaissance art, Baroque art focused on making idealized and natural artwork. However, Baroque art introduced a way of involving the viewer into the artwork that was new and differed from High Renaissance art, which instead kept the viewer at a distance. Thesis? The composition and diagonal movement in the space are two of the features of.
Baroque , Baroque music , Gian Lorenzo Bernini 894 Words | 3 Pages. David LaChapelle is an incredible, modern photographer. He combines celebrities with the bizarre. His photography is influence, unique, charged with . Thesis? sexual imagery, and provides a unique view on people you see in essays student council, the media, today. I chose an article from American Photo, May/June 2003, as the basis of my research paper on David LaChapelle. Thesis At Princeton? The magazine has a nice design.
It is easy to read the print, and the titles of topics are always visible. You won't turn a page and essay about new years, have to take a minute to figure. Britney Spears , Christina Aguilera , David LaChapelle 1232 Words | 4 Pages. CASE: 1 GEORGE DAVID George David has been CEO of United Technologies Corporation (UTC) for more than a decade. During . that time he has received numerous accolades and thesis at princeton, awards for research, his performance as a CEO.
Under his leadership UTC, a $343 billion conglomerate whose operating units include manufacturers of elevators (Otis Elevator), aerospace products (including Pratt Whitney jet engines and thesis, Sikorsky helicopters), air conditioning systems, and fire and changing roles, security systems, has seen earnings. Better , Elevator , Employment 736 Words | 3 Pages. 1. “The real achievement of the obama earlier part of David Copperfield lies in a certain impression of the little Copperfield living in a land of earthquake thesis statement . giants. But one cannot avoid the impression that as the boy grows larger these figures grow smaller, and are not perhaps so completely satisfactory”. How does the author achieve the effect of at princeton perceiving the world with child’s eyes? Consider the quote and shakespeare essays, analyze the characterization techniques Dickens uses on the examples of at princeton Mr. and Ms. Murdstone, the Peggotty. Qualatative Research Paper? Charles Dickens , David Copperfield , David Copperfield characters 859 Words | 3 Pages.
My Musical Inspiration: DAVID FOSTER COMMUNICATION DYNAMICS 1B Mluleki Dlamini 213443259 9/11/2013 DAVID FOSTER [MY . MUSICAL INSPIRATION] I admire the virtuous works, commitment and commercial success of michelle David Foster. David Walter Foster (born November 1, 1949) is a Canadian musician, record producer, composer, singer, songwriter, and student, arranger (wikipedia, 2013). David Foster, n. d. Michelle At Princeton? Foster is amongst the most commercially successful producers in the planet. Leron Gubler, President. Andrea Bocelli , Celine Dion , David Foster 1328 Words | 7 Pages. ? David Sengeh was born in Sierra Leone in 1987. He grew up in the city of Bol where his father was an executive at UNICEF, serving as the shakespeare influence essay . Michelle? agencies Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation specialist as well as the Deputy Country Representative for Sierra Leone. Growing up in a family of privilege, at least by Sierra Leone standards, David Sengeh attended private school as a young man, but that does not mean he was immune from the atrocities of the civil war raging in Sierra Leone from new years 1991-2001. Obama At Princeton? . Statement? Ahmad Tejan Kabbah , All People's Congress , Freetown 1075 Words | 3 Pages. ? David Suzuki Introduction: David Suzuki is the co- founder of the David Suzuki Foundation. He is an . international award winning scientist. He’s just not a scientist; he’s also an thesis at princeton environmentalist, a professor and a broadcaster.
He is very famous for his programs that talks about the complexities of the council natural science. He is known for expertise in genetics. David Suzuki wasn’t always interested in the environment. His father, Kaoru Carr Suzuki’s work got him interested and michelle obama at princeton, sensitized. Climate , Climate change , David Suzuki Foundation 1397 Words | 4 Pages. Charles dickens : David Copperfield David Copperfield is probably one of the most successful novels of all time. I believe it . has inspired many readers to a full life with great success. The novel itself is changing of women essay, so real that it has even been said to be more real than life. I am one of those who agree and I will try and explain why in the following essay . The terms used to describe David Copperfield in michelle thesis at princeton, the question are all very true in their own respect. This is basically because Dickens chose to.
Alfred Lamert Dickens , Betsey Trotwood , Charles Dickens 916 Words | 3 Pages. Essay New Years? Prospective of David The re-creation of David , a biblical hero, comes from three very notable works of art from history. The . free standing sculptures are made by Donatello, Michelangelo and Bernini. Donatello is an artist and sculptor known for his exploration of human emotion and expression. He also known to use difficult mediums and make masterpieces. In Donatello’s depiction of David comes a bronze work of michelle thesis at princeton art from the Italian Renaissance period. This is a life sized sculpture of David in the nude.
Baroque , Donatello , Florence 1187 Words | 3 Pages. Executive Summary In this report I discuss the about new years comparison of competitive strategies between the two major departmental stores in Australia being . David Jones and Target and how they differ from each other. I also discuss the michelle obama thesis current issues that are faced such as Global Financial Crisis that has had much impact on both stores as well as future threats such as online shopping which is believed to be the latest trend is shopping which has already affected the qualatative stores but could make competition even. Amazon.com , David Jones Limited , Department store 2662 Words | 7 Pages. David and Solomon King David proved to be a wise and effective leader for Israel. However, it can be said that his son, . Solomon, made several mistakes during his reign. Many of his problems originated from his Temple, a structure that was conceptualized by his father to be a deterrent against the paganism, which infested the land. Yet, it seemed as if several of Solomon's policies actually encouraged paganism rather than deter it. King David , a member of the tribe of obama at princeton Judah was chosen by. David , Jeroboam , Jerusalem 1086 Words | 3 Pages. ? David Suzuki is an award-winning environmentalist, scientist and broadcaster.
He also dabbles in research, radio and television series that go into obama at princeton, . detail about the complexities of the natural sciences in an easy and fascinating way. Finish Intro Paragraph – any tips, mother? David Suzuki is first and foremost, a geneticist. He graduated from Amherst College in 1958 with an honors degree in biology. He moved onto graduate school at what should the University of Chicago with a PhD in Zoology. Suzuki’s first academic. Corporation , David Suzuki , David Suzuki Foundation 1300 Words | 5 Pages. David Koresh the Killer David was known as a mass murderer; a human monster of sorts. It was recorded that he killed a total . of michelle obama thesis at princeton 80 people. These killings happened in paper, the year of 1993, this was the year that Koresh thought the world would end. David Koresh killed because of his religious beliefs; in thesis at princeton, fact he believed that he was God himself.
Koresh was the leader of a cult that had very strong views against the government. His followers called themselves the about new years Davidians. He didn’t trust anyone. Branch Davidian , David Koresh , Drug Enforcement Administration 1266 Words | 3 Pages. Michelangelo?s “ David ” 1501-1504 1 The Renaissance emerged from a new vision of the world called Humanism. Humanism put forth a . new system of obama at princeton thought which centered on the rediscovery of the Antiquity and the importance of the humanistic values in society. Man?s happiness, intellectual and essay about new years, political emancipation are only three of the obama thesis at princeton most prominent concepts of the Renaissance. Man is considered God?s masterpiece, the center of the world and the measure of all things. The Renaissance. Florence , Italian Renaissance , Leonardo da Vinci 1706 Words | 6 Pages.
The work of David LaChapelle can be seen everywhere you turn, be it on a magazine rack, album cover, advertisement, or even a music video. . Dubbed the New Surrealist, LaChapelle's vivid, colorful, bizarre, and humorous images have been admired by millions and have made him one of the qualatative most famous photographers alive today. Since the start of obama at princeton his professional career, LaChapelle's work has attracted the attention of many other artists, celebrities, journalists, and regular people. I first noticed. 2000 , Advertising , Andy Warhol 991 Words | 3 Pages. Perrichon, Celine Professor Haynes Art History 1B 27, January 2014 “The Swarm” By David Altmejd . When it comes to creating art with energy and metamorphosis David Altmejd exemplifies this magnificently.
The piece I have chosen is called “The Swarm” made in 2011. A Canadian born artist, Altmejd completed his BFA from the Universite du Quebec a Montreal and later on his MFA at Columbia University. As a child he always had a love and changing of women essay, fascination for science and evolution and michelle at princeton, wanted to become a biologist. British Columbia Association of shakespeare essay Magazine Publishers , Energy , Human body 690 Words | 4 Pages. Running Head: DAVID PREMACK David Premack: An Educational Giant Miriah Chalmers Sister Johnson Brigham Young . University-Idaho Abstract Born in 1925 David Premack is still a great influence to education today. His studies with primates led to michelle thesis at princeton, The Theory of research paper Reinforcement or The Premack Principle.
The Premack principle is a great example of behaviorism. Premack’s most recent studies involve the “understandings of michelle intentionality and causality cognition” with the help of his wife Ann. The Premack. Changing Roles Of Women? Academic administration , Behaviorism , David Premack 1110 Words | 4 Pages. guilty; this is called a miscarriage of justice. Miscarriage of michelle justice means the failure of a judicial system or court in the administration of justice, . especially when an innocent is convicted in a crime. An example would be the wrongful conviction of David Milgaard involving the rape and murder of Gail Miller back in 1969. The Canadian justice system failed tremendously wasted millions of dollars and lost the public confidence of the system. Essay About? More importantly, this even took away two decades of obama at princeton one man’s. Capital punishment , Conviction , Crime 1310 Words | 4 Pages. ?The case study is about how David Fletcher is essays council, trying to build a team of research analyst to help him in his work as portfolio manager, running . emerging growth fund at Jenkins Fletcher Partners, JFP.
A Harvard Business School Graduate, he moved from being from being an analyst adviser, investor ( in different firms) to michelle obama at princeton, portfolio manager at a big investment firm where he managed two aggressive Funds so well that he got the reputation of being the top Portfolio Manager of the industry. He had a young. Choice , High tech , Partnership 789 Words | 2 Pages. David Walker’s Appeal is a landmark work of American history which was written by an African American slave during the nineteenth century. . Roles Of Women Essay? David Walker’s Appeal arguably the most radical of all anti- slavery documents, caused a great stir when it was published in September of 1829 calling for slaves to revolt against their masters. The piece of obama work exposed white racism and gave inspiration to abolitionists in about, hopes that one day change would come. Michelle Thesis? David Walker’s Appeal which consisted of four articles. Black people , Colonialism , Race 915 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Bibliographic Citation: McCullough , David , 1776 . New York, Simon Schuster, 2005. Pp., 400 2. Thesis . History teaches us, depicts what we believe in, helps explain what we believe in, and new years, what we ought to michelle obama at princeton, be standing for.
History is or should be the main component of patriotism, not the hard core type stuff but the real thing, love of the country. We are living in an ear of great change, huge transitions in all aspects of life, nationwide, worldwide, which in turn creates huge tension and. Brooklyn Bridge , David McCullough , John Adams 812 Words | 3 Pages. Research? David Hume’s Empiricism Sanket Thakkar Oakton Community College Every philosopher begins with the premises from which he bases his entire . philosophical theory. Michelle Obama Thesis At Princeton? Descartes rejects all the premises and holds innate into question. He withholds all the assumptions and only believes in things that can be proven. His goal in subjecting everything to should statement in a, methodical doubt is you don’t know it is true until you have the proof. Descartes begins by doubting his own existence and starts with the premise, “I. Cognition , Concepts in metaphysics , Idea 1894 Words | 5 Pages. Bronze statue of David , created by Donato di Nicolo di Beto Bardi, also known as Donatello.
Its dating has been a matter of much dispute, . though it is generally placed in the years between 1430 and 1440. First mentioned in 1469 as in the courtyard of the Medici Palace, the thesis at princeton statue was moved in 1495 to the courtyard of the Palazzo Vecchio. (Janson, 1957) Visual art during the Renaissance came in various forms. Painting and sculpture were some of the common mediums at the time. The epicenter of the. Cosimo de' Medici , Donatello , Florence 1170 Words | 4 Pages. Shakespeare Influence? ? David Beckham is one of Britain's most iconic athletes whose name is michelle thesis at princeton, also an the thesis statement elite global advertising brand.
He was captain of the . English national team from 1998 to michelle, 2009, scored in three different FIFA World Cups, and played midfield for clubs in Manchester, England, Madrid, Spain, and Milan, Italy; he also won the MLS Cup playing for Los Angeles Galaxy in 2011 and 2012. He was born David Robert Joseph Beckham on May 2, 1975, in Leytonstone, East London, England; son of qualatative research paper Ted Beckham, a.
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No Apology: Michelle Obama s Princeton Undergrad Thesis, Alas, Is
Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per michelle at princeton, year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S.
Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the changing roles of women G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the michelle pioneers of the statement Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in michelle thesis the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for what the thesis in a, consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an michelle thesis at princeton, idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is earthquake thesis all about. Michelle Obama At Princeton. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to what should the thesis free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and michelle thesis at princeton, the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of changing of women essay competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for michelle obama thesis, global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and shakespeare influence essays, their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the michelle fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and should statement in a, as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on obama at princeton, Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).
In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of essays student Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in michelle thesis at princeton the growing literature about Fair Trade. Changing Roles Of Women Essay. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the michelle thesis standard of what should statement in a living for disadvantaged producers in michelle thesis developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the qualatative research paper capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really?
Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the obama thesis at princeton free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is essay about a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and obama at princeton, secondly the socio-cultural, political and influence essays, economic impact on the free trade market in general. Thesis At Princeton. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. Essays Council. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.
During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to thesis come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in research paper international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and obama thesis, workers - especially in shakespeare the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by at princeton consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of changing essay conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the michelle at princeton livelihoods and well-being of earthquake statement producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.
To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an michelle obama, example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of paper a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream.
Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of michelle obama thesis at princeton ways, the thesis statement most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from michelle obama at princeton, being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of essay new years becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the thesis Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and changing roles essay, Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of michelle obama at princeton Fair Trade products. Thesis Statement. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the michelle at princeton largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of should statement in a its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for michelle at princeton, producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of essay about a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the thesis at princeton global supply chains and about, reduce the michelle at princeton margins of middle men; transparent and what statement in a, long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO.
These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and thesis, another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Qualatative. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and obama, require protection of earthquake statement drinking water and thesis at princeton, endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of shakespeare influence essays sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to obama thesis 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to earthquake allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to michelle obama meet the essay above requirements, have to obama thesis accord with the essay labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to thesis meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).
These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. Earthquake Thesis. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by michelle obama the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in new years Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at michelle obama thesis US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and changing essay, a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the obama at princeton coffee price in about 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at thesis at princeton the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box.
Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and roles, priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is thesis useful to essay essays look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of obama thesis Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the influence essay end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. Michelle Obama Thesis. 7 Between 2003 and essays student council, 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the michelle thesis annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in qualatative research paper table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of michelle obama Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).
The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by influence essay the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of obama thesis at princeton €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to roles Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in michelle thesis 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per essays, year and these increases are mostly due to michelle thesis at princeton the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).
In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of what should the thesis nearly 90 percent per year. Michelle Obama Thesis At Princeton. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in essays student council 35,000 retail outlets in michelle thesis the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the qualatative reasons why we need Fair Trade in michelle obama thesis the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and essay essays, the technological advancement for thesis at princeton, the manufacturing of cars is not developed in thesis Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.
In theory, free trade is michelle a win-win situation in changing roles of women which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in obama thesis commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of earthquake thesis developing countries to michelle obama the consumers of shakespeare influence essays developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to thesis an enormous increase in the volume of changing of women trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the thesis level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of research paper what the outcome of neoliberal trade is obama thesis at princeton according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in what the thesis high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)
There has also been much scholarly attention to obama at princeton a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the shakespeare influence essay supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of michelle obama sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the essay new years “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). Thesis At Princeton. „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the what should the thesis costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). Michelle Obama At Princeton. The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to statement in a compete on michelle thesis at princeton, the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in essays council agricultural products were greatest in coffee. Obama At Princeton. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in essay essays the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in obama thesis developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the statement world market (the level of michelle obama thesis at princeton concentration seems to be even higher according to should the thesis in a more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to michelle obama at princeton one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Changing Of Women Essay. Studies on the impact of michelle obama at princeton falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the shakespeare essays effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is obama at princeton based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and influence essay, create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to obama other sources of income in response to essay price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in michelle thesis at princeton global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by qualatative research trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and michelle obama thesis at princeton, what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the changing different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of obama thesis at princeton Fair Trade and the theories about essays student Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). Thesis At Princeton. While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to essays student council increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the at princeton second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to shakespeare influence essay bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and michelle thesis at princeton, practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of thesis statement Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the thesis aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the about new years trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries.
And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. Michelle Obama Thesis. 13). Statement. Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to obama at princeton share this view. Research Paper. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for michelle obama thesis, the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and earthquake, radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Thesis At Princeton. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the should statement developing and michelle obama thesis at princeton, the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. What Should The Thesis. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.
Raynolds (2002a) for michelle obama thesis, example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the essay importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to michelle the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in qualatative research paper its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in michelle at princeton Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of earthquake thesis statement mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an thesis at princeton, “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). Earthquake Thesis Statement. This is certainly the obama case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. Thesis Statement. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section.
The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of thesis at princeton Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on what, actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on michelle obama thesis at princeton, Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of new years Fair Trade on the lives of michelle obama at princeton producers is extremely important. About. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and michelle obama thesis, consumers buy Fair Trade products in about new years the belief that their purchase is at princeton having this developmental effect. In the end all the changing money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of michelle obama thesis Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by shakespeare influence essay essays NGO’s and ATO’s. Michelle Obama. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in new years a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to michelle obama non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to influence essays separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).
10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. Michelle Thesis. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on changing roles essay, civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the thesis non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.
This price difference is what should statement sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at michelle obama thesis present around twice the roles of women money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and michelle thesis at princeton, world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from essay about, doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.
All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of michelle at princeton producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of new years Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for michelle thesis at princeton, their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the what statement in a individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to michelle obama thesis at princeton 195 percent for about new years, organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on at princeton, a Fair Trade farm in changing roles essay Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).
And in a cooperative in El Salvador the at princeton financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only what should, a small percentage of products could be sold on michelle obama thesis, the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Research. Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of michelle obama thesis organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for what, certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is thesis also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and qualatative research, the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the michelle obama at princeton price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in should in a most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). Thesis At Princeton. A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). Changing Of Women. In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for thesis at princeton, the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. Essay. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only obama thesis at princeton, able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at shakespeare influence essay Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). Thesis At Princeton. How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). Research. This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of michelle US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505).
Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for of women, conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on michelle thesis at princeton, the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for qualatative research, health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is obama at princeton furthermore crucially important to take the shakespeare influence essay larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for michelle obama thesis at princeton, farmers selling for of women essay, the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of thesis surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to roles of women essay conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in michelle thesis at princeton the Mexican village he researched the thesis positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of obama thesis at princeton thousands of statement small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of michelle thesis factors. What. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of obama thesis these differences. What The Thesis. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.
The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the obama extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of essay essays which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over michelle thesis at princeton the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to in a their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only michelle obama, 14 % in a case study in qualatative paper El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).
Other indirect benefits of participation in michelle obama Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and essay, that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the obama at princeton apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by essay the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.
There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in thesis decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the qualatative benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in michelle thesis at princeton cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Thesis Statement. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and at princeton, democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Qualatative Research. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.
If cooperatives are engaged in obama thesis at princeton Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in research paper generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from at princeton, a coffee cooperative in about Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and obama thesis at princeton, substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in changing roles large cooperatives and even the emergence of michelle obama thesis at princeton a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and shakespeare influence, there have even been reports of michelle obama at princeton corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to council market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in michelle thesis at princeton Fair Trade. Essay About. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in michelle obama Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of essays cafeterias, the michelle obama thesis first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Changing. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to obama thesis at princeton benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in statement in a Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of michelle thesis at princeton small producers that sell to the domestic market and should statement in a, changing a situation in which the michelle obama thesis at princeton best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).
14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of changing roles of women corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the michelle thesis at princeton members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to research stop selling coffee, the organization would go on.
We know this because in thesis the assemblies we discuss the sale of what should the thesis statement in a coffee and management of the farms, but also the michelle obama at princeton people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). Should In A. And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of michelle obama thesis at princeton which are important to the thesis statement in a the improvement of the michelle at princeton lives of of women producers. Especially the michelle organizational and changing roles essay, cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. Michelle Obama. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in what should the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the obama thesis at princeton most important benefits of about Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on michelle obama at princeton, producers (Paul, 2005).
The non-monetary impact on the life of paper producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on obama at princeton, investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the changing essay price of michelle thesis Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to qualatative the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.
15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only obama, US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of influence essay essays Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to michelle obama higher costs of advertisement and essay essays, marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to michelle decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. Essay New Years. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for michelle at princeton, Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to essay about new years make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of michelle obama thesis at princeton many Fair Trade supply chains.
In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on changing, investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the michelle thesis money the FLO and its member organizations spent in shakespeare 2002 and calculates the return on michelle obama at princeton, investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by roles the labelling organizations increases farmer income by michelle obama US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in what the thesis the North or to michelle inefficient management of the changing roles essay trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of michelle obama thesis Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the changing roles of women insufficient demand and michelle, producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on shakespeare, the free market in michelle obama at princeton general. Should The Thesis Statement. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and obama, neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and should statement, I will address them separately. 4. Michelle At Princeton. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of essays Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of obama Fair Trade might be. Student Council. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the michelle obama thesis “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by thesis statement many activists and michelle obama thesis at princeton, researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the changing interests of michelle obama producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for student council, the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is obama at princeton social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the essays way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the michelle at princeton quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and essay about, consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). Michelle At Princeton. This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the student council consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from obama thesis, other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).
Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and about, environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and obama at princeton, environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of essay new years ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of michelle at princeton 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for essays council, ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the michelle obama at princeton production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of what should statement economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the michelle obama thesis preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to essay new years buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to michelle obama at princeton close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).
Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to influence essay essays trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the michelle producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is essay about new years however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Obama Thesis. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in of women essay the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is at princeton multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only earthquake thesis statement, aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to obama at princeton lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of earthquake cooperation in trade that works.
And the michelle obama section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on changing roles essay, this point participation in thesis Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of of women comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of at princeton Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of shakespeare influence essay essays organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and obama, they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is shakespeare influence closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the obama at princeton Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. About New Years. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of obama thesis at princeton big national labelling organizations and essays council, large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the michelle obama alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in what in a an international project of trade reform to one in michelle which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by earthquake thesis the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. Michelle Obama. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the the thesis standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to michelle the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to qualatative source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of obama at princeton producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. Statement. 2. Michelle Thesis. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.
Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the thesis statement market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is obama thesis at princeton economic. The argument has two parts. What Should The Thesis. The first part is michelle concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by qualatative research paper the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the obama thesis indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by should statement raising awareness about the social and obama, environmental externalities of the new years production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in obama some markets Fair Trade already accounts for about, large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). Obama Thesis. There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the essays two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in michelle thesis at princeton the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an qualatative paper, increase in the availability and range of products and at princeton, opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of changing essay mainstreaming Fair Trade, on michelle obama, the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.
A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of essays student Adam Smith’s invisible hand. Michelle Thesis At Princeton. While it might help the producers that sell on qualatative, the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to michelle create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on student, other producers and to decrease the michelle obama at princeton dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about essays student positive change for all producers.
Most of the thesis criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the influence essay essays message of Fair Trade. Obama Thesis. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and roles essay, challenged conventional competitive and obama, exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the essays benefits for obama thesis at princeton, the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of about Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). Obama Thesis At Princeton. This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.
Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of earthquake thesis statement their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to michelle these practices. Just Coffee, one of essays student council them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. Obama. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in about new years Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the michelle thesis at princeton Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). The Thesis Statement In A. And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the michelle obama thesis at princeton Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of research subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is michelle obama thesis still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is essay new years growing at impressive rates of thesis almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. Council. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in thesis the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by qualatative paper more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Michelle Obama At Princeton. Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in research paper fact Starbucks practices were shown not to thesis at princeton comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in about new years the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of michelle obama Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the what should the thesis statement undermining of the obama thesis message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and what statement in a, increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of michelle obama at princeton scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for paper, producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on obama, the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. Essay. This power of Fair Trade is obama thesis mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by qualatative research paper providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out michelle obama at princeton, above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more.
Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is essay new years impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and at princeton, lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to paper these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). Obama Thesis At Princeton. This has been described as a “paradox of thesis globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to michelle obama thesis deregulation and changing roles, market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the obama thesis market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to essay improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.
This label is supposed to “ensure the michelle thesis at princeton sustainable production of about high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the at princeton coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to student council take into account the at princeton extremely high price Starbucks pays to of women essay its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of michelle thesis unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and essays council, unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an michelle obama thesis at princeton, extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into new years the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to michelle the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on student council, the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for michelle obama at princeton, producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the shakespeare essay essays non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to michelle undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in of women this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. Michelle Thesis. These are mainly the earthquake thesis statement way power relations in the production process change and michelle thesis, a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and qualatative, awareness of those corporations, studies like the michelle thesis at princeton Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to should statement the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.
Fair Trade, so the argument, by obama promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in essays student council market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in michelle obama the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from student, neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of michelle obama at princeton domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of new years revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the michelle obama fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the earthquake World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement?
This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and michelle thesis, why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the research paper success of obama thesis at princeton Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and roles of women essay, rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to obama at princeton economically influence the essays conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to thesis grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of influence essay a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in michelle at princeton a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into shakespeare essays the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into obama at princeton intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the council supply chain in new ways.
Fair Trade certification and thesis, the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on paper, the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of michelle thesis different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the essays student council free market and obama thesis at princeton, free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by about new years looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the michelle thesis average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to shakespeare four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the michelle at princeton high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on council, the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by michelle at princeton the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and what the thesis statement in a, Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and thesis at princeton, ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to essays council labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the thesis at princeton real social or environmental costs. What. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for obama thesis, fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to earthquake thesis statement “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in thesis international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and earthquake statement, practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the michelle obama thesis at princeton WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and changing of women essay, selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. Obama Thesis. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of essay new years Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of obama thesis at princeton free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). Thesis. The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of obama thesis at princeton small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in thesis statement any way favourable to obama the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of qualatative paper Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the michelle obama thesis thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.
Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the essay practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from michelle obama, free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Student Council. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is michelle obama Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.
In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of research paper a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into obama thesis a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on roles of women, the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to michelle at princeton re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for qualatative research paper, financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the michelle thesis market have also been incorporated into about new years conservative discourses and thesis at princeton, practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by statement personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the michelle obama paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).
And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. New Years. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to obama thesis argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and influence essay essays, distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Thesis At Princeton. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the roles essay producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and michelle obama at princeton, improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the qualatative research main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in obama at princeton the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the shakespeare influence essays social and environmental cost of production.
This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and obama thesis at princeton, the environmental cost of production is passed on research, to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. Michelle At Princeton. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an earthquake thesis, attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Michelle Obama At Princeton. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the shakespeare product in thesis the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.
Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of essays council production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the obama at princeton real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and student, nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and thesis, that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in influence essay flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of thesis consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). About New Years. Fair Trade challenges the thesis idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of research “contract economy” into the market, in which the michelle obama thesis at princeton price is negotiated between consumers, producers and about, salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in michelle thesis at princeton cooperation.
As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over shakespeare essay a mechanism that claims to obama thesis be in the best interests of thesis everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is michelle about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in earthquake thesis statement the two visions that underlie the michelle obama thesis at princeton question this paper tried to what the thesis answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and michelle obama thesis, trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of statement different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against michelle thesis at princeton, destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of essay capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and michelle obama thesis at princeton, negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and essays, weakening the michelle thesis movement.
These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to what statement privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on michelle thesis at princeton, the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in essay new years benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of obama Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of qualatative paper using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.
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Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in essays council 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and obama, their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the research paper Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by michelle the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for the thesis in a, certified products and obama, since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).
Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Shakespeare. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. Michelle Obama. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. Earthquake Statement. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by obama at princeton the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per influence essay, pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.
In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per michelle thesis, box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over of women essay 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by michelle thesis at princeton the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of changing roles of women products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the at princeton North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the thesis statement most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. Michelle At Princeton. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only thesis statement, enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is michelle at princeton interesting to note that more or less the thesis statement same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.
Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and obama thesis, protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the about fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to thesis at princeton small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the statement fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of thesis at princeton a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the student council Dominican Republic.
According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. Michelle Obama Thesis At Princeton. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and student, Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of obama thesis TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in student council Jones (2004).
19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of michelle thesis 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Student. Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into thesis at princeton ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the essay about manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to michelle thesis at princeton Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.
For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the earthquake thesis statement producer group, the ATO, and michelle thesis at princeton, the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the research problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and michelle at princeton, maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. About New Years. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the michelle at princeton producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and student, its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is thesis exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is what should the thesis in a adjustment to michelle thesis world supply or demand and prices in one part of the student council market are fixed?
Prices in other parts of the michelle at princeton market must fall by qualatative research paper more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the michelle premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to essay about new years sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in obama thesis decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.
A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of research misusing the registry of michelle obama certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and essay about new years, might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Michelle Obama Thesis At Princeton. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for what the thesis, compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the thesis Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out essay new years, of the market, the michelle at princeton post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on the thesis in a, good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of michelle thesis WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). Essays Student Council. See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.
Used in instances where trade policy action by obama thesis at princeton a country is motivated by shakespeare essay a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the michelle thesis at princeton events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the earthquake statement symposium. A similar event was staged at obama thesis at princeton the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of roles essay local and traditional socio-cultural relations by michelle thesis at princeton mere market relations.
In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from what should the thesis statement in a, society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and michelle obama, embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and qualatative, environmental protection and michelle thesis, intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of influence different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the obama thesis Tobin tax by research paper the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in michelle obama poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the what should the thesis statement in a environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on michelle thesis, living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is qualatative paper explained in length in michelle Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for changing of women essay, their actions is michelle thesis where we need to start. Qualatative. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at michelle thesis at princeton the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined.
Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of essay about new years cooperation and michelle thesis, not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the about new years new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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Essay: Conflict between the Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. Conflict between the Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East is not just a modern day problem; it is a 5,000 year enmity with roots extending to Biblical times. After researching the history of the Middle East, I have come to the conclusion that peace in the region has not been achieved for thesis several reasons. First, this issue has existed for thousands of years, with origins extending to events in the Book of Genesis. Secondly, there are modern day political dynamics involved between the Arabs and Israelis that make getting to the bargaining table difficult for qualatative paper the leadership of both sides. Michelle Obama Thesis. Additionally, Arab and Muslim aggression towards the Jewish State since its founding in 1948 is a leading contributor to hindrances in any peace process. On the other hand, Israel’s desire for territorial expansion has also hindered talks with its neighbors on brokering a lasting peace agreement.
Lastly, there are the fluid self-interests of the United States and changing of women other nation states that must be taken into account when analyzing the stalemate in michelle peace efforts in the region. The Arab-Israel conflict has its traditional roots in the Holy Bible’s Book of Genesis. The issues began when two women, Sarah and Hagar, each gave birth to a son by student council, the monotheistic patriarch, Abraham. In Genesis 16, Hagar gave birth to michelle obama at princeton, her son, Ishmael, and in Genesis 21 Sarah gave birth to Isaac. The God of Abraham tells the Patriarch in Genesis 17 that He will make his covenant through his son with Sarah and that Abraham’s descendants through Isaac will be given dominion over ‘all the Land of Canaan, for perpetual holding (Genesis 17:8).’ The Biblical ‘Land of Canaan’ encompasses the majority of modern day Palestine, giving way to the Jewish argument that all of the territory rightfully belongs to them since it was given to them directly by God.
These events in qualatative research Genesis reach their climax when in Genesis 21, at the orders of Sarah and with the consent of michelle thesis at princeton God, Abraham expels Hagar and Ishmael from his household. God tells Abraham not to worry about Ishmael because He would ‘make a nation of him also, because he is your offspring (Genesis 21:13).’ Ishmael and his offspring, known as ‘Ishmaelites,’ are traditionally considered to be the ancestors of today’s Arabs and Isaac and his offspring are the council, ancestors of michelle modern day Jews. The great nations that God promises to each of Abraham’s sons are the modern Muslim and Jewish religions where Abraham is considered to about, be the ‘first Muslim’ and michelle thesis the ‘first Jew’ by the respective faiths. So it must be understood that discontent between these two peoples is not a modern phenomenon with its origins in qualatative paper 1948, but that this is an issue that has been occurring for thousands of years and that no lasting solutions for peace should be expected to michelle thesis at princeton, happen easily. The famed Jewish writer and activist Elie Weisel sums up the ancient roots of the Arab-Israeli conflict in one of his writings, titled ‘Ishmael and earthquake thesis Hagar,’ that ‘if only Sarah could have shared her love between Isaac and obama thesis at princeton Ishmael! If only she could have brought them together instead of setting them apart! Maybe some of essay today’s tragedies would have been avoided. The Palestinian problem is michelle obama rooted in the separation of earthquake these two brothers.’
Secondly, peace in the Middle East has not been attained due to michelle thesis at princeton, modern day political dynamics between the shakespeare influence essays, Arabs and obama at princeton Israelis that make even getting to the bargaining table difficult for the leadership of both sides. Most of influence essay these political dynamics, while religious sentiments may be underlying issues, seem to stem from disagreements based on land and security. Thesis. The idea of a Jewish state started in the latter part of the nineteenth century when rising anti-Semitism in shakespeare essay essays continental Europe became a catalyst for the Zionist movement, which advocated for global Jewry to return to the land of their ancestors and create a Jewish state in the Holy Land. During this time period, the Holy Land was under the control of the Ottoman Empire, which would cease to obama, exist after World War I due to its alliance with the Central Powers. After the Great War, the Holy Land came under the qualatative research, authority of the michelle obama thesis, British Empire and became known and the Mandate of Palestine. In their periodical on the past and present issues concerning the Arab-Israeli conflict, scholars Joel Beinin and essays student council Lisa Hajjar note that after the war, ‘the British foreign minister, Lord Arthur Balfour, issued a declaration announcing his government’s support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine’ (Beinin and Hajjar 3). Beinin and thesis at princeton Hajjar go on changing of women, to explain the details of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, which was an arrangement between Britain and France to divide the michelle obama thesis, former Ottoman Empire’s Arab provinces in an effort to split control of the region. After World War I, the League of Nations granted France a mandate over Syria and created a separate state, Lebanon, which contained a Christian majority. Britain obtained a mandate over Iraq and the present-day area of Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Jordan (Beinin and Hajjar 3). Essay About New Years. Other events that contributed to the twenty first century disagreements in the conflict include the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and the Six Day War in 1967. As a result of these two wars, Israel greatly expanded its territory into Arab majority areas such as the West Bank, Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula up to the Suez Canal.
Presently, the top, political priorities for the Arabs are the creation of an independent state of Palestine that is thesis comprised of the West Bank, Gaza, and other settlements within the current borders of Israel. Arab interests also include the return of the Golan Heights to Syria, the removal of Jewish settlers in Arab majority territories and the Palestinian national capitol being located in East Jerusalem. Israelis want a country where they feel safe and secure, access to their ancient, holy sites and for about the Arabs in Palestine to live peacefully within the Jewish state. Conflict arises because Israel fears that any acquiescence to any of the Arab interests is a possible threat to its survival. For example, Israel will not give back the Golan Heights because it feels that they do not want to provide Shiite terrorists based in Syria the high ground to launch attacks. Additionally, the Israeli government is thesis at princeton afraid that if the Palestinians are given complete sovereignty over the West Bank, Jewish citizens would be cut off from their holy sites in thesis Jerusalem and the surrounding areas. Palestinians fear that if a two state solution is not worked out that Arabs in Israel will forever be treated as second class citizens. Another impediment to peace in the Middle East has been Arab/Muslim aggression towards the Jewish state since its founding in 1948 and Israel’s desire for territorial expansion from its original partition borders. Modern violence first broke out in Palestine in late 1947, after the announcement of the United Nations Partition Plan that called for an Arab and Jewish State to be created in obama thesis at princeton Palestine. The Jews accepted this UN plan while the Arabs did not. For the qualatative research, next few months, while under continuous attack from the Arabs, the region’s Jews were regularly on the defensive with the occasional offensive retaliation (Morris 2008).
When the hostilities of the 1948 War came to obama at princeton, an end between the Jews and Arabs, the State of Israel still controlled all of the what the thesis statement, territory that it was granted during the partition along with a large portion of the land that was set aside for the Arab state. Despondent about the outcome of the michelle obama, 1948 War, the Arabs were insistent on two major demands: that Israel withdraw its forces back to the original UN Partition Plan boundaries and allow Palestinian refugees to return to Israel. These demands were both rejected because Israel argued that the new borders were created on account of war and that the UN lines did not take into consideration the defense needs of the Jewish state. Israel also rejected the Arab requests for Palestinians to be allowed to return to Israel because doing so would alter the Jewishness of the about new years, new country (Sela 2002). The Arab-Israeli Six Day War in obama at princeton 1967 escalated the aforementioned reasons to unprecedented levels. Earthquake Thesis. The Six Day War broke out on June 5, 1967, when Israel preemptively attacked Syria and Egypt and destroyed a significant amount of their air and michelle thesis ground forces. This caused the new years, Kingdom of obama at princeton Jordan to enter the earthquake thesis statement, fray, but they too were soundly defeated by the Israeli armed forces.
Within the next five days, Israel had taken control of the obama thesis, West Bank and the entire holy city of Jerusalem from Jordan, the essays council, Golan Heights from Syria and the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza from Egypt (Beinin and Hajjar 7). In the obama thesis, aftermath of the War, Palestinian nationalism, increased Arab hatred toward the Jewish state and Israel’s unwillingness to influence essay essays, disengage from its newly occupied territories made the region even more of michelle thesis a powder keg. Since the qualatative, 1967 Six Day War, there have been several more conflicts between Israel and its Arab neighbors such as the 1973 Yom Kippur War in which Israel was attacked on its religious Day of Atonement. Other conflicts have taken place in Lebanon between Israel and terrorist groups such as the obama thesis, Iranian backed Hezbollah group in the last decade and Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization in the 1980s. The roots of the present political disagreements between the Arabs and Israelis are the parameters for the creation of a sovereign Palestinian state. Also, the essays student, aftermath of the 2015 Israeli national elections have probably made things harder for peace talks with the reelected Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu saying on the eve of the election that if he were to be reelected he would not be supportive of the michelle thesis at princeton, two-state solution compromise with the Palestinians. This has led to tensions with the paper, leadership of traditional allies of Israel such as the United States led by President Barack Obama. Another major issue that must be analyzed and understood when discussing the lack of obama thesis progress towards mediating the shakespeare influence, Arab-Israeli Conflict is the fluid self-interests of other nations including the United States and Iran. In modern times, the Arabs and Israelis are not the only two actors who have taken a vested interest in having peace, or lack thereof, in the region.
Ever since the end of World War I when the British Empire took control over Palestine from the defeated Ottoman Empire, foreign nations have tried to impose their initiatives to establish a peaceful solution for living situation of the diverse groups of people living in such a small geographic location. As far as Great Britain is concerned, while present-day relations between Israel and the government of Prime Minister David Cameron are close, this has not always been so. After the Arab-Israeli War of 1948, Britain was seen as being pro-Arab by its maintaining of close ties to various Arab states (Black 2002). Another example is the once-cordial relations that the State of Israel had with the Iranians when Iran was under the rule of the moderate Mohammad-Reza Shah of the Pahlavi Dynasty. Now, under the rule of the obama, Ayatollahs since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iran is widely considered to be Israel’s greatest antagonist, perhaps the largest sponsor of terrorism against the Jewish state. Research. The Islamic Republic also boldly denies Israel’s basic rights to exist as a sovereign nation. Obama At Princeton. Since Israel’s founding in 1948, the United States has undoubtedly been the most influential foreign actor in changing roles essay its brief history. The United States was the first country to recognize Israel and has contributed billions of dollars in foreign assistance (Mark 2002). Obama Thesis. American Presidents from Harry Truman to George W. Essay About. Bush have always advocated for michelle obama thesis policies that seemed to be pro-Israel and support for Israel always seemed to be an issue that crossed partisan lines.
Today, however, support for changing roles Israel seems to be dependent on the political party with which a person affiliates with. Republicans tend to be more in favor of Israeli causes due to its policies of ‘hawkish’ foreign policy and its social conservative wing being pro-Israel for religious reasons. The Democratic Party tends not to let the michelle obama thesis, religious dynamics be a part of its approach when dealing with the Arab-Israeli conflict, they have a more moderate outlook on foreign policy and like to take the viewpoint of the Arabs into account as part of the thesis, process for finding a solution to the ongoing dilemma. These differences of opinion between the political parties in the United States has contributed to why the peace process has stalled in the last few years. This dynamic has come to at princeton, the forefront in recent months with the public hostilities that have taken place between President Obama and Prime Minister Netanyahu. Along with his election eve statement about not wanting a Palestinian state, a couple of weeks before the election Prime Minister Netanyahu spoke to the Republican-controlled American Congress about essays student council, his opposition to the Obama administration’s policies towards reaching a nuclear deal with the michelle at princeton, government of Iran. This see-sawing of self-interests by foreign states, which is dependent on the policies of the present government or party in power, has had destabilizing effects on essays student, the region due to a lack of having a consistent plan for peace. Peace in the Middle East has not been attainable between the Arabs and Israelis for several reasons. First, this issue has been going on since Biblical times with its roots taking shape due to obama at princeton, events that take place in the Book of Genesis. There are also many modern day political dynamics that began in roles the late nineteenth century involving the Arabs and Israelis that make getting to obama thesis, the bargaining table difficult for the leadership of both sides.
Also, Arab and Muslim aggression towards the about, Jewish State since its inception is a leading contributor to michelle obama, hindrances in any peace process, along with Israel’s desire for territorial expansion that have also hindered talks with the Arabs on brokering a lasting peace agreement. The fluid self-interests of the United States and what should the thesis statement other nation states such as Iran must also be taken into account when analyzing the stalemate in peace efforts in the region. This dilemma has a lot of serious variables and michelle at princeton it is going to take a lot of compromise on the side of all parties to essays council, establish a lasting peace in the region. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Miscellaneous essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is michelle qualified to influence essay essays, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Miscellaneous work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Miscellaneous essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
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