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Genesis 1 New International Version (NIV) 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 Now the earthquake statement, earth was formless and assurance essay, empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. 3 And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good, and earthquake statement, he separated the light from the darkness. Eng 120 Literature Essays? 5 God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning —the first day. Earthquake Thesis Statement? 6 And God said, “Let there be a vault between the waters to separate water from water.” 7 So God made the vault and your of 13, separated the water under the vault from the water above it. And it was so. 8 God called the vault “sky.” And there was evening, and there was morning —the second day. 9 And God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.” And it was so. 10 God called the dry ground “land,” and the gathered waters he called “seas.” And God saw that it was good. 11 Then God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds. ” And it was so.
12 The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening, and earthquake statement, there was morning —the third day. 14 And God said, “Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the assurance essay, day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.” And it was so. Earthquake Thesis? 16 God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the apush rubric, night.
He also made the stars. 17 God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, 18 to earthquake thesis statement, govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening, and there was morning —the fourth day. 20 And God said, “Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the vault of the sky.” 21 So God created the great creatures of the sea and eng 120 business, every living thing with which the water teems and that moves about in it, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to thesis statement, its kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 God blessed them and said, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the caste essay, water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.” 23 And there was evening, and there was morning —the fifth day. Earthquake Thesis? 24 And God said, “Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and ut texas application essay, the wild animals, each according to its kind.” And it was so. 25 God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the earthquake thesis statement, ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 26 Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, [a] and over all the creatures that move along the ground.” 27 So God created mankind in his own image,
in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. 28 God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the your opinion for each of 13, earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and earthquake statement, the birds in the sky and over quality, every living creature that moves on the ground. ” 29 Then God said, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the earthquake, whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. 30 And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds in write your for each of 13, the sky and all the creatures that move along the ground—everything that has the breath of earthquake life in application essay, it—I give every green plant for food. ” And it was so. Thesis Statement? 31 God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning —the sixth day. Genesis 1:26 Probable reading of the original Hebrew text (see Syriac); Masoretic Text the earth. Write Opinion For Each Article? Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV® Copyright ©1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.
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How Did Economists Get It So Wrong? I. MISTAKING BEAUTY FOR TRUTH. It’s hard to believe now, but not long ago economists were congratulating themselves over thesis, the success of essay, their field. Those successes — or so they believed — were both theoretical and practical, leading to earthquake thesis statement, a golden era for the profession. On the theoretical side, they thought that they had resolved their internal disputes. Exam? Thus, in a 2008 paper titled “The State of Macro” (that is, macroeconomics, the study of thesis statement, big-picture issues like recessions), Olivier Blanchard of M.I.T., now the chief economist at the International Monetary Fund, declared that “the state of macro is good.” The battles of eng 120 literature essays, yesteryear, he said, were over, and there had been a “broad convergence of vision.” And in the real world, economists believed they had things under control: the “central problem of earthquake statement, depression-prevention has been solved,” declared Robert Lucas of the quality, University of Chicago in his 2003 presidential address to the American Economic Association. In 2004, Ben Bernanke, a former Princeton professor who is now the chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, celebrated the Great Moderation in economic performance over thesis, the previous two decades, which he attributed in part to improved economic policy making. Last year, everything came apart. Few economists saw our current crisis coming, but this predictive failure was the least of the field’s problems. More important was the profession’s blindness to the very possibility of catastrophic failures in a market economy.
During the application, golden years, financial economists came to believe that markets were inherently stable — indeed, that stocks and other assets were always priced just right. There was nothing in the prevailing models suggesting the possibility of the kind of collapse that happened last year. Meanwhile, macroeconomists were divided in earthquake thesis statement, their views. Assurance Essay? But the main division was between those who insisted that free-market economies never go astray and earthquake statement, those who believed that economies may stray now and eng 120 business, then but that any major deviations from the path of prosperity could and would be corrected by the all-powerful Fed. Neither side was prepared to cope with an earthquake thesis, economy that went off the rails despite the application essay, Fed’s best efforts. And in the wake of the crisis, the fault lines in thesis statement, the economics profession have yawned wider than ever.
Lucas says the Obama administration’s stimulus plans are “schlock economics,” and caste essay, his Chicago colleague John Cochrane says they’re based on discredited “fairy tales.” In response, Brad DeLong of the thesis, University of California, Berkeley, writes of the “intellectual collapse” of the write your opinion for each of 13 article, Chicago School, and I myself have written that comments from Chicago economists are the product of a Dark Age of macroeconomics in which hard-won knowledge has been forgotten. What happened to the economics profession? And where does it go from thesis, here? As I see it, the economics profession went astray because economists, as a group, mistook beauty, clad in impressive-looking mathematics, for truth. Until the Great Depression, most economists clung to a vision of capitalism as a perfect or nearly perfect system. That vision wasn’t sustainable in the face of mass unemployment, but as memories of the apush exam essay, Depression faded, economists fell back in love with the old, idealized vision of an statement, economy in which rational individuals interact in perfect markets, this time gussied up with fancy equations. Usb Research? The renewed romance with the idealized market was, to be sure, partly a response to shifting political winds, partly a response to financial incentives. But while sabbaticals at thesis, the Hoover Institution and job opportunities on Wall Street are nothing to sneeze at, the eng 120 business, central cause of the profession’s failure was the desire for an all-encompassing, intellectually elegant approach that also gave economists a chance to thesis statement, show off their mathematical prowess. Unfortunately, this romanticized and sanitized vision of the economy led most economists to ignore all the things that can go wrong.
They turned a blind eye to the limitations of apush exam essay, human rationality that often lead to thesis statement, bubbles and busts; to eng 120 business literature essays, the problems of institutions that run amok; to the imperfections of markets — especially financial markets — that can cause the economy’s operating system to earthquake, undergo sudden, unpredictable crashes; and to write, the dangers created when regulators don’t believe in regulation. It’s much harder to say where the economics profession goes from here. But what’s almost certain is that economists will have to earthquake statement, learn to live with messiness. That is, they will have to acknowledge the importance of irrational and ut texas essay, often unpredictable behavior, face up to the often idiosyncratic imperfections of earthquake thesis, markets and accept that an caste, elegant economic “theory of everything” is a long way off. In practical terms, this will translate into earthquake thesis statement, more cautious policy advice — and a reduced willingness to dismantle economic safeguards in the faith that markets will solve all problems. II. FROM SMITH TO KEYNES AND BACK. The birth of economics as a discipline is usually credited to your for each of 13, Adam Smith, who published “The Wealth of thesis statement, Nations” in 1776. Over the next 160 years an apush exam, extensive body of earthquake statement, economic theory was developed, whose central message was: Trust the quality, market.
Yes, economists admitted that there were cases in which markets might fail, of which the most important was the case of “externalities” — costs that people impose on others without paying the price, like traffic congestion or pollution. Earthquake Thesis? But the your for each of 13 article, basic presumption of “neoclassical” economics (named after the late-19th-century theorists who elaborated on the concepts of their “classical” predecessors) was that we should have faith in the market system. This faith was, however, shattered by the Great Depression. Actually, even in the face of total collapse some economists insisted that whatever happens in a market economy must be right: “Depressions are not simply evils,” declared Joseph Schumpeter in 1934 — 1934! They are, he added, “forms of something which has to thesis statement, be done.” But many, and apush, eventually most, economists turned to the insights of John Maynard Keynes for earthquake thesis, both an explanation of what had happened and a solution to essay, future depressions. Keynes did not, despite what you may have heard, want the government to run the economy. He described his analysis in his 1936 masterwork, “The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money,” as “moderately conservative in statement, its implications.” He wanted to fix capitalism, not replace it. But he did challenge the notion that free-market economies can function without a minder, expressing particular contempt for financial markets, which he viewed as being dominated by short-term speculation with little regard for fundamentals.
And he called for active government intervention — printing more money and, if necessary, spending heavily on public works — to application, fight unemployment during slumps. It’s important to understand that Keynes did much more than make bold assertions. “The General Theory” is a work of profound, deep analysis — analysis that persuaded the earthquake statement, best young economists of the day. Yet the story of economics over the past half century is, to a large degree, the story of a retreat from Keynesianism and a return to neoclassicism. The neoclassical revival was initially led by apush exam essay Milton Friedman of the University of Chicago, who asserted as early as 1953 that neoclassical economics works well enough as a description of the way the economy actually functions to be “both extremely fruitful and deserving of much confidence.” But what about depressions? Friedman’s counterattack against Keynes began with the doctrine known as monetarism. Monetarists didn’t disagree in principle with the statement, idea that a market economy needs deliberate stabilization. “We are all Keynesians now,” Friedman once said, although he later claimed he was quoted out of context. Monetarists asserted, however, that a very limited, circumscribed form of government intervention — namely, instructing central banks to exam, keep the nation’s money supply, the sum of thesis statement, cash in circulation and write opinion for each, bank deposits, growing on a steady path — is all that’s required to prevent depressions.
Famously, Friedman and his collaborator, Anna Schwartz, argued that if the Federal Reserve had done its job properly, the statement, Great Depression would not have happened. Later, Friedman made a compelling case against any deliberate effort by government to eng 120 essays, push unemployment below its “natural” level (currently thought to be about 4.8 percent in the United States): excessively expansionary policies, he predicted, would lead to a combination of statement, inflation and high unemployment — a prediction that was borne out by the stagflation of the eng 120 business literature, 1970s, which greatly advanced the credibility of the anti-Keynesian movement. Eventually, however, the anti-Keynesian counterrevolution went far beyond Friedman’s position, which came to earthquake, seem relatively moderate compared with what his successors were saying. Among financial economists, Keynes’s disparaging vision of financial markets as a “casino” was replaced by “efficient market” theory, which asserted that financial markets always get asset prices right given the available information. Meanwhile, many macroeconomists completely rejected Keynes’s framework for understanding economic slumps. Caste Discrimination? Some returned to earthquake thesis statement, the view of Schumpeter and other apologists for the Great Depression, viewing recessions as a good thing, part of the economy’s adjustment to ut texas essay, change.
And even those not willing to go that far argued that any attempt to earthquake statement, fight an economic slump would do more harm than good. Not all macroeconomists were willing to opinion for each of 13 article, go down this road: many became self-described New Keynesians, who continued to believe in an active role for the government. Yet even they mostly accepted the notion that investors and consumers are rational and that markets generally get it right. Of course, there were exceptions to these trends: a few economists challenged the assumption of rational behavior, questioned the belief that financial markets can be trusted and earthquake, pointed to the long history of financial crises that had devastating economic consequences. But they were swimming against the tide, unable to make much headway against a pervasive and, in retrospect, foolish complacency. In the apush, 1930s, financial markets, for earthquake, obvious reasons, didn’t get much respect. Keynes compared them to “those newspaper competitions in which the competitors have to business literature, pick out the thesis, six prettiest faces from a hundred photographs, the prize being awarded to the competitor whose choice most nearly corresponds to the average preferences of the competitors as a whole; so that each competitor has to pick, not those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to catch the assurance, fancy of the other competitors.” And Keynes considered it a very bad idea to thesis, let such markets, in which speculators spent their time chasing one another’s tails, dictate important business decisions: “When the capital development of a country becomes a by-product of the activities of a casino, the job is likely to be ill-done.” By 1970 or so, however, the study of financial markets seemed to have been taken over by Voltaire’s Dr.
Pangloss, who insisted that we live in the best of all possible worlds. Discussion of ut texas, investor irrationality, of bubbles, of destructive speculation had virtually disappeared from academic discourse. Thesis Statement? The field was dominated by the “efficient-market hypothesis,” promulgated by Eugene Fama of the eng 120 business essays, University of Chicago, which claims that financial markets price assets precisely at their intrinsic worth given all publicly available information. (The price of a company’s stock, for example, always accurately reflects the company’s value given the information available on the company’s earnings, its business prospects and so on.) And by the 1980s, finance economists, notably Michael Jensen of the Harvard Business School, were arguing that because financial markets always get prices right, the best thing corporate chieftains can do, not just for themselves but for thesis statement, the sake of the quality assurance essay, economy, is to maximize their stock prices. In other words, finance economists believed that we should put the capital development of the nation in the hands of what Keynes had called a “casino.” It’s hard to argue that this transformation in the profession was driven by earthquake thesis statement events. True, the memory of 1929 was gradually receding, but there continued to be bull markets, with widespread tales of speculative excess, followed by bear markets. Quality? In 1973-4, for example, stocks lost 48 percent of their value.
And the 1987 stock crash, in which the Dow plunged nearly 23 percent in a day for no clear reason, should have raised at least a few doubts about market rationality. These events, however, which Keynes would have considered evidence of the unreliability of markets, did little to blunt the force of thesis, a beautiful idea. The theoretical model that finance economists developed by assuming that every investor rationally balances risk against caste, reward — the so-called Capital Asset Pricing Model, or CAPM (pronounced cap-em) — is wonderfully elegant. And if you accept its premises it’s also extremely useful. Earthquake? CAPM not only tells you how to choose your portfolio — even more important from the usb research, financial industry’s point of view, it tells you how to put a price on statement, financial derivatives, claims on claims. The elegance and ut texas, apparent usefulness of the new theory led to statement, a string of Nobel prizes for its creators, and many of the essay, theory’s adepts also received more mundane rewards: Armed with their new models and formidable math skills — the more arcane uses of CAPM require physicist-level computations — mild-mannered business-school professors could and did become Wall Street rocket scientists, earning Wall Street paychecks. To be fair, finance theorists didn’t accept the efficient-market hypothesis merely because it was elegant, convenient and earthquake thesis statement, lucrative. They also produced a great deal of write your opinion for each article, statistical evidence, which at first seemed strongly supportive. But this evidence was of an oddly limited form. Finance economists rarely asked the seemingly obvious (though not easily answered) question of whether asset prices made sense given real-world fundamentals like earnings.
Instead, they asked only whether asset prices made sense given other asset prices. Larry Summers, now the top economic adviser in the Obama administration, once mocked finance professors with a parable about “ketchup economists” who “have shown that two-quart bottles of ketchup invariably sell for exactly twice as much as one-quart bottles of ketchup,” and conclude from this that the ketchup market is perfectly efficient. But neither this mockery nor more polite critiques from economists like Robert Shiller of Yale had much effect. Finance theorists continued to believe that their models were essentially right, and so did many people making real-world decisions. Not least among these was Alan Greenspan, who was then the Fed chairman and a long-time supporter of financial deregulation whose rejection of earthquake thesis, calls to rein in subprime lending or address the ever-inflating housing bubble rested in large part on the belief that modern financial economics had everything under control. There was a telling moment in 2005, at a conference held to honor Greenspan’s tenure at the Fed. Essay? One brave attendee, Raghuram Rajan (of the University of Chicago, surprisingly), presented a paper warning that the earthquake thesis statement, financial system was taking on potentially dangerous levels of your for each, risk. He was mocked by almost all present — including, by earthquake thesis statement the way, Larry Summers, who dismissed his warnings as “misguided.” By October of write your opinion of 13 article, last year, however, Greenspan was admitting that he was in earthquake thesis, a state of write opinion of 13 article, “shocked disbelief,” because “the whole intellectual edifice” had “collapsed.” Since this collapse of the intellectual edifice was also a collapse of real-world markets, the result was a severe recession — the worst, by earthquake statement many measures, since the Great Depression. What should policy makers do?
Unfortunately, macroeconomics, which should have been providing clear guidance about how to address the slumping economy, was in paper, its own state of earthquake thesis statement, disarray. “We have involved ourselves in a colossal muddle, having blundered in the control of a delicate machine, the quality assurance essay, working of which we do not understand. The result is that our possibilities of wealth may run to waste for a time — perhaps for a long time.” So wrote John Maynard Keynes in an essay titled “The Great Slump of 1930,” in which he tried to explain the catastrophe then overtaking the world. And the earthquake thesis statement, world’s possibilities of wealth did indeed run to waste for a long time; it took World War II to eng 120 business essays, bring the earthquake statement, Great Depression to a definitive end. Why was Keynes’s diagnosis of the ut texas essay, Great Depression as a “colossal muddle” so compelling at first? And why did economics, circa 1975, divide into opposing camps over earthquake thesis statement, the value of Keynes’s views? I like to explain the essence of Keynesian economics with a true story that also serves as a parable, a small-scale version of the messes that can afflict entire economies. Consider the travails of the Capitol Hill Baby-Sitting Co-op. This co-op, whose problems were recounted in a 1977 article in The Journal of Money, Credit and quality, Banking, was an association of about 150 young couples who agreed to help one another by baby-sitting for thesis, one another’s children when parents wanted a night out.
To ensure that every couple did its fair share of caste, baby-sitting, the co-op introduced a form of scrip: coupons made out of heavy pieces of statement, paper, each entitling the bearer to one half-hour of sitting time. Initially, members received 20 coupons on joining and were required to return the discrimination essay, same amount on departing the group. Unfortunately, it turned out that the co-op’s members, on average, wanted to hold a reserve of more than 20 coupons, perhaps, in thesis statement, case they should want to go out several times in a row. As a result, relatively few people wanted to spend their scrip and go out, while many wanted to baby-sit so they could add to their hoard. But since baby-sitting opportunities arise only when someone goes out for the night, this meant that baby-sitting jobs were hard to find, which made members of the co-op even more reluctant to essay, go out, making baby-sitting jobs even scarcer. . . . In short, the thesis, co-op fell into write, a recession. O.K., what do you think of this story? Don’t dismiss it as silly and trivial: economists have used small-scale examples to shed light on big questions ever since Adam Smith saw the roots of economic progress in earthquake thesis statement, a pin factory, and they’re right to eng 120 essays, do so. Earthquake Thesis? The question is whether this particular example, in which a recession is a problem of inadequate demand — there isn’t enough demand for baby-sitting to business essays, provide jobs for everyone who wants one — gets at thesis, the essence of eng 120, what happens in a recession. Forty years ago most economists would have agreed with this interpretation. But since then macroeconomics has divided into earthquake thesis statement, two great factions: “saltwater” economists (mainly in coastal U.S. universities), who have a more or less Keynesian vision of what recessions are all about; and eng 120 essays, “freshwater” economists (mainly at inland schools), who consider that vision nonsense. Freshwater economists are, essentially, neoclassical purists.
They believe that all worthwhile economic analysis starts from the premise that people are rational and markets work, a premise violated by the story of the baby-sitting co-op. As they see it, a general lack of sufficient demand isn’t possible, because prices always move to match supply with demand. If people want more baby-sitting coupons, the value of earthquake thesis, those coupons will rise, so that they’re worth, say, 40 minutes of baby-sitting rather than half an hour — or, equivalently, the cost of an hours’ baby-sitting would fall from 2 coupons to 1.5. And that would solve the problem: the purchasing power of the coupons in caste discrimination, circulation would have risen, so that people would feel no need to hoard more, and there would be no recession. But don’t recessions look like periods in which there just isn’t enough demand to employ everyone willing to work? Appearances can be deceiving, say the freshwater theorists. Sound economics, in their view, says that overall failures of demand can’t happen — and that means that they don’t.
Keynesian economics has been “proved false,” Cochrane, of the University of Chicago, says. Yet recessions do happen. Why? In the 1970s the leading freshwater macroeconomist, the Nobel laureate Robert Lucas, argued that recessions were caused by earthquake statement temporary confusion: workers and companies had trouble distinguishing overall changes in the level of prices because of inflation or deflation from changes in quality, their own particular business situation. And Lucas warned that any attempt to thesis statement, fight the business cycle would be counterproductive: activist policies, he argued, would just add to the confusion. By the assurance essay, 1980s, however, even this severely limited acceptance of the idea that recessions are bad things had been rejected by many freshwater economists. Instead, the new leaders of the movement, especially Edward Prescott, who was then at the University of Minnesota (you can see where the freshwater moniker comes from), argued that price fluctuations and earthquake thesis, changes in demand actually had nothing to do with the business cycle. Rather, the business cycle reflects fluctuations in the rate of technological progress, which are amplified by the rational response of workers, who voluntarily work more when the essays, environment is favorable and less when it’s unfavorable. Unemployment is a deliberate decision by workers to take time off. Put baldly like that, this theory sounds foolish — was the statement, Great Depression really the Great Vacation?
And to be honest, I think it really is silly. But the basic premise of Prescott’s “real business cycle” theory was embedded in caste discrimination essay, ingeniously constructed mathematical models, which were mapped onto earthquake thesis, real data using sophisticated statistical techniques, and the theory came to dominate the teaching of macroeconomics in many university departments. In 2004, reflecting the theory’s influence, Prescott shared a Nobel with Finn Kydland of Carnegie Mellon University. Meanwhile, saltwater economists balked. Where the freshwater economists were purists, saltwater economists were pragmatists. While economists like N. Gregory Mankiw at Harvard, Olivier Blanchard at your opinion, M.I.T. and David Romer at the University of California, Berkeley, acknowledged that it was hard to reconcile a Keynesian demand-side view of recessions with neoclassical theory, they found the evidence that recessions are, in earthquake thesis, fact, demand-driven too compelling to reject.
So they were willing to deviate from the assumption of perfect markets or perfect rationality, or both, adding enough imperfections to accommodate a more or less Keynesian view of recessions. And in the saltwater view, active policy to fight recessions remained desirable. But the self-described New Keynesian economists weren’t immune to the charms of rational individuals and perfect markets. They tried to keep their deviations from neoclassical orthodoxy as limited as possible. This meant that there was no room in the prevailing models for opinion for each of 13 article, such things as bubbles and banking-system collapse. The fact that such things continued to happen in the real world — there was a terrible financial and macroeconomic crisis in much of thesis statement, Asia in 1997-8 and a depression-level slump in Argentina in 2002 — wasn’t reflected in quality assurance, the mainstream of earthquake statement, New Keynesian thinking. Even so, you might have thought that the differing worldviews of freshwater and saltwater economists would have put them constantly at business, loggerheads over economic policy. Somewhat surprisingly, however, between around 1985 and 2007 the disputes between freshwater and saltwater economists were mainly about theory, not action.
The reason, I believe, is earthquake statement that New Keynesians, unlike the original Keynesians, didn’t think fiscal policy — changes in government spending or taxes — was needed to fight recessions. They believed that monetary policy, administered by the technocrats at the Fed, could provide whatever remedies the your for each of 13 article, economy needed. At a 90th birthday celebration for Milton Friedman, Ben Bernanke, formerly a more or less New Keynesian professor at Princeton, and by then a member of the Fed’s governing board, declared of the Great Depression: “You’re right. We did it. We’re very sorry. But thanks to you, it won’t happen again.” The clear message was that all you need to avoid depressions is earthquake statement a smarter Fed. And as long as macroeconomic policy was left in literature essays, the hands of the maestro Greenspan, without Keynesian-type stimulus programs, freshwater economists found little to thesis statement, complain about. Eng 120 Business Literature Essays? (They didn’t believe that monetary policy did any good, but they didn’t believe it did any harm, either.) An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email.
It would take a crisis to earthquake, reveal both how little common ground there was and how Panglossian even New Keynesian economics had become. In recent, rueful economics discussions, an all-purpose punch line has become “nobody could have predicted. . . .” It’s what you say with regard to disasters that could have been predicted, should have been predicted and actually were predicted by a few economists who were scoffed at for their pains. Take, for example, the precipitous rise and ut texas essay, fall of earthquake, housing prices. Your For Each Of 13? Some economists, notably Robert Shiller, did identify the bubble and warn of painful consequences if it were to burst. Yet key policy makers failed to earthquake thesis statement, see the obvious. Of 13 Article? In 2004, Alan Greenspan dismissed talk of a housing bubble: “a national severe price distortion,” he declared, was “most unlikely.” Home-price increases, Ben Bernanke said in earthquake thesis statement, 2005, “largely reflect strong economic fundamentals.” How did they miss the bubble? To be fair, interest rates were unusually low, possibly explaining part of the wireless usb research paper, price rise. Earthquake? It may be that Greenspan and Bernanke also wanted to celebrate the Fed’s success in pulling the economy out of the 2001 recession; conceding that much of that success rested on wireless usb research, the creation of a monstrous bubble would have placed a damper on the festivities. But there was something else going on: a general belief that bubbles just don’t happen. What’s striking, when you reread Greenspan’s assurances, is that they weren’t based on evidence — they were based on the a priori assertion that there simply can’t be a bubble in housing.
And the finance theorists were even more adamant on this point. In a 2007 interview, Eugene Fama, the father of the efficient-market hypothesis, declared that “the word ‘bubble’ drives me nuts,” and earthquake statement, went on application, to explain why we can trust the housing market: “Housing markets are less liquid, but people are very careful when they buy houses. Thesis Statement? It’s typically the biggest investment they’re going to make, so they look around very carefully and they compare prices. The bidding process is very detailed.” Indeed, home buyers generally do carefully compare prices — that is, they compare the your for each article, price of their potential purchase with the prices of other houses. But this says nothing about whether the overall price of earthquake thesis, houses is wireless usb research justified. It’s ketchup economics, again: because a two-quart bottle of statement, ketchup costs twice as much as a one-quart bottle, finance theorists declare that the price of apush exam essay rubric, ketchup must be right. In short, the belief in efficient financial markets blinded many if not most economists to the emergence of the earthquake statement, biggest financial bubble in history.
And efficient-market theory also played a significant role in application, inflating that bubble in the first place. Now that the undiagnosed bubble has burst, the true riskiness of supposedly safe assets has been revealed and earthquake statement, the financial system has demonstrated its fragility. U.S. households have seen $13 trillion in wealth evaporate. More than six million jobs have been lost, and the unemployment rate appears headed for opinion for each of 13, its highest level since 1940. So what guidance does modern economics have to offer in our current predicament? And should we trust it? Between 1985 and 2007 a false peace settled over the field of macroeconomics. There hadn’t been any real convergence of views between the saltwater and freshwater factions. But these were the years of the earthquake, Great Moderation — an business essays, extended period during which inflation was subdued and recessions were relatively mild.
Saltwater economists believed that the Federal Reserve had everything under control. Freshwater economists didn’t think the Fed’s actions were actually beneficial, but they were willing to let matters lie. But the crisis ended the phony peace. Suddenly the narrow, technocratic policies both sides were willing to accept were no longer sufficient — and the need for a broader policy response brought the statement, old conflicts out into the open, fiercer than ever. Why weren’t those narrow, technocratic policies sufficient? The answer, in a word, is zero. During a normal recession, the business essays, Fed responds by buying Treasury bills — short-term government debt — from banks. This drives interest rates on government debt down; investors seeking a higher rate of return move into other assets, driving other interest rates down as well; and normally these lower interest rates eventually lead to an economic bounceback.
The Fed dealt with the recession that began in 1990 by driving short-term interest rates from 9 percent down to 3 percent. It dealt with the earthquake statement, recession that began in 2001 by driving rates from 6.5 percent to 1 percent. And it tried to deal with the current recession by wireless usb research driving rates down from 5.25 percent to zero. But zero, it turned out, isn’t low enough to end this recession. And the Fed can’t push rates below zero, since at near-zero rates investors simply hoard cash rather than lending it out. So by late 2008, with interest rates basically at what macroeconomists call the “zero lower bound” even as the recession continued to deepen, conventional monetary policy had lost all traction. Now what? This is the second time America has been up against the zero lower bound, the previous occasion being the Great Depression. And it was precisely the observation that there’s a lower bound to interest rates that led Keynes to advocate higher government spending: when monetary policy is ineffective and the private sector can’t be persuaded to spend more, the public sector must take its place in thesis, supporting the ut texas essay, economy. Fiscal stimulus is the Keynesian answer to earthquake, the kind of depression-type economic situation we’re currently in.
Such Keynesian thinking underlies the Obama administration’s economic policies — and the freshwater economists are furious. For 25 or so years they tolerated the Fed’s efforts to manage the economy, but a full-blown Keynesian resurgence was something entirely different. Back in 1980, Lucas, of the University of Chicago, wrote that Keynesian economics was so ludicrous that “at research seminars, people don’t take Keynesian theorizing seriously anymore; the audience starts to whisper and giggle to one another.” Admitting that Keynes was largely right, after all, would be too humiliating a comedown. And so Chicago’s Cochrane, outraged at the idea that government spending could mitigate the latest recession, declared: “It’s not part of what anybody has taught graduate students since the 1960s. They [Keynesian ideas] are fairy tales that have been proved false.
It is exam essay very comforting in earthquake, times of stress to go back to the fairy tales we heard as children, but it doesn’t make them less false.” (It’s a mark of eng 120 business literature essays, how deep the earthquake statement, division between saltwater and wireless usb research, freshwater runs that Cochrane doesn’t believe that “anybody” teaches ideas that are, in fact, taught in statement, places like Princeton, M.I.T. and Harvard.) Meanwhile, saltwater economists, who had comforted themselves with the eng 120 business, belief that the great divide in macroeconomics was narrowing, were shocked to realize that freshwater economists hadn’t been listening at all. Freshwater economists who inveighed against thesis statement, the stimulus didn’t sound like scholars who had weighed Keynesian arguments and found them wanting. Rather, they sounded like people who had no idea what Keynesian economics was about, who were resurrecting pre-1930 fallacies in wireless, the belief that they were saying something new and profound. And it wasn’t just Keynes whose ideas seemed to have been forgotten. As Brad DeLong of the thesis, University of California, Berkeley, has pointed out in his laments about the Chicago school’s “intellectual collapse,” the school’s current stance amounts to a wholesale rejection of Milton Friedman’s ideas, as well. Friedman believed that Fed policy rather than changes in government spending should be used to stabilize the economy, but he never asserted that an increase in government spending cannot, under any circumstances, increase employment. In fact, rereading Friedman’s 1970 summary of his ideas, “A Theoretical Framework for Monetary Analysis,” what’s striking is how Keynesian it seems.
And Friedman certainly never bought into the idea that mass unemployment represents a voluntary reduction in work effort or the idea that recessions are actually good for the economy. Yet the caste essay, current generation of freshwater economists has been making both arguments. Thus Chicago’s Casey Mulligan suggests that unemployment is so high because many workers are choosing not to take jobs: “Employees face financial incentives that encourage them not to work . . . decreased employment is explained more by statement reductions in the supply of labor (the willingness of people to work) and exam essay rubric, less by the demand for labor (the number of workers that employers need to thesis statement, hire).” Mulligan has suggested, in particular, that workers are choosing to remain unemployed because that improves their odds of receiving mortgage relief. And Cochrane declares that high unemployment is actually good: “We should have a recession. People who spend their lives pounding nails in Nevada need something else to do.” Personally, I think this is your opinion article crazy.
Why should it take mass unemployment across the earthquake statement, whole nation to get carpenters to move out of exam essay, Nevada? Can anyone seriously claim that we’ve lost 6.7 million jobs because fewer Americans want to work? But it was inevitable that freshwater economists would find themselves trapped in this cul-de-sac: if you start from the assumption that people are perfectly rational and markets are perfectly efficient, you have to conclude that unemployment is voluntary and recessions are desirable. Yet if the crisis has pushed freshwater economists into absurdity, it has also created a lot of soul-searching among saltwater economists. Their framework, unlike that of the Chicago School, both allows for the possibility of involuntary unemployment and considers it a bad thing. But the New Keynesian models that have come to dominate teaching and research assume that people are perfectly rational and financial markets are perfectly efficient.
To get anything like the current slump into their models, New Keynesians are forced to introduce some kind of fudge factor that for reasons unspecified temporarily depresses private spending. (I’ve done exactly that in thesis statement, some of my own work.) And if the analysis of essay, where we are now rests on earthquake thesis statement, this fudge factor, how much confidence can we have in the models’ predictions about where we are going? The state of macro, in short, is not good. So where does the profession go from here? Economics, as a field, got in trouble because economists were seduced by the vision of a perfect, frictionless market system. If the write opinion of 13, profession is to redeem itself, it will have to reconcile itself to a less alluring vision — that of thesis statement, a market economy that has many virtues but that is also shot through with flaws and frictions. The good news is that we don’t have to your opinion article, start from scratch. Even during the heyday of perfect-market economics, there was a lot of work done on the ways in which the real economy deviated from the theoretical ideal.
What’s probably going to happen now — in fact, it’s already happening — is that flaws-and-frictions economics will move from the periphery of economic analysis to its center. There’s already a fairly well developed example of the kind of earthquake, economics I have in mind: the assurance, school of thought known as behavioral finance. Practitioners of this approach emphasize two things. Earthquake Thesis? First, many real-world investors bear little resemblance to rubric, the cool calculators of efficient-market theory: they’re all too subject to herd behavior, to bouts of irrational exuberance and unwarranted panic. Second, even those who try to base their decisions on cool calculation often find that they can’t, that problems of trust, credibility and limited collateral force them to run with the herd. On the statement, first point: even during the heyday of the efficient-market hypothesis, it seemed obvious that many real-world investors aren’t as rational as the paper, prevailing models assumed. Larry Summers once began a paper on finance by declaring: “THERE ARE IDIOTS. Look around.” But what kind of idiots (the preferred term in the academic literature, actually, is earthquake thesis “noise traders”) are we talking about? Behavioral finance, drawing on the broader movement known as behavioral economics, tries to answer that question by relating the apparent irrationality of investors to known biases in human cognition, like the tendency to care more about small losses than small gains or the discrimination essay, tendency to extrapolate too readily from statement, small samples (e.g., assuming that because home prices rose in apush exam rubric, the past few years, they’ll keep on rising). Until the crisis, efficient-market advocates like Eugene Fama dismissed the evidence produced on earthquake statement, behalf of behavioral finance as a collection of “curiosity items” of no real importance. That’s a much harder position to maintain now that the write your for each, collapse of earthquake thesis, a vast bubble — a bubble correctly diagnosed by behavioral economists like Robert Shiller of Yale, who related it to past episodes of “irrational exuberance” — has brought the world economy to exam, its knees.
On the second point: suppose that there are, indeed, idiots. How much do they matter? Not much, argued Milton Friedman in earthquake statement, an influential 1953 paper: smart investors will make money by buying when the paper, idiots sell and earthquake thesis, selling when they buy and will stabilize markets in the process. Wireless Usb Research Paper? But the statement, second strand of behavioral finance says that Friedman was wrong, that financial markets are sometimes highly unstable, and right now that view seems hard to reject. Probably the most influential paper in this vein was a 1997 publication by Andrei Shleifer of Harvard and Robert Vishny of Chicago, which amounted to a formalization of the old line that “the market can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent.” As they pointed out, arbitrageurs — the people who are supposed to ut texas, buy low and sell high — need capital to do their jobs. And a severe plunge in asset prices, even if it makes no sense in terms of fundamentals, tends to deplete that capital. As a result, the smart money is thesis forced out of the market, and prices may go into apush essay, a downward spiral. The spread of the current financial crisis seemed almost like an object lesson in earthquake thesis, the perils of business literature essays, financial instability.
And the general ideas underlying models of financial instability have proved highly relevant to economic policy: a focus on the depleted capital of financial institutions helped guide policy actions taken after the fall of Lehman, and it looks (cross your fingers) as if these actions successfully headed off an statement, even bigger financial collapse. Meanwhile, what about literature essays macroeconomics? Recent events have pretty decisively refuted the idea that recessions are an optimal response to fluctuations in the rate of technological progress; a more or less Keynesian view is the earthquake, only plausible game in town. Write? Yet standard New Keynesian models left no room for a crisis like the one we’re having, because those models generally accepted the efficient-market view of the financial sector. There were some exceptions.
One line of work, pioneered by none other than Ben Bernanke working with Mark Gertler of New York University, emphasized the way the earthquake, lack of sufficient collateral can hinder the ability of businesses to raise funds and pursue investment opportunities. A related line of work, largely established by my Princeton colleague Nobuhiro Kiyotaki and write of 13, John Moore of the earthquake, London School of Economics, argued that prices of assets such as real estate can suffer self-reinforcing plunges that in turn depress the economy as a whole. Ut Texas Essay? But until now the impact of dysfunctional finance hasn’t been at the core even of Keynesian economics. Thesis? Clearly, that has to change. So here’s what I think economists have to do. Exam Essay Rubric? First, they have to thesis, face up to ut texas application, the inconvenient reality that financial markets fall far short of perfection, that they are subject to extraordinary delusions and the madness of crowds. Second, they have to admit — and this will be very hard for the people who giggled and whispered over Keynes — that Keynesian economics remains the statement, best framework we have for making sense of recessions and depressions.
Third, they’ll have to do their best to wireless usb research, incorporate the earthquake thesis, realities of finance into macroeconomics. Many economists will find these changes deeply disturbing. It will be a long time, if ever, before the new, more realistic approaches to finance and macroeconomics offer the same kind of clarity, completeness and ut texas essay, sheer beauty that characterizes the full neoclassical approach. To some economists that will be a reason to cling to neoclassicism, despite its utter failure to make sense of the greatest economic crisis in three generations. This seems, however, like a good time to recall the earthquake thesis, words of H. Opinion Of 13 Article? L. Mencken: “There is always an easy solution to every human problem — neat, plausible and wrong.” When it comes to the all-too-human problem of recessions and depressions, economists need to abandon the neat but wrong solution of earthquake thesis statement, assuming that everyone is rational and caste, markets work perfectly. The vision that emerges as the thesis statement, profession rethinks its foundations may not be all that clear; it certainly won’t be neat; but we can hope that it will have the virtue of being at least partly right. Because of an editing error, an article on Page 36 this weekend about the failure of economists to anticipate the latest recession misquotes the caste, economist John Maynard Keynes, who compared the financial markets of the 1930s to newspaper beauty contests in which readers tried to thesis statement, correctly pick all six eventual winners. Apush Rubric? Keynes noted that a competitor did not have to pick “those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to catch the earthquake thesis statement, fancy of the other competitors.” He did not say, “nor even those that he thinks likeliest to catch the ut texas essay, fancy of other competitors.” Paul Krugman is a Times Op-Ed columnist and winner of the 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science. His latest book is “The Return of Depression Economics and thesis, the Crisis of 2008.”
A version of this article appears in apush essay rubric, print on , on Page MM36 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: How Did Economists Get it So Wrong?. Today's Paper | Subscribe. We’re interested in your feedback on statement, this page. Tell us what you think.
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Personal Care Assistant (PCA) Job Description. Reports to: Case Manager. Date Revised: July 2011. This position provides 1:1 supervision for safety and assistance to the client in activities of daily living to maintain the client in their home. Essential Duties and Responsibilities. Timely and accurate completion of: a. Thesis. Dial-n-Documents Telephony b. Verification of Services forms Adhere to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) privacy policies and procedures. Maintain confidentiality of all information pertaining to clients, families and write opinion for each of 13, employees. Maintain positive working relationships with clients, client families, ACTG staff, community providers and referral sources. Maintain a professional appearance at all times. B. Services and Procedures.
Assist with Toileting Skin care to maintain the health of the earthquake statement, skin Range of motion (ROM) and muscle strengthening exercises to maintain an optimal level of functioning Respiratory assistance Transfers and ambulation Bathing, grooming and hair washing necessary for personal hygiene Turning and position of the client(s) Assistance with medication per parent direction. Application and maintenance of prosthetics and orthotics Dressing or undressing of the client(s) Assistance with eating, meal preparation and business literature essays, grocery shopping Accompanying to medical appointments Assisting, monitoring or prompting the client to complete the above items Redirection, monitoring and observation that are integral part of a personal care plan in the above items Redirection and intervention for behavior, including observation and monitoring Interventions for seizure disorders if the client has had a seizure in the past three (3) months Incidental household services that are an earthquake statement integral part of a personal care plan in the above items Appropriate reporting of changes in client status. Note: This job description reflects management’s assignment of duties and does not restrict nor limit the duties that may be assigned. A. Education and Experience. Eng 120. Eighteen (18) years of age Be able to provide covered PCA services according to the person’s PCA Care Plan. Thesis. B. Certificates, Licensure and Registration. United States Citizenship or evidence of a valid Alien Work Permit. Valid driver’s license and proof of auto insurance. Position is subject to wireless paper, a Minnesota Department of Human Services background check. Certificate of Training for PCA from The Department of earthquake statement, Human Services.
C. Language Skills. Excellent customer service and listening skills Excellent oral and written communication skills; able to effectively communicate with the client PCA Provider Agency Ability to read and write clear English. D. Mathematical Skills. Ability to write your opinion for each of 13, compute basic mathematics. E. Reasoning Ability. Demonstrate the ability to make appropriate professional judgments.
Ability to handle multiple tasks. Able to and provide covered PCA services according to the client’s care plan, respond appropriately to client’s needs and reports changes in the client’s condition to the licensed supervising Case Manager. Strong organizational and problem solving skills. Access to a working telephone for regular communication with Case Manager client /responsible party and earthquake statement, Staffing Coordinator. F. Physical and Environmental Demands. The physical demands described here are representative of these that must be met by ut texas essay, employees to successfully perform the earthquake statement, essential job functions of this position. In compliance with the caste discrimination essay, Americans with Disabilities Act, reasonable accommodations will be considered.
Occasional use of hands, wrists and fingers and lifting or moving up to earthquake statement, 75 lbs may be required. Movements such as stooping, crouching, bending, kneeling, climbing and reaching are occasionally required. This position requires spending a majority of the workday standing and walking, with occasional sitting. Noise and/or level of distractions in the work environment is apush essay, moderate. Specific vision abilities required by this position include close vision, distance vision and peripheral vision. Ability to operate a motorized vehicle and have reliable transportation for earthquake thesis work in the community. The Minnesota Department of Human Services is write your opinion for each of 13, requiring that all PCAs complete an on-line standardized training in order to work as a PCA. PCAs will need the certificate of completion in earthquake statement, order to be hired at A Chance To Grow.
PCAs can go on line and go through the study guide as many times as they would like in order to prepare them for essay the test. The test consists of 25 questions and you must succeed in answering at least 20 of thesis statement, them correctly. You can take the apush essay, test as many times as needed to pass. You can use any internet computer to study the materials or take the test. You can use a computer at thesis a public library if you don’t have one available for use.
If you do not have an email address when it asks for assurance one, you can use: PCATraining@actg.org Edith will receive the email and be able to print off your certificate for you. Earthquake Thesis Statement. Otherwise you can use your own email address and forward the certificate to usb research paper, us. If you print your certificate you can mail or fax a copy into the office. The study guide is very informative and done in thesis statement, a way that is easy to apush, follow and understand. It also gives practice questions to prepare you for the test. When you complete the test, you will be sent the certificate of completion by email. Therefore you must use a valid email address or use our email address set up for this purpose.
Please feel free to contact Edith at (612)706-5511 with any questions. S.M.A.R.T. Workshop October 10-12, 2017 in Minneapolis, MN. S.M.A.R.T. Pre-K Workshop November 7-9, 2017 in Minneapolis, MN. Auditory Processing Workshop Minneapolis, MN - One Day: November 14, 2017.
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comcast essay Gay Loneliness By Michael Hobbes. #x201C;I used to get so excited when the meth was all gone.#x201D; This is my friend Jeremy. #x201C;When you have it,#x201D; he says, #x201C;you have to thesis statement keep using it. When it#x2019;s gone, it#x2019;s like, #x2018;Oh good, I can go back to my life now.#x2019; I would stay up all weekend and go to caste essay these sex parties and then feel like shit until Wednesday.
About two years ago I switched to cocaine because I could work the next day.#x201D; Jeremy is thesis telling me this from a hospital bed, six stories above Seattle. He won#x2019;t tell me the essay rubric, exact circumstances of the overdose, only that a stranger called an ambulance and he woke up here. Jeremy is not the friend I was expecting to have this conversation with. Until a few weeks ago, I had no idea he used anything heavier than martinis. Earthquake Thesis? He is trim, intelligent, gluten-free, the kind of guy who wears a work shirt no matter what day of the week it is. The first time we met, three years ago, he asked me if I knew a good place to do CrossFit. Today, when I ask him how the hospital#x2019;s been so far, the first thing he says is that there#x2019;s no Wi-Fi, he#x2019;s way behind on work emails. #x201C;The drugs were a combination of boredom and loneliness,#x201D; he says. Eng 120? #x201C;I used to come home from work exhausted on earthquake thesis a Friday night and it#x2019;s like, #x2018;Now what?#x2019; So I would dial out to apush exam get some meth delivered and check the Internet to see if there were any parties happening. It was either that or watch a movie by myself.#x201D; 1. That#x2019;s not his real name.
Only a few of the names of the gay men in this article are real. Jeremy  is not my only gay friend who#x2019;s struggling. There#x2019;s Malcolm, who barely leaves the house except for work because his anxiety is so bad. There#x2019;s Jared, whose depression and body dysmorphia have steadily shrunk his social life down to me, the gym and Internet hookups. And there was Christian, the earthquake thesis, second guy I ever kissed, who killed himself at ut texas, 32, two weeks after his boyfriend broke up with him. Earthquake Thesis? Christian went to wireless usb research a party store, rented a helium tank, started inhaling it, then texted his ex and thesis told him to come over, to make sure he#x2019;d find the body. 1. That#x2019;s not his real name. Only a few of the names of the gay men in this article are real. For years I#x2019;ve noticed the discrimination essay, divergence between my straight friends and my gay friends. Earthquake Thesis Statement? While one half of my social circle has disappeared into apush essay, relationships, kids and suburbs, the other has struggled through isolation and earthquake statement anxiety, hard drugs and risky sex. None of this fits the narrative I have been told, the one I have told myself.
Like me, Jeremy did not grow up bullied by ut texas application essay, his peers or rejected by his family. He can#x2019;t remember ever being called a faggot. He was raised in a West Coast suburb by a lesbian mom. #x201C;She came out to me when I was 12,#x201D; he says. #x201C;And told me two sentences later that she knew I was gay. I barely knew at that point.#x201D; This is a picture of me and my family when I was 9. My parents still claim that they had no idea I was gay. They#x2019;re sweet. Jeremy and I are 34. In our lifetime, the gay community has made more progress on legal and social acceptance than any other demographic group in history. As recently as my own adolescence, gay marriage was a distant aspiration, something newspapers still put in scare quotes. Now, it#x2019;s been enshrined in law by the Supreme Court.
Public support for gay marriage has climbed from earthquake statement, 27 percent in 1996 to 61 percent in quality, 2016. Earthquake? In pop culture, we#x2019;ve gone from #x201C;Cruising#x201D; to #x201C;Queer Eye#x201D; to #x201C;Moonlight.#x201D; Gay characters these days are so commonplace they#x2019;re even allowed to have flaws. Still, even as we celebrate the scale and quality essay speed of this change, the rates of depression, loneliness and substance abuse in the gay community remain stuck in thesis, the same place they#x2019;ve been for apush decades. Gay people are now, depending on thesis statement the study, between 2 and your opinion of 13 article 10 times more likely than straight people to take their own lives. Earthquake Statement? We#x2019;re twice as likely to have a major depressive episode. And just like the last epidemic we lived through, the trauma appears to be concentrated among men. In a survey of gay men who recently arrived in New York City, three-quarters suffered from caste essay, anxiety or depression, abused drugs or alcohol or were having risky sex#x2014;or some combination of the three. Despite all the statement, talk of assurance, our #x201C;chosen families,#x201D; gay men have fewer close friends than straight people or gay women. In a survey of care-providers at HIV clinics, one respondent told researchers: #x201C;It#x2019;s not a question of them not knowing how to save their lives. It#x2019;s a question of them knowing if their lives are worth saving.#x201D;
I#x2019;m not going to earthquake statement pretend to be objective about any of assurance essay, this. I#x2019;m a perpetually single gay guy who was raised in a bright blue city by PFLAG parents. I#x2019;ve never known anyone who died of AIDS, I#x2019;ve never experienced direct discrimination and earthquake statement I came out of the essay, closet into a world where marriage, a picket fence and a golden retriever were not just feasible, but expected. Thesis? I#x2019;ve also been in and out of therapy more times than I#x2019;ve downloaded and deleted Grindr. #x201C;Marriage equality and the changes in essay, legal status were an improvement for some gay men,#x201D; says Christopher Stults, a researcher at New York University who studies the differences in mental health between gay and earthquake straight men. #x201C;But for quality assurance a lot of earthquake thesis statement, other people, it was a letdown. Like, we have this legal status, and yet there#x2019;s still something unfulfilled.#x201D; This feeling of essay rubric, emptiness, it turns out, is not just an American phenomenon. In the Netherlands, where gay marriage has been legal since 2001, gay men remain three times more likely to earthquake thesis suffer from a mood disorder than straight men, and opinion for each 10 times more likely to engage in #x201C;suicidal self-harm.#x201D; In Sweden, which has had civil unions since 1995 and full marriage since 2009, men married to men have triple the suicide rate of thesis statement, men married to women.
All of these unbearable statistics lead to the same conclusion: It is still dangerously alienating to go through life as a man attracted to discrimination essay other men. Earthquake Thesis? The good news, though, is that epidemiologists and social scientists are closer than ever to understanding all the reasons why. Travis Salway, a researcher with the BC Centre for Disease Control in Vancouver, has spent the last five years trying to rubric figure out earthquake thesis why gay men keep killing themselves. #x201C;The defining feature of application essay, gay men used to be the loneliness of the closet,#x201D; he says. Thesis Statement? #x201C;But now you#x2019;ve got millions of gay men who have come out of the closet and they still feel the same isolation.#x201D; We#x2019;re having lunch at a hole-in-the-wall noodle bar. It#x2019;s November, and he arrives wearing jeans, galoshes and a wedding ring. #x201C;Monogamous even,#x201D; he says. Rubric? #x201C;I think they#x2019;re gonna give us the key to the city.#x201D; Salway grew up in Celina, Ohio, a rusting factory town of maybe 10,000 people, the kind of thesis statement, place, he says, where marriage competed with college for essay the 21-year-olds.
He got bullied for being gay before he even knew he was. #x201C;I was effeminate and I was in earthquake thesis statement, choir,#x201D; he says. #x201C;That was enough.#x201D; So he got careful. He had a girlfriend through most of high school, and tried to avoid boys#x2014;both romantically and platonically#x2014;until he could get out of there. By the late 2000s, he was a social worker and epidemiologist and, like me, was struck by the growing distance between his straight and gay friends. He started to wonder if the story he had always heard about gay men and mental health was incomplete. When the disparity first came to light in the #x2019;50s and exam rubric #x2019;60s, doctors thought it was a symptom of homosexuality itself, just one of many manifestations of what was, at the time, known as #x201C;sexual inversion.#x201D; As the gay rights movement gained steam, though, homosexuality disappeared from the DSM and the explanation shifted to trauma. Earthquake Statement? Gay men were being kicked out of ut texas, their own families, their love lives were illegal.
Of course they had alarming rates of earthquake thesis statement, suicide and depression. Wireless? #x201C;That was the earthquake, idea I had, too,#x201D; Salway says, #x201C;that gay suicide was a product of a bygone era, or it was concentrated among adolescents who didn#x2019;t see any other way out.#x201D; And then he looked at the data. The problem wasn#x2019;t just suicide, it wasn#x2019;t just afflicting teenagers and it wasn#x2019;t just happening in areas stained by homophobia. He found that gay men everywhere, at every age, have higher rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer, incontinence, erectile dysfunction,#x2060; allergies and asthma#x2014;you name it, we got it. In Canada, Salway eventually discovered, more gay men were dying from usb research, suicide than from thesis, AIDS, and exam essay rubric had been for years. (This might be the case in the U.S. Earthquake Statement? too, he says, but no one has bothered to write your opinion of 13 article study it.) #x201C;We see gay men who have never been sexually or physically assaulted with similar post-traumatic stress symptoms to people who have been in combat situations or who have been raped,#x201D; says Alex Keuroghlian, a psychiatrist at the Fenway Institute#x2019;s Center for thesis Population Research in LGBT Health. Gay men are, as Keuroghlian puts it, #x201C;primed to expect rejection.#x201D; We#x2019;re constantly scanning social situations for ways we may not fit into them. We struggle to assert ourselves.
We replay our social failures on a loop. The weirdest thing about these symptoms, though, is that most of us don#x2019;t see them as symptoms at all. Since he looked into write your for each of 13 article, the data, Salway has started interviewing gay men who attempted suicide and survived. #x201C;When you ask them why they tried to kill themselves,#x201D; he says, #x201C;most of them don#x2019;t mention anything at earthquake statement, all about opinion for each of 13 article being gay.#x201D; Instead, he says, they tell him they#x2019;re having relationship problems, career problems, money problems. #x201C;They don#x2019;t feel like their sexuality is the most salient aspect of earthquake, their lives. Caste? And yet, they#x2019;re an order of thesis statement, magnitude more likely to kill themselves.#x201D; The term researchers use to explain this phenomenon is #x201C;minority stress.#x201D; In its most direct form, it#x2019;s pretty simple: Being a member of a marginalized group requires extra effort. When you#x2019;re the apush exam essay rubric, only woman at a business meeting, or the only black guy in your college dorm, you have to earthquake statement think on a level that members of the majority don#x2019;t. If you stand up to your boss, or fail to, are you playing into stereotypes of women in the workplace? If you don#x2019;t ace a test, will people think it#x2019;s because of your race? Even if you don#x2019;t experience overt stigma, considering these possibilities takes its toll over time. For gay people, the effect is magnified by essay rubric, the fact that our minority status is hidden.
Not only do we have to do all this extra work and answer all these internal questions when we#x2019;re 12 , but we also have to do it without being able to talk to our friends or parents about it. For more stories that stay with you, subscribe to our newsletter. John Pachankis, a stress researcher at earthquake statement, Yale, says the real damage gets done in the five or so years between realizing your sexuality and starting to tell other people. Even relatively small stressors in this period have an exam essay, outsized effect#x2014;not because they#x2019;re directly traumatic, but because we start to expect them. #x201C;No one has to thesis statement call you queer for essay you to adjust your behavior to avoid being called that,#x201D; Salway says. James, now a mostly-out 20-year-old, tells me that in seventh grade, when he was a closeted 12-year-old, a female classmate asked him what he thought about another girl. Statement? #x201C;Well, she looks like a man,#x201D; he said, without thinking, #x201C;so yeah, maybe I would have sex with her.#x201D; Immediately, he says, he panicked. #x201C;I was like, did anyone catch that? Did they tell anyone else I said it that way?#x201D; This is application how I spent my adolescence, too: being careful, slipping up, stressing out, overcompensating.
Once, at a water park, one of my middle-school friends caught me staring at earthquake statement, him as we waited for a slide. Usb Research? #x201C;Dude, did you just check me out?#x201D; he said. I managed to deflect#x2014;something like #x201C;Sorry, you#x2019;re not my type#x201D;#x2014;then I spent weeks afterward worried about what he was thinking about me. But he never brought it up. All the bullying took place in my head. #x201C;The trauma for gay men is the prolonged nature of it,#x201D; says William Elder, a sexual trauma researcher and psychologist. Thesis? #x201C;If you experience one traumatic event, you have the kind of PTSD that can be resolved in four to six months of therapy. Wireless Usb Research? But if you experience years and statement years of small stressors#x2014;little things where you think, Was that because of my sexuality?#x2014;that can be even worse.#x201D; Or, as Elder puts it, being in the closet is like someone having someone punch you lightly on the arm, over and over. At first, it#x2019;s annoying. After a while, it#x2019;s infuriating. Eventually, it#x2019;s all you can think about. And then the stress of apush exam, dealing with it every day begins to build up in earthquake statement, your body.
Growing up gay, it seems, is apush bad for earthquake statement you in many of the same ways as growing up in extreme poverty. A 2015 study found that gay people produce less cortisol, the hormone that regulates stress. Their systems were so activated, so constantly, in adolescence that they ended up sluggish as grownups, says Katie McLaughlin, one of the study#x2019;s co-authors. Application? In 2014, researchers compared straight and gay teenagers on cardiovascular risk. They found that the gay kids didn#x2019;t have a greater number of #x201C;stressful life events#x201D; (i.e. straight people have problems, too), but the ones they did experience inflicted more harm on earthquake thesis statement their nervous systems. Annesa Flentje, a stress researcher at essay, the University of California, San Francisco, specializes in the effect of minority stress on gene expression. All those little punches combine with our adaptations to thesis them, she says, and become #x201C;automatic ways of discrimination essay, thinking that never get challenged or turned off, even 30 years later.#x201D; Whether we recognize it or not, our bodies bring the closet with us into adulthood. #x201C;We don#x2019;t have the tools to process stress as kids, and thesis we don#x2019;t recognize it as trauma as adults,#x201D; says John, a former consultant who quit his job two years ago to make pottery and lead adventure tours in the Adirondacks. #x201C;Our gut reaction is to deal with things now the way we did as children.#x201D;
Even Salway, who has devoted his career to understanding minority stress, says that there are days when he feels uncomfortable walking around Vancouver with his partner. No one#x2019;s ever attacked them, but they#x2019;ve had a few assholes yell slurs at ut texas essay, them in public. Earthquake Thesis Statement? That doesn#x2019;t have to happen very many times before you start expecting it, before your heart starts beating a little faster when you see a car approaching. But minority stress doesn#x2019;t fully explain why gay men have such a wide array of health problems. Because while the first round of damage happens before we come out of the closet, the second, and caste discrimination maybe more severe, comes afterward. the fucking jungle. No one ever told Adam not to earthquake act effeminate. But he, like me, like most of us, learned it somehow. #x201C;I never worried about your opinion my family being homophobic,#x201D; he says. #x201C;I used to do this thing where I would wrap a blanket around myself like a dress and dance around in earthquake statement, the backyard. My parents thought it was cute, so they took a video and showed it to essay my grandparents. Earthquake Thesis Statement? When they all watched the tape, I hid behind the couch because I was so ashamed.
I must have been six or seven.#x201D; By the time he got to high school, Adam had learned to manage his mannerisms so well that no one suspected him of usb research, being gay. But still, he says, #x201C;I couldn#x2019;t trust anyone because I had this thing I was holding. I had to operate in the world as a lone agent.#x201D; He came out at 16, then graduated, then moved to San Francisco and started working in HIV prevention. But the feeling of distance from other people didn#x2019;t go away. So he treated it, he says, #x201C;with lots and lots of sex. It#x2019;s our most accessible resource in the gay community.
You convince yourself that if you#x2019;re having sex with someone, you#x2019;re having an intimate moment. That ended up being a crutch.#x201D; He worked long hours. He would come home exhausted, smoke a little weed, pour a glass of red wine, then start scanning the hookup apps for earthquake someone to invite over. Sometimes it would be two or three guys in essay, a row. #x201C;As soon as I closed the thesis statement, door on the last guy, I#x2019;d think, That didn#x2019;t hit the spot, then I#x2019;d find another one.#x201D; It went on like this for years.
Last Thanksgiving, he was back home to visit his parents and felt a compulsive need to have sex because he was so stressed out. Essay? When he finally found a guy nearby who was willing to hook up, he ran to his parents#x2019; room and earthquake started rifling through their drawers to see if they had any Viagra. #x201C;So that was the business literature essays, rock-bottom moment?#x201D; I ask. #x201C;That was the third or fourth, yeah,#x201D; he says. Adam#x2019;s now in a 12-step program for sex addiction. It#x2019;s been six weeks since he#x2019;s had sex. Thesis? Before this, the longest he had ever gone was three or four days.
#x201C;There are people who have lots of sex because it#x2019;s fun, and that#x2019;s fine. But I kept trying to wring it out like a rag to get something out of it that wasn#x2019;t in there#x2014;social support, or companionship. It was a way of not dealing with my own life. And I kept denying it was a problem because I had always told myself, #x2018;I#x2019;ve come out, I moved to San Francisco, I#x2019;m done, I did what I had to do as a gay person.#x2019;#x201D; For decades, this is quality assurance what psychologists thought, too: that the key stages in identity formation for gay men all led up to coming out, that once we were finally comfortable with ourselves, we could begin building a life within a community of people who#x2019;d gone through the statement, same thing. Essay? But over the last 10 years, what researchers have discovered is that the thesis, struggle to fit in only grows more intense. A study published in 2015 found that rates of anxiety and depression were higher in men who had recently come out than in men who were still closeted.
#x201C;It#x2019;s like you emerge from the closet expecting to apush exam be this butterfly and the gay community just slaps the idealism out of you,#x201D; Adam says. When he first started coming out, he says, #x201C;I went to West Hollywood because I thought that#x2019;s where my people were. But it was really horrifying. Earthquake Statement? It#x2019;s made by gay adults, and it#x2019;s not welcoming for gay kids. You go from caste discrimination essay, your mom#x2019;s house to a gay club where a lot of people are on drugs and it#x2019;s like, this is my community? It#x2019;s like the fucking jungle.#x201D; #x201C;I came out when I was 17, and I didn#x2019;t see a place for myself in the gay scene,#x201D; says Paul, a software developer. Earthquake Thesis? #x201C;I wanted to fall in love like I saw straight people do in movies. But I just felt like a piece of meat.
It got so bad that I used to go to the grocery store that was 40 minutes away instead of the ut texas essay, one that was 10 minutes away just because I was so afraid to walk down the gay street.#x201D; The word I hear from Paul, from everyone, is #x201C;re-traumatized.#x201D; You grow up with this loneliness, accumulating all this baggage, and then you arrive in the Castro or Chelsea or Boystown thinking you#x2019;ll finally be accepted for who you are. And then you realize that everyone else here has baggage, too . All of a sudden it#x2019;s not your gayness that gets you rejected. It#x2019;s your weight, or your income, or your race. #x201C;The bullied kids of our youth,#x201D; Paul says, #x201C;grew up and became bullies themselves.#x201D; #x201C;Gay men in particular are just not very nice to each other,#x201D; says John, the adventure tour guide. Thesis? #x201C;In pop culture, drag queens are known for their takedowns and it#x2019;s all ha ha ha. But that meanness is almost pathological. All of wireless usb research paper, us were deeply confused or lying to ourselves for a good chunk of statement, our adolescence. But it#x2019;s not comfortable for us to show that to apush other people. So we show other people what the world shows us, which is nastiness.#x201D;
Every gay man I know carries around a mental portfolio of statement, all the wireless usb research, shitty things other gay men have said and earthquake thesis statement done to him. I arrived to write your opinion for each a date once and the guy immediately stood up, said I was shorter than I looked in my pictures and left. Alex, a fitness instructor in Seattle, was told by a guy on his swim team, #x201C;I#x2019;ll ignore your face if you fuck me without a condom.#x201D; Martin, a Brit living in Portland, has gained maybe 10 pounds since he moved there and thesis got a Grindr message#x2014; on Christmas Day #x2014;that said: #x201C;You used to be so sexy. It#x2019;s a shame you messed it up.#x201D; For other minority groups, living in a community with people like them is linked to lower rates of anxiety and depression.
It helps to be close to people who instinctively understand you. But for business literature essays us, the effect is the opposite. Several studies have found that living in earthquake thesis, gay neighborhoods predicts higher rates of risky sex and apush meth use and less time spent on other community activities like volunteering or playing sports. A 2009 study suggested that gay men who were more linked to the gay community were less satisfied with their own romantic relationships. #x201C;Gay and bisexual men talk about the thesis, gay community as a significant source of stress in their lives,#x201D; Pachankis says. The fundamental reason for this, he says, is that #x201C;in-group discrimination#x201D; does more harm to your psyche than getting rejected by members of the majority.
It#x2019;s easy to ut texas application ignore, roll your eyes and put a middle finger up to straight people who don#x2019;t like you because, whatever, you don#x2019;t need their approval anyway. Rejection from other gay people, though, feels like losing your only statement way of making friends and finding love. Being pushed away from your own people hurts more because you need them more. The researchers I spoke to eng 120 literature essays explained that gay guys inflict this kind of damage on each other for two main reasons. The first, and thesis the one I heard most frequently, is that gay men are shitty to each other because, basically, we#x2019;re men.
#x201C;The challenges of masculinity get magnified in a community of men,#x201D; Pachankis says. #x201C;Masculinity is precarious. It has to be constantly enacted or defended or collected. Eng 120 Business Literature Essays? We see this in studies: You can threaten masculinity among men and then look at the dumb things they do. They show more aggressive posturing, they start taking financial risks, they want to punch things.#x201D; This helps explain the pervasive stigma against feminine guys in the gay community. According to Dane Whicker, a clinical psychologist and researcher at Duke, most gay men report that they want to date someone masculine, and that they wished they acted more masculine themselves. Maybe that#x2019;s because, historically, masculine men have been more able to blend into straight society. Or maybe it#x2019;s internalized homophobia: Feminine gay men are still stereotyped as bottoms, the receptive partner in anal sex.
A two-year longitudinal study found that the longer gay men were out earthquake statement of the closet, the more likely they were to become versatile or tops. Researchers say this kind of training, deliberately trying to appear more masculine and taking on of 13 a different sex role, is just one of the ways gay men pressure each other to statement attain #x201C;sexual capital,#x201D; the equivalent of quality assurance, going to the gym or plucking our eyebrows. #x201C;The only reason I started working out earthquake was so I would seem like a feasible top,#x201D; Martin says. When he first came out, he was convinced that he was too skinny, too effeminate, that bottoms would think he was one of them. #x201C;So I started faking all this hyper-masculine behavior. My boyfriend noticed recently that I still lower my voice an octave whenever I order drinks. That#x2019;s a remnant of my first few years out of the closet, when I thought I had to discrimination essay speak in this Christian Bale Batman voice to get dates.#x201D; Grant, a 21-year-old who grew up on Long Island and statement now lives in Hell#x2019;s Kitchen, says he used to be self-conscious about the way he stood#x2014;hands on hips, one leg slightly cocked like a Rockette. So, his sophomore year, he started watching his male teachers for eng 120 essays their default positions, deliberately standing with his feet wide, his arms at his sides. These masculinity norms exert a toll on everyone, even their perpetrators.
Feminine gay men are at higher risk of suicide, loneliness and mental illness. Masculine gay men, for earthquake statement their part, are more anxious, have more risky sex and use drugs and tobacco with greater frequency. One study investigating why living in the gay community increases depression found that the apush exam essay, effect only showed up in masculine gay guys. The second reason the statement, gay community acts as a unique stressor on its members is not about why we reject each other, but how . In the quality assurance essay, last 10 years, traditional gay spaces#x2014;bars, nightclubs, bathhouses#x2014;have begun to thesis statement disappear, and have been replaced by social media. At least 70 percent of quality assurance essay, gay men now use hookup apps like Grindr and Scruff to earthquake thesis meet each other. Quality Essay? In 2000, around 20 percent of gay couples met online. By 2010, that was up to 70 percent. Meanwhile, the share of thesis, gay couples who met through friends dropped from 30 percent to 12 percent. Usually when you hear about the caste, shocking primacy of hookup apps in gay life#x2014;Grindr, the most popular, says its average user spends 90 minutes per statement, day on it#x2014;it#x2019;s in some panicked media story about eng 120 business literature essays murderers or homophobes trawling them for earthquake thesis statement victims, or about the your for each article, troubling #x201C;chemsex#x201D; scenes that have sprung up in earthquake, London and New York. And yes, those are problems.
But the real effect of the apps is quieter, less remarked-upon and, in a way, more profound: For many of us, they have become the primary way we interact with other gay people. #x201C;It#x2019;s so much easier to exam meet someone for a hookup on earthquake thesis statement Grindr than it is to go to a bar by yourself,#x201D; Adam says. #x201C;Especially if you#x2019;ve just moved to a new city, it#x2019;s so easy to let the ut texas application, dating apps become your social life. It#x2019;s harder to thesis look for quality assurance essay social situations where you might have to make more of an statement, effort.#x201D; #x201C;I have moments when I want to feel desired and so I get on Grindr,#x201D; Paul says. #x201C;I upload a shirtless picture and I start getting these messages telling me I#x2019;m hot. It feels good in the moment, but nothing ever comes of it, and those messages stop coming after a few days. Your Opinion Of 13 Article? It feels like I#x2019;m scratching an thesis statement, itch, but it#x2019;s scabies. It#x2019;s just going to spread.#x201D; The worst thing about the apps, though, and discrimination why they#x2019;re relevant to the health disparity between gay and straight men, is not just that we use them a lot. It is thesis statement that they are almost perfectly designed to underline our negative beliefs about ourselves.
In interviews that Elder, the post-traumatic stress researcher, conducted with gay men in 2015, he found that 90 percent said they wanted a partner who was tall, young, white, muscular and masculine. For the vast majority of quality assurance, us who barely meet one of those criteria, much less all five, the hookup apps merely provide an efficient way to feel ugly. Paul says he#x2019;s #x201C;electrified waiting for rejection#x201D; as soon as he opens them. Earthquake? John, the paper, former consultant, is 27, 6-foot-1 and has a six-pack you can see through his wool sweater . And even he says most of his messages don#x2019;t get replies, that he spends probably 10 hours talking to people on the app for every one hour he spends meeting for coffee or a hookup. It#x2019;s worse for statement gay men of color. Vincent, who runs counseling sessions with black and for each article Latino men through the earthquake statement, San Francisco Department of discrimination essay, Public Health, says the thesis statement, apps give racial minorities two forms of feedback: Rejected (#x201C;Sorry, I#x2019;m not into black guys#x201D;) and fetishized (#x201C;Hi, I#x2019;m really into black guys.#x201D;) Paihan, a Taiwanese immigrant in Seattle, shows me his Grindr inbox. It is, like mine, mostly hellos he has sent out to no reply. One of the few messages he received just says, #x201C;Asiiiaaaan.#x201D; None of this is new, of course. Walt Odets, a psychologist who#x2019;s been writing about social isolation since the 1980s, says that gay men used to be troubled by the bathhouses in the same way they are troubled by Grindr now.
The difference he sees in his younger patients is that #x201C;if someone rejected you at a bathhouse, you could still have a conversation afterwards. Write Of 13? Maybe you end up with a friend out of it, or at earthquake, least something that becomes a positive social experience. On the apush rubric, apps, you just get ignored if someone doesn#x2019;t perceive you as a sexual or romantic conquest.#x201D; The gay men I interviewed talked about the dating apps the same way straight people talk about Comcast: It sucks, but what are you gonna do? #x201C;You have to use the earthquake thesis statement, apps in smaller cities,#x201D; says Michael Moore, a psychologist at Yale. #x201C;They serve the purpose of a gay bar. Discrimination? But the earthquake statement, downside is for each article that they put all this prejudice out there.#x201D; What the apps reinforce, or perhaps simply accelerate, is the adult version of what Pachankis calls the earthquake statement, Best Little Boy in the World Hypothesis. As kids, growing up in the closet makes us more likely to concentrate our self-worth into apush essay, whatever the outside world wants us to thesis statement be#x2014;good at sports, good at school, whatever. As adults, the social norms in our own community pressure us to concentrate our self-worth even further#x2014;into our looks, our masculinity, our sexual performance. But then, even if we manage to compete there, even if we attain whatever masc-dom-top ideal we#x2019;re looking for, all we#x2019;ve really done is quality assurance essay condition ourselves to thesis statement be devastated when we inevitably lose it. #x201C;We often live our lives through the eyes of others,#x201D; says Alan Downs, a psychologist and the author of your opinion for each, The Velvet Rage , a book about gay men#x2019;s struggle with shame and social validation. #x201C;We want to have man after man, more muscles, more status, whatever brings us fleeting validation. Then we wake up at 40, exhausted, and earthquake statement we wonder, Is that all there is? And then the application essay, depression comes.#x201D; the source of our wit, our resilience, dressing and dancing and karaoke.
Perry Halkitis, a professor at NYU, has been studying the health gap between gay people and thesis statement straight people since the business literature, early #x2019;90s. He has published four books on gay culture and has interviewed men dying of HIV, recovering from party drugs and struggling to plan their own weddings. That#x2019;s why, two years ago, his 18-year-old nephew James showed up trembling at his doorstep. Earthquake? He sat Halkitis and wireless usb research paper his husband down on the couch and announced he was gay. #x201C;We told him, #x2018;Congratulations, your membership card and welcome package are in the other room,#x2019;#x201D; Halkitis remembers. #x201C;But he was too nervous to get the joke.#x201D; James grew up in earthquake statement, Queens, a beloved member of a big, affectionate, liberal family. He went to a public school with openly gay kids. #x201C;And still,#x201D; Halkitis says, #x201C;there was this emotional turmoil. Ut Texas Application Essay? He knew rationally that everything was going to be fine, but being in the closet isn#x2019;t rational, it#x2019;s emotional.#x201D; Over the earthquake, years, James had convinced himself that he would never come out. He didn#x2019;t want the attention, or to have to essay field questions he couldn#x2019;t answer. His sexuality didn#x2019;t make sense to earthquake him#x2014;how could he possibly explain it to other people? #x201C;On TV I was seeing all these traditional families,#x201D; he tells me. #x201C;At the essay, same time, I was watching a ton of gay porn, where everyone was super ripped and single and having sex all the time.
So I thought those were my two options: this fairy-tale life I could never have, or this gay life where there was no romance.#x201D; James remembers the exact moment he decided to go into the closet. He must have been 10 or 11, dragged on a vacation to thesis statement Long Island by his parents. #x201C;I looked around at caste discrimination, our whole family, and the kids running around, and I thought, #x2018;I#x2019;m never going to earthquake thesis statement have this,#x2019; and usb research paper I started to cry.#x201D; I realize, the earthquake thesis, second he says it, that he is describing the same revelation I had at his age, the discrimination, same grief. Earthquake? James#x2019; was in discrimination essay, 2007. Mine was in earthquake thesis statement, 1992. Halkitis says his was in 1977. Surprised that someone his nephew#x2019;s age could have the same experience he did, Halkitis decided his next book project would be about the trauma of the closet. #x201C;Even now, even in wireless usb research, New York City, even with accepting parents, the earthquake, coming out process is challenging, Halkitis says. #x201C;Maybe it always will be.#x201D; So what are we supposed to do about it?
When we think of marriage laws or hate crime prohibitions, we tend to think of them as protections of usb research, our rights. What#x2019;s less understood is that laws literally affect our health. One of the most striking studies I found described the thesis statement, spike in anxiety and depression among gay men in 2004 and 2005, the wireless usb research paper, years when 14 states passed constitutional amendments defining marriage as being between a man and a woman. Gay men in earthquake statement, those states showed a 37 percent increase in mood disorders, a 42 percent increase in application, alcoholism and a 248 percent increase in generalized anxiety disorder. The most chilling thing about those numbers is that the thesis, legal rights of gay people living in those states didn#x2019;t materially change. We couldn#x2019;t get married in Michigan before the amendment passed, and we couldn#x2019;t get married in Michigan after it passed. The laws were symbolic. Wireless Usb Research Paper? They were the majority#x2019;s way of informing gay people that we weren#x2019;t wanted.
What#x2019;s worse, the rates of anxiety and depression didn#x2019;t just jump in the states that passed constitutional amendments. Earthquake? They increased (though less dramatically) among gay people across the entire country. The campaign to make us suffer worked. Now square that with the fact that our country recently elected a bright orange Demogorgon whose administration is publicly, eagerly attempting to essay reverse every single gain the gay community has made in the last 20 years. The message this sends to thesis gay people#x2014;especially the youngest ones, just grappling with their identity#x2014;couldn#x2019;t be clearer and more terrifying. Any discussion of gay mental health has to start with what happens in schools. Despite the progress taking place around them, America#x2019;s educational institutions remain dangerous places for kids, filled with aspiring frat boys, indifferent teachers and wireless usb research retrograde policies. Thesis Statement? Emily Greytak, the paper, director of research for the anti-bullying organization GLSEN, tells me that from 2005 to 2015, the percentage of teenagers who said they were bullied for their sexual orientation didn#x2019;t fall at all. Only around 30 percent of earthquake statement, school districts in the country have anti-bullying policies that specifically mention LGBTQ kids, and discrimination thousands of earthquake thesis, other districts have policies that prevent teachers from caste discrimination essay, speaking about earthquake statement homosexuality in a positive way. These restrictions make it so much harder for usb research paper kids to cope with their minority stress.
But luckily, this doesn#x2019;t require every teacher and earthquake statement every teenage lacrosse bro to accept gay people overnight. For the write for each of 13 article, last four years, Nicholas Heck, a researcher at Marquette University, has been running support groups for gay kids in high schools. He walks them through their interactions with their classmates, their teachers and their parents, and tries to help them separate garden-variety teenage stress from the kind they get due to their sexuality. Thesis Statement? One of his kids, for example, was under pressure from his parents to major in art rather than finance. Quality? His parents meant well#x2014;they were just trying to encourage him into a field where he would encounter fewer homophobes#x2014;but he was already anxious: If he gave up on thesis finance, was that surrendering to stigma? If he went into art and still got bullied, could he tell his parents about it? The trick, Heck says, is getting kids to ask these questions openly, because one of the hallmark symptoms of minority stress is avoidance. Kids hear derogatory comments in the hall so they decide to walk down another one, or they put in earbuds. They ask a teacher for ut texas application help and get shrugged off, so they stop looking for safe adults altogether.
But the kids in the study, Heck says, are already starting to earthquake statement reject the responsibility they used to take on apush when they got bullied. They#x2019;re learning that even if they can#x2019;t change the environment around them, they#x2019;re allowed to stop blaming themselves for statement it. So for kids, the goal is to hunt out and of 13 article prevent minority stress. But what can be done for those of us who have already internalized it? #x201C;There has been a lot of work with queer youth, but there#x2019;s no equivalent when you#x2019;re in your 30s and 40s,#x201D; Salway tells me. #x201C;I don#x2019;t even know where you go.#x201D; The problem, he says, is that we#x2019;ve built entirely separate infrastructures around mental illness, HIV prevention and substance abuse, even though all the evidence indicates that they are not three epidemics, but one. People who feel rejected are more likely to earthquake thesis self-medicate, which makes them more likely to have risky sex, which makes them more likely to contract HIV, which makes them more likely to apush exam feel rejected, and thesis so on. In the last five years, as evidence of this interconnectedness has piled up, a few psychologists and business epidemiologists have started to treat alienation among gay men as a #x201C;syndemic#x201D;: A cluster of health problems, none of earthquake, which can be fixed on their own. Pachankis, the stress researcher, just ran the essay, country#x2019;s first randomized controlled trial of #x201C;gay-affirming#x201D; cognitive behavior therapy. After years of emotional avoidance, many gay men #x201C;literally don#x2019;t know what they#x2019;re feeling,#x201D; he says.
Their partner says #x201C;I love you#x201D; and they reply #x201C;Well, I love pancakes.#x201D; They break it off with the guy they#x2019;re seeing because he leaves a toothbrush at their house. Or, like a lot of the guys I talked to, they have unprotected sex with someone they#x2019;ve never met because they don#x2019;t know how to listen to their own trepidation. Emotional detachment of this kind is pervasive, Pachankis says, and earthquake statement many of the assurance essay, men he works with go years without recognizing that the things they#x2019;re striving for#x2014;having a perfect body, doing more and better work than their colleagues, curating the ideal weeknight Grindr hookup#x2014;are reinforcing their own fear of thesis, rejection. Simply pointing out eng 120 literature essays these patterns yielded huge results: Pachankis#x2019; patients showed reduced rates of anxiety, depression, drug use and earthquake statement condom-less sex in just three months. He#x2019;s now expanding the study to include more cities, more participants and a longer timeline. These solutions are promising, but they#x2019;re still imperfect. I don#x2019;t know if we#x2019;ll ever see the write for each of 13 article, mental health gap between straight people and thesis gay people close, at least not fully. There will always be more straight kids than gay kids, we will always be isolated among them, and we will always, on some level, grow up alone in our families and our schools and our towns. But perhaps that#x2019;s not all bad. Write Your For Each Article? Our distance from the mainstream may be the earthquake thesis, source of some of what ails us, but it is also the exam essay, source of our wit, our resilience, our empathy, our superior talents for dressing and dancing and karaoke.
We have to recognize that as we fight for better laws and better environments#x2014;and as we figure out how to be better to each other. I keep thinking of something Paul, the software developer, told me: #x201C;For gay people, we#x2019;ve always told ourselves that when the earthquake thesis, AIDS epidemic was over we#x2019;d be fine. Then it was, when we can get married we#x2019;ll be fine. Now it#x2019;s, when the bullying stops we#x2019;ll be fine. We keep waiting for exam rubric the moment when we feel like we#x2019;re not different from statement, other people.
But the assurance essay, fact is, we are different. It#x2019;s about time we accept that and work with it.#x201D;