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best cissp resume Gregory D. Kaighin, MSIS, CISSP, ITIL. 3208 Stonebridge Trail, Valrico, FL 33596. Exam. Management position in IT or senior level engineering position where over 20 years of experience and essay lily a solid work ethic will add value to the organization and sat essay its customers. Seeking a full time position in Tampa, Florida. SUMMARY OF QUALIFICATIONS. Caste Discrimination. Experienced Systems Engineer. Broad experience from twenty years in telecommunications and Information Technology and sat essay exam ten years experience designing and on ears supporting Information Systems as a Department of Defense contractor and as an sat essay exam IT consultant for private sector clients. On Ears. Skilled Leader and sat essay Manager. Unsurpassed creativity, resourcefulness, and leadership in a fast-paced environment. Essay Gilded. Proficiency managing projects and leading technical teams.

Adept at promoting teamwork among employees. Sat Essay Exam. Outstanding rapport with customers, subordinates and all levels of management. Provide highly professional, precise, reliable, exhaustive, and dedicated services . Professional with cutting-edge skills. MSIS and Certified CISSP. Maintain skills by participating in continuing professional education.

Active member of the Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP), and model republic day the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC )² . Sat Essay. • MS Windows Servers. On Ears. • Vulnerability Scanning Tools. • MS Office SharePoint Server. • Systems Analysis and exam Design. • Business Continuity Planning. • CYBERCOM IAVM Compliance. • Linux - Multiple Flavors. • Disaster Recovery Planning. • Telos Xacta IA Manager. Deductive Essay. • VPN Client and Server Software. • Performance Monitoring Reporting. • DIACAP / RMF / ICD503. Sat Essay. • Firewalls, IDS and Web Proxies. • Retina and ACAS Scanners. • Cisco Routers and Switches. • Certification and Accreditation. ISSM / INFOSEC ENGINEER, iGov Technologies, Contracted to USSOCOM, MacDill AFB, FL. Apply Information Assurance (IA) engineering best practices and regulations to the Tactical Local Area Network (TACLAN) system. Develop test specifications and test strategy to essayist on ears, conduct thorough IA and risk assessments for each TACLAN baseline release and successfully obtain ATOs for sat essay, each TACLAN baseline and incremental release. Conduct all IA and application engineering duties in a heavily virtualized environment with VMware Infrastructure and shared centralized storage. Reasoning Essay. Provide hands-on senior-level subject matter expertise on Operating Systems, applications, networks, databases, Security Technical Implementation Guides (STIGs) and exam enterprise level security requirements.

Information Systems Security Manager (ISSM) for iGov’s SIPRNet connection. Established iGov’s SIPRNet enclave and obtained Certification and Accreditation (CA) of the network by DISA. Developed and animal maintained a formal IS security program and sat essay established security policies for short essay, the TACLAN program. • Obtained an Authority to Operate (ATO) from exam DSS and an Authority to Connect (ATC) from DISA for iGov’s SIPRnet . Caste Essay. Package was completed and approved less than three months after coming on sat essay exam board. • Proficient implementing DISA STIGs/SRGs, NISPOM Chapter 8, IAVM Compliance, OPDIRS, and FISMA and CYBERCOM directives. Implemented security systems or technologies such as HBSS, PKI, Cisco and SourceFire IDS/IPS, Retina, Windows Update Server (WSUS), Group Policy and essay managed/maintained Active Directory to sat essay, comply with DISA STIGs. • As IA Manager also defined/developed/conducted blue or red team tests to ensure system upgrades and security met accreditation/information security requirements. Managed network physical security systems; SIPRNet Security, Protected Distribution System (PDS) and IP enabled Anti-terrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP) network devices. Ensured compliance with Information Assurance Vulnerability Alerts and Bulletins (IAVA/B). SHAREPOINT OPTIMIZATION EXPERT, SAIC, Contracted to essay, PACAF/A6, Hickam AFB, HI. Senior Systems Engineer on the Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) Enterprise Information Management (EIM) applications development and business process automation team serving 35,000 customers in the Pacific Theater.

Designed, implemented and deployed MS Office SharePoint Server (MOSS) 2007 and Microsoft CRM server farms and underlying architecture throughout the Pacific region. Analyzed and modified systems to create optimal configuration to satisfy confidentiality, integrity and availability requirements. Provided production support for exam, the deployment of MOSS, CRM, Decision Support Information (DSI) systems and other records management and workflow tools. Coordinated with PACAF NOSC, AFNOC, product vendors and other relevant agencies to provision network core services. These included SMTP, SSL certificates, Active Directory GPOs, domain trusts and DNS, NetIQ performance monitoring, CommVault backups, Cisco and ISA VPN rules, Web Proxy and Firewall rules, WAN/Web accelerators, SAN capacity requirements, and power, HVAC and on ears floor space. • Technical lead during PACAF pilot testing of four WAN Acceleration products. Vendors included Riverbed, F5, Cisco and Bluecoat.

Assisted vendor engineers during pre-planning, setup and evaluation phases of the tests. Tests were conducted on production WAN traffic between two bases in sat essay exam, PACAF. Essays Day. Created evaluation criteria and full test plan, as well as an unbiased and uniform method to collect, analyze and sat essay compare optimized vs. unoptimized traffic. for all four vendors. Collected data by utilizing NetIQ AppManager Web Response Time metrics measuring download time from Japan to 24 MOSS sites located in Hawaii. Model Essays Republic. Created charts of before and exam after optimization results and used these charts to determine Best of Breed. • Technical lead for a Tiger Team chartered by PACAF/A6 to identify and correct the causes of network latency across the Pacific Theater WAN. Established Monitoring and essay Performance criteria to baseline and exam track changes in download times to SharePoint from all bases in exotic thesis, PACAF. Coordinated meetings and site visits with key stakeholders and product vendors. Chaired Tiger Team meetings and categorized and tracked all potential problems from identification through correction. Exam. Worked directly with engineers from Microsoft, Cisco, Blue Coat, F5, EMC, DISA, and AFNOC during site visits, providing technical guidance and coordination of effort between multiple agencies when needed. On Ears. Communicated all findings, corrective actions and performance improvements to PACAF/A6 senior leadership and the base Comm Squadron Commanders.

These efforts have resulted in a theater-wide 74% improvement in download times to SharePoint, with two Alaska bases seeing an sat essay improvement of over 90%. • Project Manager for 15 MOSS system and infrastructure upgrade projects. These projects included two full NIPR and SIPR MOSS farm installs, WAN and Web Acceleration / Optimization projects, upgrades to create network, SAN and power redundancy for all systems, implementation of simple short MOSS publishing through ISA, and creation of a VMware environment for exam, MOSS development and production staging. • Provided project planning and oversight for deductive essay writing, the installation of the exam, CRM-TMT task management solution for PACAF/CC and a chapter other high-level decision makers throughout PACAF. Project included coordinating the integration of CRM-TMT with the enterprise EMC SAN during a PACAF-wide SAN and virtualization upgrade project. Performed site surveys, provided technical recommendations and coordinated planning, installation and sat essay configuration efforts with vendor counterparts and other project stakeholders. • Provided technical guidance to a staff of 15 contractors and Air Force personnel during the certification and accreditation (CA) process of PACAF NIPR and SIPR EIS systems. Coordinated Retina and Disa Gold vulnerability scans and subsequent STIG mitigation efforts. Provided artifacts for EITDR and DIACAP compliance. NetIQ PERFORMANCE ENGINEER, Verizon FNS, Contracted to PAC-TNOSC, Ft.

Shafter, HI. Systems Engineer on a Systems Team that administered Message and Directory Services for over 20,000 users in USARPAC. Managed the NetIQ application and servers monitoring program for essayist on ears, over 800 servers to exam, include 48 Active Directory infrastructure servers for exotic animal, both NIPRNET and SIPRNET. Managed the monitoring of over 50 Exchange servers that handled over 10 million messages per sat essay exam month. • Provided daily management of NetIQ monitoring and animal reporting tools to include AppManager , Performance Profiler and Analysis Center. Exam. Specifically monitored the health and performance of exotic animal thesis Enterprise Servers and sat essay exam services to telugu day, include Exchange, Active Directory, DNS, DHCP, Oracle, UNIX, NAS, SharePoint, SQL, ALTIRIS and VMware. Sat Essay. Provided statistical reports on email usage, network response times, disk space usage, and CPU and telugu republic memory utilization. • Worked directly with members of teams from all functional areas to setup and enhance alerts, graphs and reports to sat essay exam, meet Service Level Agreement metrics.

Corrected over 4000 NetIQ Knowledge Scripts that were causing incorrect or excessive alerting. Identified and corrected six major issues which were preventing alerts from being generated or sent to their intended recipients. Initiated several new processes in the monitoring system which enhanced the relevance of alerts received. SYSTEMS ENGINEER / IT CONSULTANT, Busch Consulting, Inc., Honolulu, HI. Principal IT consultant for 20 small to medium sized businesses. Provided each client full life cycle system management from planning to maintenance. Specialized in Information Systems and Network Security. Clients included credit unions, law firms, and engineering and real estate companies. • Managed several network upgrades as a Project Manager.

Held on-site meetings with clients to outline project objectives. Created project timelines and met with technical staff to coordinate project roll-out. Ordered products, scheduled technicians for pre-build as well as onsite deployment. Held postmortem meetings at essayist a chapter on ears project completion. Followed up with clients to exam, ensure 100% customer satisfaction. • As principal IT consultant, directly interfaced with client company executives on a daily basis. Provided clients with professional Systems Engineer level support. Discrimination Essay. This included hardware and software purchasing recommendations, disaster recovery and data archiving strategies, malware and intrusion prevention and detection solutions, and project management during system and network upgrades.

Provided clients with day-to-day System Administration of sat essay all systems and essayist a chapter applications specific to each company as well as their supporting infrastructure. TBMCS-UL C2 SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR, SAIC - Contracted to sat essay exam, 15 th Air Wing, Hickam AFB, HI. Discrimination. Provided the full range of sat essay exam system/database administration tasks for simple, over 500 users of Theater Battle Management Core System - Unit Level (TBMCS-UL), a USAF Command and Control (C2) system consisting of exam 10 servers and 175 workstations on a secure network located throughout Hickam AFB. Essay Gilded Lily. Daily job responsibilities included Oracle database server management, backup, recovery and maintenance in a real-time, on-line redundant backup data server configuration; loading and sat essay exam reinitializing databases; reloading databases upon installation of new software version releases; database and applications server performance monitoring; database storage allocation and maintaining database configuration; database form and telugu model essays report design and development using SQL; monitoring application data flow and processes; external system interface implementation at sat essay the functional level; database and applications server performance monitoring; problem documentation and reasoning essay writing field-level resolution. Also responsible for system administration on Win2K Advanced Server and WinXP Workstation operating systems including installation, configuration, and reconfiguration of exam operating systems; maintenance of system files, system parameters, and configuration table; software installation and applications server configuration; system performance monitoring and multi-server troubleshooting; application maintenance activities including GUI application configuration; system data replication and tape/SAN backup; security and user ID/duty position management; documenting new functional requirements identified and implemented by local user community, writing system status briefings and reports, providing informal, mentor-guided on-the-job training to newly-assigned military system/database administration personnel. • Developed a customer requested application for viewing real-world and military exercise event logs stored in an Oracle database. Utilized SQL, VB and MS Access Forms to essayist a chapter on ears, manipulate and display the sat essay, data. Essay Gilded. • Twice rebuilt TBMCS-UL during system spiral upgrades. Upgrades included installation of new Dell Servers, RAID units, Tape Backup devices, routers, switches and client laptops and desktop workstations. Expedited the build of the client workstations by creating a Symantec Ghost multicast server. Also built two similar autonomous networks for exam, training and a chapter on ears deployment requirements. • Designed a capability used by higher headquarter commanders that allowed viewing of sat essay war-fighting assets at all Air Force bases within their area of responsibility.

This consolidated view gave decision makers the ability to view assets and missions in real-time, eliminating the exotic animal thesis, lag that previously existed in the decision making process. Sat Essay. Utilized Java Server Pages (JSPs) to remotely connect to Oracle databases at essayist a chapter on ears up to eight USAF bases at once. • Designed a secure remote video conferencing solution based on client articulated requirement. Saved customer $180,000 by utilizing built-in tools and pre-existing hardware for this configuration. Conferencing used multicasting over Cisco Routers, MADCAP and ILS on the server side and client laptops using Microsoft Windows Telephony Applications Programming Interface (TAPI) with Phone Dialer as the front-end user application. Sat Essay Exam. TBMCS-UL C2 SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR, SAIC - Contracted to HQPACAF, Hickam AFB, HI. Served as Theater Battle Management Core Systems – Unit Level (TBMCS-UL) Tier 2 Helpdesk System Administrator for the Combat Air Force (CAF).

In this role, provided technical expertise and solutions to CAF-wide TBMCS-UL system administrators. Specifically and consistently sought out by customers from simple essay all CAF bases when timely fault isolation and sat essay exam resolution were critical. A Chapter On Ears. Also served as System and Network Administrator for sat essay, the TBMCS-UL development team at HQPACAF. Instrumental in the system design and testing of model day TBMCS-UL throughout its spiral development process. • Managed and supervised TBMCS-UL PACAF Tier 1 and sat essay CAF Tier 2 helpdesks. The Tier 2 customer base included 28 units in the CAF with approximately five system administrators and over 200 users at each unit. Streamlined support procedures to expedite trouble resolution which resulted in republic day, a fix rate of well over 99% within established timelines. • Interfaced directly with third party developers of the TBMCS-UL Flight Scheduling application (TASAMS) to correct code deficiencies and ensure compliance with customer and security requirements. Tested this product thoroughly, identifying 380 code discrepancies that were corrected prior to exam, Spiral 6 release. • Tested and integrated COTS and other third party applications into essay writing TBMCS-UL.

These include: Microsoft Office 2000 Suite, NetMeeting 3.01, Defense Messaging System (DMS) 2.2 Gold, DMS 3.0, Veritas Backup Exec 8.6, DISA’s DII COE, NSI DoubleTake , Oracle 8i and 9i Database, Oracle FailSafe , Oracle Enterprise Mgmt. Console, Norton Antivirus v7.51, and Diskeeper v6.0. • Developed and formalized installation and administrative procedures for TBMCS-UL to comply with system hardware and exam software configuration management. Wrote and redlined complex system technical documentation and installation procedures totaling over 3000 pages. • Utilized the PACAF NOSC Remedy Action Report System to chronicle and database system and user problems, and to simple, create reports used for system monitoring and analysis. Sat Essay. Provide On-the-Job-Training (OJT) to junior system administrators. • Designed four autonomous LANs for discrimination essay, the TBMCS-UL development lab. Each configuration consists of two Microsoft Cluster Servers on four Dell 6450 or 2650 servers and sat essay exam six client workstations networked by two CISCO 2660 routers and two CISCO switches. Configured the telugu essays republic day, servers to run Win 2000 Advanced Server and sat essay replicate data between clusters using NSI DoubleTake . Also configured DNS, WINS and user accounts and established network and system security policies. UNIX SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR , US Navy - Active Duty, Kunia (KRSOC), Hawaii. System Administrator for KRSOC’s 800 workstation and 40 server network. Planned and performed the installation and maintenance of short essay all phases of exam a UNIX based SUN and essayist AIX client/server environment, including hardware, operating systems, third party software, network connectivity, and system security. • Implemented upgrades for exam, site UNIX servers, email servers, DNS, NIS, print servers, application servers, and reasoning jumpstart/NIM servers. Performed routine account setup and maintenance for KRSOC customers. Also performed system backup and recovery using Veritas BackupExec . • Technical lead during the server and workstation upgrade phase of the site conversion from an Ethernet to an ATM infrastructure.

Developed installation and troubleshooting procedures for converting 800 Solaris and AIX UNIX clients and servers to ATM. • Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) Coordinator. As a member of the KRSOC Plans and Projects department from 1/98 – 7/98 coordinated the sat essay, work flow of all new electronics and Information Technology projects at KRSOC. ELECTRONICS MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN, US Navy, Edzell Scotland Hanza , Okinawa. Managed eight member team of exotic animal thesis network and communications technicians for a 200 RF receiver remote. collection and forwarding system. • Administered an Ethernet LAN consisting of sat essay exam 400 IBM AT workstations and two ATT 3B15 servers. Performed. organizational level maintenance on gilded lily Conventional Signals Upgrade equipment to include the sat essay, ATT 3B15 processor, Keystone cipher tape drive, ATT 4425 display terminal, PC/AT and network components. Maintained site physical security electronics equipment to include Vindicator Intrusion Detection systems, badge reading systems, and exotic animal CCTV camera systems. Exam. • Performed preventive and corrective maintenance on all communications equipment at several Tech Control facilities. Equipment serviced included: CV-3440 telephone modem, FCC-100 and DP-2048 signal multiplexers, ATT 3B2/600 Computer ( NewsDealer ), IDNX, KG-84, KG-194, KG-81, and Chainwork GPS Timing System. • Responsible for caste essay, all inside/outside plant telephone maintenance, installation, repair, and/or relocation of over 200 DSN phones/lines and 100 NSTS (secure) phones/lines.

Programmed and sat essay maintained secure Mitel NSTS switchboard. Also wired hundreds of RS-449 patch panels in Communication Center bays. Master of Science in Information Systems (MSIS) , Concentration in Telecommunications Security. Hawaii Pacific University . Awarded 05/2009, GPA 3.84. Graduated With Distinction. Bachelor of Science in Business Management (BSBM) , University of Maryland , University College . Awarded 12/2005, GPA 3.51. Three time Dean’s List mention. Associate of Arts, General Studies , University of Maryland , University College . Awarded 12/1998. DISA FSO, Assured Compliance Assessment Solution (ACAS) , 04/2015, 32 hours. DISA FSO, Securing Mobile Devices, 03/2015, 24 hours.

Infosec Institute, DOD Risk Management Framework, 12/2014, 32 hours. Telos , Xacta IA Manager Assessment Engine – SOCOM ICD503 User Training, 06/2013, 16 hours. Telos , Xacta IA Manager Assessment Engine User Training – SOCOM, 07/2012, 24 hours. DISA FSO, Security Readiness Review (SRR) Walk-through for Windows, 7/2011, 40 hours. DISA FSO, Vulnerability Management System (VMS) v6.6, 5/2011, 16 hours. VMware, VMware vSphere : Install, Configure, Manage [V4.1], 4/2011, 40 hours. Essayist On Ears. DSS, NISPOM Chapter 8 Implementation Course (IS302.01), 2/2011, 16 hours. DSS, NISPOM Chapter 8 Requirements for Industry Course, 12/2010, 20 hours. USAF, TBMCS-UL System Administrator Spiral 8.5 Delta Training, 3/2006, 40 hours. USAF, YAF02SE, USAF System Administrator Course , 6/2005, 8 hours. Microsoft, 1560 Updating support skills from WinNT to Win2000 , 05/2002, 40 hours.

Compumaster , Supporting, Troubleshooting, and Optimizing Win2000 , 04/2002, 14 hours. Sat Essay Exam. Oracle University , Enterprise DBA Part 1A, Architecture Administration , 07/2001, 40 hours. USN, A-531-0046 Information Systems Administrator , 05/2001, 2 months. • INFOSEC fundamentals, Relational Databases, OSI reference model, Microsoft Windows NT Management, Microsoft Exchange Server, UNIX, Routers, ATM. USN, P-500-0025 First Line Leadership Development Program, 02/2001, 80 hours. Sun Microsystems, Solaris System Administration I (SA-238), 12/2000, 40 hours.

Fore Systems, ATM Theory CORE Products Installation Maintenance , 05/2000 40 hours. Fore Systems, ATM PowerHub Installation, Operation and Maintenance , 05/2000, 32 hours. Essay Gilded. Laser Tech Inc., Copper - Fiber Optic Splicing School , 07/1998, 40 hours. HQ Naval Security Group, Methods of Managing Quality , 02/1998, 40 hours. NSA, ES-386, TIDYTIPS III Hardware Maintenance , 03/1996, 40hrs. USN, A-102-0377 Information Collection Systems Maintenance , 12/1993, 2 months. USN, A-102-0109 Cryptologic Technician Maintenance Class A3, 09 /1991, 5 months. Sat Essay. USN, A-102-0234 Electronic Technology, Class A1 , 05/1991, 4 months. USAF, 902X1 Radio Operator Technical Training, 05/1990, 6 weeks. Fastrac NetG Computer Based Training: • 12327 UNIX Fundamentals , 12754 Networking Fundamentals , 12755 Networking Fundamentals 2 , 12777 UNIX Shell Programming , 12634 Sun Solaris Part 1 , 80201 Novell Networking Technologies Part 1. US Navy Computer Based Training: • NT-C10 Digital Switching , NT-C11 Understanding Ethernet , NT-C12 Understanding FDDI , NT-C13 Understanding Frame Relay, SMDS, and ATM , NT-C14 Understanding Bridges, Routers, Gateways , NT-C16 Local Area Networking , NT-C23 Digital Switching , NT-C24 T1 Transmission Basics.

Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) #114991, Certified 10/2007. IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) V3 Foundation #4420538, Certified 1/2012. Top Secret/SCI. SSBI 04 September 2012. PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND HONOR SOCIETIES. • Upsilon Pi Epsilon (UPE) International Honor Society – Inducted 04/2008. • Epsilon Delta Pi (EDP) National Honor Society – Inducted 11/2006.

• International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)².

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Somerset Historical Essays/William of Malmesbury 'On the Antiquity of Glastonbury' William of Malmesbury 'On the Antiquity of sat essay exam, Glastonbury' WILLIAM OF MALMESBURY 'ON THE ANTIQUITY OF GLASTONBURY' There was a pretty rivalry in mediaeval times between the great abbeys of Westminster and Glastonbury, not unlike the contest for historical precedence between the universities of model day, Oxford and Cambridge which produced less reputable forgeries at a later time. If Oxford found in Asser's Life of Alfred that Grimbald had kept school in that ancient city, Cambridge made the happy discovery that some seven hundred years before two of her pupils had been sent by K. Lucius to the Pope of Rome to ask for Christian teachers. [1] The great abbeys had at any rate a more solid reason than academic jealousy for insisting on sat essay, priority of foundation. The precedence of abbots at a General Council was something worth fighting for; and Glastonbury's claim was challenged and defended again and again, and notably in 1434 at the Council of Bale, when the Spaniards were asserting priority over England in virtue of the preaching of St James of Compostella. [2] Westminster might at first be content to go back to K. Sebert in essayist, 604; for the great minster at Glastonbury was known to have been built by K. Sat Essay Exam! Ina a century later. Thesis! But the Glastonbury monks discovered that K. Lucius had been left out of account, and they claimed a visit from the missionaries of sat essay, Pope Eleutherus in 166. Westminster on enquiry discovered that their church also had been founded in simple short, the days of K. Lucius, though after the Diocletian persecution it was turned for a while into a temple of Apollo.

Glastonbury, while insisting on 166 as her own date, allowed that Westminster followed quickly in 169: [3] but presently she made a bolder bid for antiquity and took over the legend of exam, Joseph of Arimathea and the Holy Grail, and so settled her date once and for all as the thirty-first year after the Passion of the essay, Lord and the fifteenth after the Assumption of the glorious Virgin. It was vain for Westminster to plead that the blessed Peter himself had left the gate of sat essay, heaven and come down to consecrate his new church with his own apostolic hands. For when St David came with his seven bishops thinking to consecrate the church of Glastonbury, the Lord Himself appeared to him in a vision by deductive writing, night and exam told him that He the Great High Priest had long ago dedicated the little church of wattles to the honour of His Ever-Virgin Mother. It might indeed be supposed that of essay gilded, all our English monasteries none had its actual history so thoroughly explored and so well authenticated as Glastonbury Abbey. For early in the twelfth century its story was written by the famous pen of William of Malmesbury, and his work was continued by two monks of the house, Adam of Domerham who brought it down to A. D. 1291, and John of Glastonbury who abbreviated the narratives of both his predecessors and carried on the history to the end of the fifteenth century. But it has become the fashion to throw aside William of exam, Malmesbury's Enquiry into the Antiquity of the Church of Glastonbury as a careless piece of work hastily put together to flatter the vanity of the Glastonbury monks when, for some reason which remains obscure to us, the great historian had for a time taken up his abode in their house.

Nothing that the credulous fathers told him was too puerile for him to record as history while he ate their bread; and when he was gone they took his book and loaded it up with fresh fictions, so that it has no value left for serious students. This adverse judgement has seemed to be confirmed by the discovery of a tenth-century list of the English abbots of Glastonbury, which cannot be reconciled with William of Malmesbury's list in the De Antiquitate . The names and sequence of the early abbots must be reserved for a special investigation. Lily! At present we are concerned with the general character of the book, and sat essay more particularly with the earlier portion of it. The only edition for critical purposes is contained in the first volume of essay gilded lily, Hearne's Adam of Domerham , which appeared at Oxford in 1727. Hearne had already sent to the press the main portion of sat essay, his John of Glastonbury when through the good offices of Thomas Parne [4] he was enabled to a chapter, borrow from the sat essay, library of gilded lily, Trinity College, Cambridge, the manuscript of Adam of Domerham—the unique copy, as he says, though large extracts were also contained in Cox Macro's Register which Tanner had borrowed for him.

The De Antiquitate precedes Adam of Domerham's work in the Cambridge manuscript, and had already been edited from exam, it by Gale in his Scriptores Quindecim (Oxford, 1691). But Gale, as Hearne says, used other people's eyes, and sleepy ones at that. Moreover he had left out much that he saw could not have come from the original author. Yet these were ancient notes, worthy at least of record; and most of them Hearne supposed to have been written by Adam of Domerham to whom the codex had probably belonged. Hearne therefore edited the work afresh as it stood in lily, the manuscript, with the marginal notes in various hands which he endeavoured to discriminate: at the foot of the page he gave the variants of Gale's edition and the readings of Cox Macro's Register (M). A glance at the manuscript will show that, if Hearne's edition presents a somewhat repellent appearance, this is due to the faithfulness with which the sat essay exam, editor has done his work. [5] William of Malmesbury entitled his book De Antiquitate Glastoniensis Ecclesiae . It is unfortunate that it has come to be commonly described as 'The Antiquities of Glastonbury'. [6] For the author's purpose was plainly indicated by caste discrimination essay, his title. Exam! Doubt had been cast on the early date of Glastonbury. The Canterbury Chanter— for William of Malmesbury will not mention Osbern's name—had actually said in his Life of St Dunstan that the first abbot of Glastonbury was Dunstan himself. Our author proposes with the help of a chapter, documents to show the line of succession from sat essay exam, a very early time; and, after he has recorded the names and dates of some nineteen abbots of the English line alone before the year 940, he says: 'I fancy it will now be clear how far that writer was from the truth who wildly stated that the blessed Dunstan was the first abbot of Glastonbury'. Gilded! [7] Moreover in his Dedicatory Letter, addressed to Henry of Blois, who held the abbey from 1126 to his death in 1171, he speaks of sat essay exam, having already written two books on St Dunstan's life, as well as Lives of SS. Patrick, Benignus and Indractus, and begs now a favourable hearing as he endeavours by tracing the successions of the abbots to rescue from essayist, suspicion the antiquity of the church, so far as the existing muniments of the abbey shall enable him to do so. [8] This exactly describes his aim, and exam throughout the work he seldom fails to cite the authorities on which his statements rest.

If for the earlier period his authorities are sometimes weak, that is not his fault. And, though the charters of the Wessex kings are for the most part rejected by the modern critics, we may find reason to think that they contain a good deal of caste discrimination essay, true history, and that the sat essay, immense pains which he expended on their examination may. even raise his credit as an investigator of the distant past. The chronology of William of Malmesbury's historical works has been carefully investigated by simple short, Bishop Stubbs in exam, the Introduction to the Gesta Regum , which he edited for the Master of the Rolls in 1887. His conclusions are as follows: the telugu model day, Gesta Regum was completed in the year 1125: a second and exam a third edition were issued by gilded lily, the author between 1135 and 1140. The Gesta Pontificum was in exam, course of composition concurrently with the Gesta Regum , and came out later in the same year 1125: this also was to some extent revised before 1140.

The later editions of the Gesta Regum expressly refer to exotic, the work De Antiquitate Glastoniensis Ecclesiae . As this last-mentioned work was dedicated to Henry of Blois the bishop of Winchester, who is however not addressed as papal legate, it was probably written between 1129 and 1139. Now the Dedicatory Letter declares that the author has already completed for the monks of sat essay, Glastonbury two books on the Life of St Dunstan. When we turn to gilded, these books we find that in the former of them he promises to sat essay exam, explain the presence at Glastonbury of the bodies of gilded, certain northern saints, if he is allowed to sat essay, complete his proposed work on the antiquity of that church. But in the preface to the second book he says that he has already completed that work. [9] The discrepancy of these statements is not a serious one. The last words of the De Antiquitate show that it was originally addressed to essays republic, the monks of Glastonbury: the exam, dedication to Henry of Blois, their abbot, was plainly an afterthought, and was written when the gilded, second book of the Life of St Dunstan was completed; but the De Antiquitate itself was finished before the introduction to that second book was written. In short, the two works were in hand together during the same period of the author's residence at Glastonbury. When we look at the De Antiquitate in the only form in which it has come down to us, we find that not only are its margins crowded with later additions, but the text itself bears obvious traces of having been seriously modified many years after the exam, author's death. It is enough here to simple, mention that in one place it speaks of Henry of Blois, who was still living in 1171, as 'of blessed memory'; and sat essay that it has several explicit references to the great fire which consumed the abbey in 1184. When we insert the knife of criticism we shall discover that many pages of Hearne's careful edition are filled with inventions of a later date, which must no longer be allowed to blot the reputation of the great historian. It is essay gilded lily, fortunate for us that the so-called third edition of the sat essay exam, Gesta Regum contains large insertions which run word for word with passages in the De Antiquitate ; so that, if we accept the view that this edition was made by the author himself between the telugu essays day, years 1135 and exam 1140, a valuable instrument of criticism is at once placed in our hands. We shall best approach our task by giving an telugu model analysis of the sat essay exam, book under its existing headings, and with occasional quotations in full, down to the point at which the evidence of charters is called in to trace the successions of the English abbots.

The frequent repetitions in the text will at once suggest that it has passed through several stages of gilded lily, correction: and, in particular, the names of St Phagan and St Deruvian meet us so unnecessarily often, that we shall even begin to sat essay, wonder whether they had any place at all in the original manuscript. How the twelve disciples of St Philip and St James the apostles first founded the church of Glastonbury. 'After the glory of the Lord's resurrection, the triumph of His ascension and the mission of the Holy Ghost the Comforter, who filled the disciples' hearts which still trembled with dread of temporal punishment, and gave them the knowledge of all languages, all who believed were together, along with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, as Luke the Evangelist narrates; and short essay the word of God was sown abroad and the number of them that believed increased daily, and they all had one heart and one soul. Kindled therefore with the exam, torch of envy, the deductive essay, priests of the Jews together with the Pharisees and scribes stirred up persecution against the Church, killing Stephen the first martyr and driving far away almost all the rest. So while the storm of persecution raged, the believers were dispersed and went forth into divers kingdoms of the earth, which the Lord assigned to them, offering the word of salvation to the Gentiles. Now St Philip, as Freculfus declares in the fourth chapter of his second book, came to sat essay exam, the country of the Franks, and by his gracious preaching turned many to the faith and baptized them. Then desiring that the word of Christ should be yet further spread abroad, he chose twelve of his disciples and sent them to gilded, Britain to proclaim the word of life and preach the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, and on each of them he devoutly laid his right hand; and over them he appointed, it is said, his dearest friend, Joseph of Arimathea who had buried the sat essay exam, Lord. They arrived in republic day, Britain in the sixty-third year from the Incarnation of the sat essay, Lord, and the fifteenth from the Assumption of the Blessed Mary, and preached the faith of Christ with all confidence.' [10] The king gave them an island on the borders of his country, surrounded by woods and thickets and marshes, called Yniswitrin. Two other kings in succession, though pagans, granted to each of them a portion of land: hence the Twelve Hides have their name to the present day.

These saints were admonished by caste, the archangel Gabriel to build a church in honour of the Blessed Virgin. Sat Essay Exam! They made it of twisted wattles, in the thirty-first year after the Lord's Passion and the fifteenth after the Assumption of the glorious Virgin. Since it was the republic, first in that land, the Son of God honoured it by sat essay exam, dedicating it to His Mother. 'Now that all this was so, we learn alike from the animal, Charter of St Patrick and from the writings of the sat essay exam, seniors. One of these, the historian of the essay, Britons, as we have seen at St Edmund's and again at exam St Augustine's the Apostle of the English, begins as follows: 'There is on the boundary of western Britain a certain royal island. Animal! … Here the first neophytes of the sat essay exam, Catholic law among the English found by God's guidance an essayist a chapter ancient church, built, as it is said, by no human skill, but made ready by God for sat essay exam, the salvation of men, which afterwards the deductive essay, Maker of the heavens … shewed that He had consecrated to Himself and to sat essay exam, Mary the Holy Mother of God.' [11] After the death of the first settlers the place became a lair of wild beasts, until it pleased the Blessed Virgin that her oratory should come again to the remembrance of the faithful: which happened on this wise: How St Phagan and St Deruvian converted the Britons to the faith, and came to the Isle of Avalon. Annals of good authority record (Tradunt bonae credulitatis annates) that Lucius the king of the Britons sent to Pope Eleutherius asking for Christian teachers. [12] So honourable a request deserves to caste, be compared with the action of K. Ethelbert in later days, who hospitably received the Roman missionaries, though not himself prepared to accept their teaching.

There came, then, these two holy men, Phagan and Deruvian, and preached the word in Britain in A.D. 166. When they came to the Isle of Avalon they found the church, 'built, as it is said, by the hands of the disciples of Christ and made ready by sat essay, God for telugu model republic, the salvation of men, which afterwards the Maker of the heavens … shewed that He had consecrated to Himself and to sat essay, Mary the Holy Mother of God'. [13] This was 103 years after the coming of the disciples of St Philip. St Phagan and St Dernvian remained here nine years. Essay! 'They found in ancient writings the whole story, how when the Apostles were dispersed throughout the world St Philip the Apostle came with a multitude of sat essay, disciples to France and short essay sent twelve of their number to preach in Britain. And these by the guidance of an angelic vision built that chapel which afterwards the Son of God dedicated in honour of His Mother; and to these twelve three kings, though pagans, granted for sat essay, their sustenance twelve portions of land.' [14] Accordingly St Phagan and St Deruvian chose twelve of their companions and animal thesis settled them on the island. They dwelt as anchorites in the very spots where the first twelve had dwelt. 'Yet often they assembled at the Old Church ( vetusta ecclesia ) for the devout performance of divine worship. And just as three pagan kings had granted the island with its appendages to the first twelve disciples of Christ in days gone by, so Phagan and Deruvian sought from sat essay exam, K. Lucius that the essay lily, same should be confirmed to those their twelve companions and to others who should come after them. And in this way many others in succession, always keeping to the number twelve, dwelt in the island throughout all the sat essay exam, years, until the coming of St Patrick the Apostle of the Irish. [15] To this church also, which they had thus discovered, the holy neophytes added another oratory built of stone, which they dedicated to Christ and the holy Apostles Peter and Paul.

By their work therefore was restored the Old Church of St Mary at Glastonbury. … There is also that written evidence of caste discrimination essay, good credit, found at St Edmund's, to this effect: The church of Glastonbury did none other men's hands make, but actual disciples of Christ built it; being sent, to wit, by the Apostle St Philip, as was said above. Nor is this irreconcileable with truth: for sat essay exam, if the Apostle Philip preached to the Gauls, as Freculfus says in a chapter, the fourth chapter of his second book, it may be believed that he cast the sat essay, seeds of his doctrine across the sea as well.' We may here pause in our analysis in a chapter, order to consider the authenticity of these first two sections of the book. Before calling in exam, evidence from outside we may observe that the second section (beginning with the words 'Tradunt bonae credulitatis annales') tells a complete story which might well have stood as the essayist, opening chapter of the whole work. Placed where it is, it gives us over again almost all that has been said in the first section. There are indeed some differences: the island is called Avalon, whereas in the first section it is Yniswitrin: stress is sat essay exam, laid on the twelve portions of land granted to the earliest settlers, but there is short essay, no explicit allusion to the Twelve Hides: and, most noticeable of all, Joseph of sat essay, Arimathea is not mentioned at all.

If William of Malmesbury's hand is to be discovered at all in this mass of legendary narrative, it is in this second section that we shall be inclined to begin to look for it. Now the first of the simple short, Glastonbury insertions in the third edition of the Gesta Regum [16] (pp. 23-9) is introduced thus: But since we have touched upon exam the times of Kenewalch, and the question of the monastery of Glastonbury has come up for deductive writing, consideration, I will unfold the rise and progress of that church, so far as I shall be able to gather up the facts out of the mass of memorials, setting out the tale from the beginning. This corresponds with the closing words of the Dedicatory Letter to Bishop Henry of Blois ( De Antiq. , p. 4): 'so far as I have been able to gather up the facts out of the mass of your ( v. Exam! l. our) memorials '. Earlier in the same Letter we find the words 'the start and progress of that church', and thesis the same Virgilian tag 'repetens ab origine pandam' (cf. Aen. i. 372).

The insertion at once proceeds as follows: Annals of good authority record that Lucius king of the Britons sent to Eleutherius, the thirteenth pope after the blessed Peter, with the sat essay exam, prayer that he would enlighten the darkness of Britain by the light of Christian preaching. A high-souled king was he, who essayed a deed worthy of all praise, in that of his own accord he sought after a faith of which he had bvit heard, at animal a time when well-nigh all kings and peoples were persecuting the very offer of it. These are the exact words which open the second section of the De Antiquitate in sat essay exam, the form in which we now have it. They are there followed by a passage in which the magnanimity of K. Lucius is compared with the generosity of essay lily, K. Sat Essay Exam! Ethelbert, who long afterwards offered a welcome to another band of missionaries from Rome. This passage is not quoted in G. R. 3 , but it is quite in exotic, William of Malmesbury's manner: it was however no more than a rhetorical patch. The next sentences in the two books run thus: Here we have at the outset a notable discrepancy. The insertion in G. Exam! R. 3 tells us that the names of the missionaries sent by Pope Eleutherus to short, K. Lucius are lost in the mists of antiquity.

But in the De Antiquitate their names are given as Phagan and Deruvian, on sat essay, the authority of the Charter of discrimination, St Patrick and sat essay exam the Gesta Britannorum . Two alternative explanations of this discrepancy are open to us. Caste Essay! We may suppose that William of Malmesbury came to mistrust the Charter of St Patrick which had been shown him at Glastonbury, and on second thoughts rejected its evidence altogether. Or we may suppose that the sat essay exam, statement that the names of the missionaries were unknown is what he really wrote in deductive essay writing, the De Antiquitate ; and that the Charter of St Patrick with all the information derived from it, was a later invention foisted into the original work. Now William of Malmesbury does not elsewhere in his historical works refer to sat essay, the mission sent by Eleutherus at the request of K. Lucius. He found it, of course, in the Chronicle (under A.D. 167), as also in Bede ( H. Model Republic! E. i. 4 and Epit. ), who probably got it from the Liber Pontificalis . He was on firm ground therefore when he spoke of ' annals of good authority '. But in none of these sources are the names of the sat essay exam, missionaries given. Geoffrey of Monmouth, however, says (IV, § 19) that their names were Fagan and Duvian; and a chapter he adds the story of the twenty-eight flamens and three arch-flamens, who as the result of their mission were superseded by twenty-eight bishops and three archbishops. After him Giraldus Cambrensis ( Descr. Cambr. Exam! i ad fin.) gives their names as Fagan and Damian. But neither of these writers brings the missionaries to Glastonbury. [17]

In the Gesta Pontificum (p. 196) William of Malmesbury had expressed his view that the first founder of the monastery of Glastonbury was K. Ina, acting under the advice of St Aldhelm. A like statement is found in the first edition of his Gesta Regum (p. Animal Thesis! 35, note). Sat Essay Exam! But this does not prevent him from recognising that Glastonbury had long been a sacred spot and that St Patrick at the close of his Irish mission had died and was buried there. [18] In the insertion into his third edition of the Gesta Regum he goes much further back, and brings the nameless missionaries of Pope Eleutherus to Glastonbury and makes them the builders of the Old Church of St Mary. He has indeed seen some evidence of a yet earlier origin—the building of the church by actual disciples of Christ. He will not deny the possibility of this; for, if St Philip came to Gaul as Freculfus says, he may well have sent some of his disciples across the sea to Britain. The reader, however, shall not be troubled further with matters of mere opinion. This is a statement guarded enough, and not unworthy of a cautious historian who at caste discrimination essay the time of writing was enjoying the sat essay exam, hospitality of the Glastonbury monks. But a few strokes of the pen turn it into something very different.

The missionaries are identified as Phagan and Deruvian, of whom much may be learned from the Charter of short essay, St Patrick and sat essay the Gesta Britannorum. Exotic Animal Thesis! The addition of the single word 'restaurata' makes Phagan and Deruvian the sat essay, restorers, not the builders, of the Old Church. The suggestion that its building by the actual disciples of Christ can be treated as mere matter of opinion is struck out. We are at a loss to know what written evidence William of Malmesbury found for the statement that 'the church of Glastonbury did none other men's hands make, but actual disciples of Christ built it '. He found it, he says, 'in certain places' ( in nonnullis locis ). For these vague words the De Antiquitate gives us ' at St Edmund's ', and it adds a reference to an earlier mention of the missionaries sent by St Philip. Short Essay! When we turn back to the first section we read, after a long account of these missionaries: ' Now that all this was so, we learn alike from the Charter of St Patrick and sat essay from the writings of the seniors. One of these, the historian of the Britons ( Britonum historiographus ), as we have seen at St Edmund's and again at St Augustine's the Apostle of the English, begins as follows: There is on the boundary of western Britain a certain royal island. Lily! …' The citation is in fact taken from the early Life of St Dunstan, written about A.D. 1000 by the Saxon priest known only by his initial B. A copy of this work was, as William of Malmesbury tells us in his own Life of St Dunstan, placed in his hands by the monks of sat essay, Glastonbury; [19] so that in essayist a chapter, any case this could not be the sat essay, writing to which he refers.

Moreover what we are there told is that ' the deductive reasoning, first neophytes of the Catholic law found an ancient church, built, as it is said, by no human skill, but made ready from heaven for the salvation of man '. This is in direct conflict with the statement that it was built by actual disciples of Christ. Further, it is not likely that William of exam, Malmesbury could have spoken of this book, as the writer of the first section does, as the work of gilded lily, Britonum historiographus . Sat Essay! It is plain that we have here an ignorant attempt of some later writer to identify the work to which reference had been made. We must now resume our analysis of the work as it stands, taking it up at the third section (p. 15). How a certain monk of St Denys discoursed concerning Glastonbury. The antiquity of the church is shown by the story of a Glastonbury monk named Godfrey, of the time when Henry of Blois was abbot, who visited the monastery of St Denys. 'We have taken both this and the chapter which we shall subjoin from a letter of his.' An old monk there told him that, while both their churches were known to have been dedicated by the Saviour Himself, Glastonbury had the further distinction of telugu model republic day, being called 'Roma secunda'.

How a multitude of folk first came to sat essay exam, dwell at caste discrimination essay Glastonbury. 'In the ancient Deeds of the Britons we read that from the northern part of Britain there came to the West twelve brothers.' The last on sat essay, the list is Glasteing. It was he who passing through the English of the Midlands followed his sow from Wells along the Sugewege and found her under an apple-tree near the Old Church. Here he settled with his family. Of the various names of this Island. The British name Yniszvitrin was translated by the English as Glastinbiry . Or we may take the derivation from Glasteing, as given above. Avallonia may come from avalla , the British word for apples; or from Avalloc, who retired here with his daughters. Of these three sections the essay, first betrays itself at once as later than the days of Henry of Blois. The other two with their mythological explanations are, in style as well as in substance, such as we could not easily imagine William of Malmesbury to have written. And in fact, if we omit them, the narrative runs on without a break, [20] exactly as in the insertion in sat essay, G. R. Short Essay! 3.

With what devotion divers saints came thither. The church of which we speak was called by the English the Old Church. It was at first formed of wattles. Plain as it was, its fame was widespread, and pilgrims came from every quarter. Gildas the British historian ( historicas ) spent many years there. ' And there he died in a. Sat Essay! d. 512, and was buried in caste, the Old Church before the altar.' With the exception of the last sentence, which is sat essay exam, only found in the De Antiquitate, the telugu model day, narratives thus far are identical.

What follows comes at a later point in sat essay exam, the insertion in G. R. 3 (p. 26). St Germanus of Auxerre, having come to the aid of the Britons against essayist on ears English invaders and exam Pelagian heretics, on his return took Patrick with him. Presently he sent him, by order of Pope Celestine, to preach in Ireland. When his work was done, he came to Glastonbury.

There he found twelve brethren living as anchorites: he gathered them into a community and became their abbot, 'as the following writing, which he himself in reasoning writing, his own day composed, manifestly declares.' As far as the exam, arrival of Glastonbury the two narratives run together (save that the insertion has two citations from the Chronicle): but in the insertion there is only added: 'and there he became monk and abbot, and short after some years paid the debt of sat essay, nature'. There is no mention of his Charter, which in the De Antiquitate now follows. It is so important for gilded lily, our argument, and in itself so interesting as marking a stage in the Glastonbury tradition, that it may be given here in full. The Charter of St Patrick the Bishop. 'In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. I Patrick, the humble servant of God, in the year of exam, His Incarnation 430, was sent into Ireland by the most holy Pope Celestine, and by God's grace converted the Irish to the way of truth; and, when I had established them in the Catholic faith, at length I returned to Britain, and, as I believe, by the guidance of exotic thesis, God, who is the life and the way, I chanced upon the isle of Ynsgytrin, wherein I found a place holy and ancient, chosen and sat essay sanctified by God in honour of Mary the pure Virgin, the Mother of God: and there I found certain brethren imbued with the rudiments of the Catholic faith, and of pious conversation, who were successors of the a chapter on ears, disciples of St Phagan and St Deruvian, whose names for the merit of their lives I verily believe are written in heaven: and because the righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance, since tenderly I loved those brethren, I have thought good to sat essay exam, record their names in this my writing. And they are these: Brumban, Hyregaan, Brenwal, Wencreth, Bamtonmeweng, Adelwalred, Lothor, Wellias, Breden, Swelwes, Hin Loernius, and another Hin. These men, being of noble birth and wishing to crown their nobleness with deeds of faith, had chosen to lead a hermit's life; and when I found them meek and gentle, I chose to be in low estate with them, rather than to dwell in kings' palaces.

And, since we were all of one heart and one mind, we chose to dwell together, and eat and drink in reasoning essay, common, and sleep in sat essay, the same house. And so they set me, though unwilling, at their head: for thesis, indeed I was not worthy to unloose the latchet of their shoes. And, when we were thus leading the monastic life according to the pattern of the approved fathers, the brothers showed me writings of St Phagan and St Deruvian, wherein it was contained that twelve disciples of St Philip and St James had built that Old Church in honour of our Patroness aforesaid, instructed thereto by the blessed archangel Gabriel. And further, that the Lord from heaven had dedicated that same church in honour of His Mother; and that to those twelve three pagan kings had granted for their sustenance twelve portions of land. Moreover in more recent writings I found that St Phagan and St Deruvian had obtained from Pope Eleutherius, who had sent them, ten years [21] of indulgence. And I brother Patrick in my time obtained twelve years from exam, Pope Celestine of pious memory. 'Now after some time had passed I took with me my brother Wellias, and with great difficulty we climbed up through the dense wood to essayist a chapter, the summit of the exam, mount, which stands forth in that island. Simple Essay! And when we were come there we saw an ancient oratory, wellnigh ruined, yet fitting for Christian devotion and, as it appeared to me, chosen by God.

And when we entered therein we were filled with so sweet an odour that we believed ourselves to be set in the beauty of Paradise. So then we went out and went in again, and searched the whole place diligently; and sat essay exam we found a volume in which were written Acts of gilded lily, Apostles, along with Acts and Deeds of St Phagan and St Deruvian. It was in great part destroyed, but at the end thereof we found a writing which said that St Phagan and St Deruvian, by sat essay, revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ, had built that oratory in honour of St Michael the archangel, that he should have honour there from men, who at God's bidding was to introduce men to simple short essay, everlasting honour. Sat Essay! And since that writing pleased us much, we sought to read it to the end. For that same writing said that the venerable Phagan and Deruvian abode there for nine years, and that they had also obtained indulgence of thirty years for all Christian folk who visit that place with pious intent for the honour of the blessed Michael. Caste Discrimination! Having found therefore this great treasure of sat essay, divine goodness, I and brother Wellias fasted three months, engaged in prayer and watching, and controlling the demons and beasts that in divers forms appeared. Reasoning Essay Writing! And on a certain night, when I had given myself to sleep, the Lord Jesus appeared to me in exam, a vision, saying: Patrick my servant, know that I have chosen this place to the honour of My name, and that here men should honorably invoke the aid of My archangel Michael.

And this shall be a sign to thee, and to thy brethren, that they also may believe: thy left arm shall wither, till thou has told what thou hast seen to thy brethren which are in the cell below, and art come hither again. Discrimination! And so it came to sat essay exam, pass. From that day we appointed that two brethren should be there continually, unless the pastors in the future should for just cause determine otherwise. 'Now to Arnulf and Ogmar, Irish brethren who had come with me from Ireland, because at my request they were the first to make their humble dwelling at that oratory, I have entrusted this present writing, keeping another like unto it in the ark of St Mary as a memorial for those who shall come after. And I Patrick, by counsel of my brethren, concede a hundred days of pardon to all who shall with pious intent cut down with axe and hatchet the wood on every side of the mount aforesaid, that there may be an easier approach for Christian men who shall make pious visit to a chapter, the church of the Blessed Ever- Virgin.' That these things were truly so, we have proved by the testimony of a very ancient writing, as well as by the narratives of elder men. And so this saint aforesaid, who is the Apostle of the Irish and the first abbot in the Isle of Avalon, after he had duly instructed these brethren in rule and sat essay exam discipline, and had sufficiently enriched that place with lands and possessions by the gift of simple short, kings and princes, when some years were past yielded to nature, and had his rightful burial, by the showing of an angel, and by the flashing from the sat essay exam, spot of model, a great flame in sight of all who were there present, in the Old Church on the right hand of the altar. The composition of this amazing document must have given immense delight to its ingenious author. But we must turn away from its picturesque details, even from the charming touch which gives to neighbouring Wells an interest in the discovery of St Michael's chapel on the Tor: for there is nothing here to guide us to a date. Happily there is a business side to the rhapsody which may provide a clue. The isle of Glastonbury, Mother of the Saints, the Second Rome, had in exam, virtue of this precious charter privileges of indulgence to offer to her pilgrims, worthy of her high antiquity and her divine consecration.

Ten years—some said thirty—gained by St Phagan and St Deruvian from Pope Eleutherus; twelve more gained by St Patrick from Pope Celestine: while for those who made the toilsome ascent of the Tor St Phagan and discrimination essay St Deruvian had gained thirty more. The question of Indulgences has been investigated by Dr. H. C. Lea in his great work on Auricular Confession. The earliest grant which he can point to as indisputably genuine is that made by Urban II at the dedication of the church of St Nicholas at Angers in a. d. Sat Essay Exam! 1096: it gave one month's relaxation of enjoined penance for exotic, the anniversary (Lea, iii. 141). At the dedication of Cluny in 1132 Innocent II granted 40 days for the anniversary ( ibid. 145). Between these two dates, as I have shown elsewhere, may be confidently placed a grant by the papal legate, Peter of Cluny, to Westminster in 1121: this gave relaxation of 40 days of criminalia and a third of enjoined penance for minora to those who visited the sat essay exam, church on the festival of the martyrdom of SS. Short Essay! Peter and Paul.

A more substantial grant to the same church was made much later by Innocent IV (1243-54), namely, of a year and 40 days for the festival of sat essay, St Edward. [22] Turning back to Dr. Simple Essay! Lea's list we find that in sat essay exam, 1163 Alexander III, in telugu model essays, dedicating S. Germain des Pres, granted a year on the actual occasion and 20 days for sat essay exam, the anniversary. But all these grants fade into insignificance before the benefits provided by St Phagan and St Deruvian. There is another road by which we may approach our problem. Hearne has printed in essay, the appendix to his John of Glastonbury a list of charters existing among the abbey muniments in sat essay, 1247. [23] He has on p. 378 a heading which runs thus: 'Days of Indulgence for Glastonbury, of which we have not the essays day, charters, though we once had them '. This list is just what is needed to tell us what undoubted privileges Glastonbury claimed in the middle of the thirteenth century, a hundred years after William of Malmesbury's death. Though the sat essay exam, monks could not show the charters, they were secure in the confirmation of all these days by a covering privilege of Pope Innocent III (1198-1216). The first was a grant by St Dunstan of 100 days: this doubtless was a forgery, but it had passed muster at Rome. The next is Lanfranc's grant of 30 days, which may well have been genuine. The next twelve do not rise in any instance above 40 days.

Then Bishop Reginald of Bath grants 100 days, probably when he dedicated the chapel of St Mary at its restoration after the fire of 1184. His successor, Bishop Savary, who made himself abbot of Glastonbury, also granted 100 days. The list ends with Bishop Jocelin's grant of 30 days. Thus much for genuine privileges, which are such as we might expect. But just before this list comes a small section to the following effect: Ancient Indulgence for exotic, Glastonbury in a charter without seal. Pope Eleutherius granted 10 years [24] of Indulgence at the request of Phagan and Deruvian. Pope Celestine granted 12 years at the request of St Patrick.

Item, SS. Phagan and Deruvian obtained 30 years. ¶ Torre. [25] We know whence these items come, and we are not surprised that no papal confirmation is claimed for exam, them. Simple Short Essay! We may even doubt whether the sat essay exam, Charter of St Patrick which authorised them had seen the light at simple all in the lifetime of Pope Innocent III. Here at any rate is our earliest evidence of its existence. [26] And this same document of 1247 mentions it again (p. 379), when under the exam, heading Antiqua Privilegia it places by themselves the three great forgeries,

Magnum Privilegium Ynae regis. Privilegium Edgari regis. Carta Sancti Patrieii. The great fire which consumed the telugu model republic, abbey on St Urban's day, the 25th of May, 1184, was responsible for several wonderful discoveries at Glastonbury—among others the body of King Arthur. The sore distress of the monks under Bishop Savary's rule and exam their expensive efforts to regain their freedom after his death must have yet further quickened their imagination; and we may suppose that the 'very ancient writing', which St Patrick had providentially deposited in a safe hiding-place high up on the Tor, was a timely find for their empty purse. Let us now draw together our reasons for thinking that William of Malmesbury had no knowledge of St Patrick's Charter, and essay that it was foisted into his work long after his death. In the first place we have seen that the third edition of sat essay, his Gesta Regum , though it contains passages which appear in identical words in the De Antiquitate , makes no mention of the Charter or of any incidents for which the Charter is cited as an authority in a chapter, this latter work in the form in which we now read it.

Secondly, whereas the Charter gives the names of sat essay exam, Phagan and Deruvian to the missionaries sent by telugu model, Pope Eleutherus to K. Lucius, and these names now appear in those portions of the De Antiquitate which correspond to the insertions in G. R. 3 , William of Malmesbury expressly declares that their names were unknown in his day. Thirdly, the excessive terms of Indulgence granted in the Charter could hardly have suggested themselves to a forger of any time before William of Malmesbury wrote, and may with much more probability be referred to the period of strain through which the abbey passed in the early part of the exam, thirteenth century. We may add to simple essay, all this that the first positive indication of the existence of the sat essay, Charter comes .to us from a record of the year 1247. We go forward again with our analysis (p. Caste Discrimination Essay! 22). Of St Patrick's decease. St Patrick died in a. d. 472, in sat essay exam, the 111th year of his age, and the 47th since his mission to Ireland.

For in lily, 361 he was born: in 425 sent to Ireland: in 433 he converted the exam, Irish: after that he dwelt 39 years in the isle of Avalon. ' He rested in the Old Church on the right side of the altar for many ages, even 410 years, until the burning of that church.' He was buried in a stone pyramid, afterwards decked with gold and animal silver. A Vision concerning St Patrick. Long afterwards, when dispute arose concerning him, a monk received a vision which proved that he had been monk and abbot there. Of St Indract and St Bridget. Hence Irish pilgrims came to visit the spot. St Bridget dwelt long in the island of Beokery, and returning home left memorials of wonder-working power. St Indract and his companions were martyred, as elsewhere we have told, and afterwards brought by K. Ina to the church of Glastonbury. In a. d. 460 came St Benignus, the third successor of sat essay exam, St Patrick in his Irish bishopric. He found St Patrick still there. There are still memorials of his miracles at Feringemere (Meare), where he rested till his translation to Glastonbury in 1091. [27]

Of St Columkill. In A.D. 504 St Columkill came; but it is uncertain whether he died there. The first three sections are attested by a chapter, the insertion in sat essay exam, G. R. 3 G. R. 3 , though with a few variations. In the exotic animal, first section the mention of the fire of 1184 shows that the story has been worked over. [28] The items given under the dates 425 and 433 appear in G. R. 3 as two extracts from 'Chronica', which however do not correspond with any form of the A. S. Chron. that we know. [29] The date of St Bridget is an amplification, as also is the statement that she resided in 'the island of Beokery'.

Beokery, as we shall be told later, means 'Little Ireland'. Sat Essay Exam! [30] The information here given as to St Benignus is not in G. R. 3 , save for a brief sentence as to his miracles. But what G. R. 3 does give us corresponds with what comes much later in De Antiquitate (p. 46). The little section on St Columkill is also wanting in G. Essay! R. Exam! 3 , which goes on to speak of St David. Of St David the Archbishop. In what reverence the place was held by the great St David, archbishop of the Menevensians, is well known.

He came with his seven bishops, thinking to consecrate the church. Exotic Animal Thesis! At night the Lord appeared to him and warned him that He Himself had dedicated it in honour of His Mother. As a sign He pierced his hand, but promised that it should be healed when in the morrow's mass he should reach the words ' by Him and with Him and in Him [31] So then he quickly built another church, and consecrated that. Of the sat essay, Relics of St David. St David died in a. d. 546. Essayist A Chapter On Ears! Some say that he was laid with St Patrick in the Old Church; and this is supported by the pilgrims from Wales, who declare that Bernard, bishop of sat essay, Rosina Vallis, sought him elsewhere in vain. But how his remains came from Rosina Vallis to Glastonbury we will explain. A matron in K. Edgar's time, named ?lswitha, obtained them through a kinsman who was bishop there, when the land was so laid waste that almost all deserted it; and she bestowed them upon Glastonbury. Of Relics brought from Wales to essays, Glastonbury.

Welsh pilgrims, on exam, the way to caste, visit Rome, deposited bodies of their saints and other relics at Glastonbury. This translation of St David took place in A.D. 962. The first of these sections occurs in full in G. R. 3 In the second the date is an amplification, as is the sat essay, mention of Rosina Vallis in connexion with Bishop Bernard's name. [32] So also is the story about model essays republic, iElswitha. The third section is not in G. R. 3 , which passes on to speak of the mission of St Augustine. What follows in the De Antiquitate is found much earlier in G. R. 3 (p. 24). Of the sanctity and dignity of the church of Glastonbury. This church, then, of all I know in England is the most ancient: hence its name. [33] The place is crowded with the sat essay exam, bodies of saints.

Under the pavement, above and beneath the a chapter, altars, relics are everywhere. Rightly is it called the heavenly sanctuary on earth and the depository of sat essay, saints. [34] Happy are they who dwell there! Who shall fail of heaven, with patrons such as these to plead their cause? So sacrosanct is the place that none dare profane it, none swear falsely by it. The truth of essayist a chapter, this finds its support in testimonies of every age. [35] This rhetorical section is the same in both our documents, save for slight displacements. Exam! In what follows we go on to p. 28 of G. Telugu Model! R. 3. Of St Paulinus the Bishop. To return to my subject, St Patrick's birth in A.D. 361 preceded St Augustine's coming by 236 years.

Paulinus the companion of the latter, when bishop of Rochester after having been archbishop of York, is said to have covered the wattled church with wooden planks and roofed it with lead. Of the Translation of St Indract and his companions. Some years afterwards K. Ina translated the bodies of St Indract and his companions from the place of their martyrdom to the church of Glastonbury. Of the Relics brought to Glastonbury from the sat essay, land of the model, Northumbrians. Still later, when the Danes were ravaging Northumbria, a certain abbot Tica took refuge at Glastonbury, and was made abbot there in A.D. 754. He brought with him relics of St Aidan, and the bodies of Ceolfrid, Benedict [Biscop] and sat essay other abbots of Wearmouth; also of Bede the Presbyter and on ears Abbess Hilda. He himself was buried in the right-hand corner of the greater church, near the entrance to the Old Church. The section on Paulinus is in G. R. 3 , but without the date, and with no mention of the roofing with lead. The next section corresponds to a portion of the second insertion in G. R. 3 , under the reign of K. Ina (p. 36).

The section on the Northumbrian saints is not found in sat essay, G. R. 3 William of Malmesbury's opinion wavered on this matter. In the Gesta Pontificum (p. 198), writing about Glastonbury, he says that K. Edmund, when on his northern expedition, sent these relics—namely, Hilda and Ceolfrid and part of the bones of Aidan. But in the first edition of his Gesta Regum (p. Essayist! 56) he speaks of the destruction of Whitby by the Danes, and says that bones of Aidan and Hilda were removed to Glastonbury: in the third edition he adds at this point 'Ceolfrid' and 'many others', together with the words: 'as I have said in sat essay, the book which I have lately put forth on essay gilded lily, the Antiquity of the church of Glastonbury'. Again, on p. 60 of the first edition he says that Ceolfrid's bones together with Hilda's were taken to Glastonbury at the time of the Danish invasion: here there is no change in the third edition. In speaking of St Indract on exam, p. 36 of discrimination essay, G. R. 3 , he says in passing: 'with whom the care of a later age laid the blessed Hilda'. In the first book of sat essay exam, his Life of St Dunstan he had promised to tell how these northern saints came to Glastonbury, if he were permitted to complete his book on the Antiquity of the church of Glastonbury. [36] We may perhaps conclude that he abandoned the view that K. Simple! Edmund brought them in favour of a translation at the time of the Danish invasion; but, since Abbot Tica's name is not mentioned in G. R. 3 , we cannot be confident that is not a later interpolation. We now come to a solid block of the De Antiquitate which has no attestation at all in the third edition of the Gesta Regum , and is certainly not from the pen of William of Malmesbury.

It extends over thirteen pages of Hearne's edition (pp. 30-42), and it will be unnecessary to give an analysis of exam, it here. It will suffice to say that the first section, which is headed 'Of Divers Relics stored at Glastonbury', repeats much that has been said before and adds many new names after the manner of a catalogue; makes reference to the translation of St Dunstan, of which it promises to give a full account; and ends by saying that 'amongst us' ( apud nos ) there is not a complete knowledge of the many saints who are buried here. The remainder of this great interpolation is mainly taken up with an elaborate narrative of the finding of exotic thesis, St Dunstan's body when Canterbury was laid desolate by the Danes, their removal to Glastonbury where they lay hidden for more than a century and a half, and finally their happy discovery after the great fire of 1184. Sat Essay! This is followed by short sections on three wonder-working Crosses [37] and a chapter on ears an image of the Virgin which miraculously escaped the fire. Finally, we have a section 'On the Altar of sat essay, St David, which is commonly called the Sapphire': if we could have any doubt as to the date of this, it would be removed by the last sentence which speaks of Henry, bishop of Winchester, 'of pious memory'.

After this interlude we find ourselves again with William of Malmesbury, though at first only for essay, a single sentence. Of the Nobles buried at Glastonbury. How venerable was this church to the great ones of the land, and how desirable as a resting-place, is shown by many proofs with which I will not weary my readers. This has occurred at an earlier point in G. R. 3 (p. 25). Sat Essay Exam! It is there followed quite naturally by the words which in the De Antiquitate will begin the next section. The present section is gilded, filled out by a series of examples which the writer says he will pass over ( praetermitto … praetermitto etiam … taceo … ). The first of these examples is K. Sat Essay! Arthur, of whom a good deal is essay, here said.

Yet William of Malmesbury declares in Gesta Regum (II, p. 342) that his grave is exam, unknown, and recounts no more about him than the little that he found in caste discrimination essay, Nennius: he has no use for 'Britonum nugae' ( G. R. Sat Essay Exam! I, p. 11 ). Of the Two Pyramids. That which is almost wholly unknown would I gladly tell, if I could shape out the truth of it: namely, the meaning of those pyramids which stand at a few feet from the Old Church in the cemetery of the monks. The nearest to the church is twenty-six feet high, and has a number of essay, names, which perhaps may refer to persons buried beneath. The second is eighteen feet high, and on exam, it can be read 'Hedde episcopus', 'Bregored' and 'Beoruuard'. Exotic Thesis! The last of these was abbot after Hemgisl. Sat Essay! Of these abbots, and of the whole series of abbots and what gifts they obtained for the abbey from various kings, we propose from this point onward to speak in detail. The whole of this section is in G. R. 3 (p. 25), where it is followed by: 'And first of the essay, blessed Patrick, from whom the series takes its start'. The story of Patrick we have had at sat essay a much earlier point in the De Antiquitate (pp.

18 ff.). But the sequence in G. R. 3 commends itself as far more natural, and more in harmony with the author's declared purpose of proving that St Dunstan was by essay lily, no means the first abbot of sat essay exam, Glastonbury. It was the Canterbury Chanter's error on this point that had moved the historian to caste essay, write his Enquiry into the Antiquity of the Church of sat essay, Glastonbury. We must carry our analysis a little further, until we come to K. Essay Gilded Lily! Coenwalch and the Saxon charters and so reach the point at which our documentary evidence begins. Of Kings, Abbots, and other Founders of the Church of exam, Glastonbury set out in order. First it is to simple essay, be remembered that the twelve disciples of St Philip and St James. …. Then next St Phagan and St Deruvian. … Then long afterwards St Patrick. Exam! … To him succeeded St Benignus: his epitaph was inscribed on his tomb at Ferremere. Then followed British abbots, whose names are lost, save only three—Worgret, Lademund and essayist a chapter Bregored. Of this only the portion dealing with St Benignus is in G. R. 3 : the rest has been said too often already, except the last sentence which anticipates what is to sat essay exam, come. Of the telugu essays, Illustrious Arthur.

It is told in the Deeds of K. Arthur how he lost a young knight who slew three giants on the Mount of Frogs, otherwise called Brent Knoll, and in sorrow gave this hill to the abbey of Glastonbury. After all that we have learned of the interpolations in exam, the De Antiquitate we shall not be disposed to attribute this section to William of Malmesbury. Essay! But the exam, next section appears in G. R. 3 (pp. Simple! 28 f.). Of the sat essay, land of Yneswitrin, given to essay, Glastonbury in the time of the English who were converted to the Faith. In A.D.

601 a king of Domnonia granted to the Old Church which was situated there the land called Yneswitrin, at the request of Abbot Worgret, namely five hides. ' I, Mauron the bishop, wrote this charter. I, Worgret, abbot of the same place, have subscribed it.' Who that king was the age of the document prevents us from knowing. Sat Essay Exam! That he was a Briton may be gathered from his calling Glastonbury Yneswitrin. Worgret, whose name sounds British, was succeeded by Lademund; and he by animal, Bregored. Their dates are unknown, but their names are shown by sat essay, a painting in the great church. Bregored was succeeded by Berthwald. The strange and apparently inconsistent mention of the conversion of the English which is found in the title is perhaps explained when we find in G. R. 3 , after the date A.D. 610, the additional words: 'that is, in the fifth year of the deductive reasoning essay writing, coming of the exam, blessed Augustine'. It is plain that William of Malmesbury had seen what purported to caste essay, be the charter of exam, a British king, whose name could no longer be read: but of this charter we have no further knowledge.

In favour of its early date may at essay any rate be pleaded that it speaks only of five hides, and not of twelve. The next section deals with K. Sat Essay! Coenwalch and Abbot Beorhtwald, and is found with some modifications in G. R. 3 . Reasoning Essay Writing! It closes the first insertion in the third edition of the Gesta Regum , bringing us back to the times of K. Coenwalch, whose name had led the exam, historian to exotic, introduce the subject of sat essay exam, Glastonbury. The succession of the gilded, English abbots which begins at this point must be treated in sat essay, a separate essay. When we come to sum up the results of our investigation, we recall in the first place the sharp difference between William of Malmesbury's assertion that the names of the missionaries sent by K. A Chapter On Ears! Lucius were lost in the mists of the past, and the frequency with which St Phagan and exam St Deruvian meet us in the opening sections and at later points in the De Antiquitate as we read it to-day. We remember also that, whereas he attributed to the labour of these missionaries the deductive reasoning essay, building of the Old Church at Glastonbury, the De Antiquitate says that by their labour the church was restored, its original building being assigned to actual disciples of the Lord. Moreover we have seen reason for believing that the Charter of St Patrick, on which the sat essay, De Antiquitate , as we have it, relies for the information which thus directly contradicts the statements of William of Malmesbury, was not known to the historian, and indeed cannot reasonably be supposed to have been written till many years after his death. The account which William of Malmesbury, in the great insertion in the third edition of his Gesta Regum , has given us of the earliest history of Glastonbury is exceedingly cautious. 'Annals of good authority' tell of missionaries sent into animal thesis, Britain by exam, Pope Eleutherus at essay the request of K. Lucius. Sat Essay! Their names we do not know, but tradition assures us that they built the simple essay, Old Church of sat essay exam, St Mary at Glastonbury. There are indeed writings which take it back still further to actual disciples of Christ: and this is not impossible; for, if Freculfus was right in saying that St Philip the Apostle preached in Gaul, he may have sent some of his followers across the essay, sea. It is not conceivable that the man who wrote this non-committal statement, almost all the words of which are found embodied in the second section of the sat essay, De Antiquitate , could have written only a few years before the remaining portion of that section or any part at all of the on ears, first section as it now stands.

The words 'Tradunt bonae credulitates annales' form a perfectly adequate opening to an Enquiry into the Antiquity of the Church of exam, Glastonbury. The writer courteously refers to the traditional accounts of the origin of the church, but he is anxious to get forward as quickly as possible to the declared purpose of his work. He has been irritated by the monstrous assertion of Osbern, the late precentor of Canterbury, that the first abbot of Glastonbury was St Dunstan in the tenth century. Essayist A Chapter! His examination of the abbey muniments has provided him with record evidence, as we call it to-day, of at least nineteen earlier abbots of the English line alone; he has found the names of three British abbots before their time; and the grave of sat essay exam, St Patrick, still visited by Irish pilgrims, leads him to accept the local belief that the hermits who for many generations had dwelt in the neighbourhood of the Tor were first gathered into community by gilded, the Apostle of the sat essay exam, Irish. The abbots of Glastonbury, therefore, though some of their names can no longer be traced, go back to the first half of the fifth century: St Patrick was the first, and St Benignus his pupil was the second. We may question this to-day, if we will, as Ralph Higden questioned it in discrimination essay, the fourteenth century, and sat essay suppose that there has been some confusion with a later Patrick. Simple Essay! But if we had lived in William of Malmesbury's time, and seen St Patrick's tomb with the Irish pilgrims kneeling round it, and had copied the epitaph of St Benignus at Meare, and visited St Bridget's chapel at Beokery, or Little Ireland, and seen her wallet and her distaff, we should have been sceptical indeed had we accused the historian of excessive credulity.

It was left to a later age to take over St Phagan and St Deruvian from Geoffrey of Monmouth or Giraldus Cambrensis, and to invent the Charter of sat essay exam, St Patrick which brought them to Glastonbury and made them not only restore the Old Church of St Mary, but also build the chapel of St Michael on the Tor. Deductive Reasoning Writing! It was left to a later age still to exam, appropriate the story of Joseph of Arimathea and the legend of the Holy Grail. Our conclusion is that the whole of the opening portion of the De Antiquitate as William of Malmesbury wrote it, down to the point at which he begins to treat of the English abbots and the evidence of early charters, is substantially preserved for us in the first and longest insertion which we find in the third edition of the Gesta Regum . Guided by the context and the style, we have no hesitation in adding to this what we have called a rhetorical patch in which he compares the generous action of caste essay, K. Lucius with that of K. Ethelbert in later days. Sat Essay Exam! It is just possible that he may have omitted for reasoning essay writing, the sake of brevity another sentence here or there, and that the order of the narrative may have been changed: but I do not think that this is so. Exam! I venture to submit that in this great insertion into the Gesta Regum , when we have replaced a single passage, we have the essay writing, genuine form of the first part of the De Antiquitate.

And I would ask any scholar who inclines to question this verdict to set himself the task of translating into English the first few sections of the book as it stands. He will find that his pen runs easily enough as he renders the dull and exam unidiomatic Latin of the later writers, but that he will have to pause and think before he can do justice to the cultivated and simple short essay ambitious style of the great historian. It was in fact an attempt to translate the book, which so far as I know has never been presented to English readers, that awoke my own suspicions in regard to several sections which I had been prepared to leave unchallenged. It is dangerous to argue from sat essay exam, style alone, and therefore I have left this observation to the last: but the contrast is so marked that I feel no hesitation in adducing it in a chapter on ears, corroboration of a conclusion reached on other grounds. Additional Note .—I have spoken throughout of 'the third edition' of the Gesta Regum . Bishop Stubbs followed earlier scholars in recognising three classes of the MSS, and he designated them as A, B, and C. The A MSS represent the original form of the work. In the B and C MSS there are certain changes which show a tendency to soften some of the harsher judgements of the earlier text.

Moreover B agrees with C in paying more attention to Glastonbury, and it has a few of the same insertions from the De Antiquitate , to which book it makes express reference more than once. The whole of the first insertion, with which we have been concerned above, is absent from the sat essay exam, B MSS; but at the point at which this insertion comes in C there is a slight deviation in B from the A text; and a chapter on ears such deviations occur, as Bishop Stubbs points out, wherever an insertion comes in C and not in B. I must refer to Bishop Stubbs's Introduction to sat essay, the Gesta Regum (I, lviii ff.) for essays, a statement of the main differences between B and sat essay exam C. With evident unwillingness he decides to follow his predecessors in making B the second and C the third edition. To avoid confusion I have accepted this arrangement, as it does not affect my argument. But I should wish to essayist, record the impression which a study of the various readings in his apparatus criticus has left on sat essay, my mind. I believe that his instinct was right when he was inclined to make C the second and B the third edition.

I should add, however, that the simple short essay, B recension was not due to the historian himself, but was the work of a later editor who had no special interest in Glastonbury, and perhaps even disliked the exceptional prominence given to it. I would invite future students of the problem to observe how frequently throughout the Gesta Regum the changes made in the B edition are tiresome verbal emendations, quite unlikely to have proceeded from the pen of the author himself. I give this only as an impression, but I would point out that this solution would relieve us from the sat essay exam, difficulty of supposing that William of Malmesbury having made these Glastonbury insertions in C should afterwards have produced a new edition (B) in which he struck nearly all of them out: for it assigns to him two editions only (A and C), and refers B to a later editor.

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The strategic role of Supply chain management in manufacturing industry Essay Sample. As a manufacturing company in UK, we spend over 50 % of our sales on purchases. Because such a high percentage of an organization’s costs are determined by purchasing, relationships with suppliers are increasingly integrated and long-term. Joint efforts that improve innovation, speed design, and reduce costs are common. Such efforts can dramatically improve both partners’ competitiveness.

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IV Implementing supply chain management strategies. The primary purpose in establishing supply chains is to minimize the flow of raw materials and finished products at every point in exam, the pipeline in order to enhance productivity and cost savings (Cohen, 1996; Cooper and thesis Ellram, 1993). There are five points that would be noticed in implementing supply chain management strategies. 1. Establish supplier relationships. It is exam, important to establish strategic partnerships with suppliers for exotic, a successful supply chain. Corporations have started to limit the number of exam, suppliers they do business with by implementing vendor review programs. Exotic Animal Thesis? These programs strive to find suppliers with operational excellence so the customer can determine which supplier is serving it better. The ability to sat essay exam, have a closer customer/supplier relationship is essayist a chapter, very important because these suppliers are easier to work with. With the evolution toward a sole supplier relationship, firms need full disclosure of information such as financial performance, gain-sharing strategies, and plans for jointly designed work.

They may establish a comparable culture and also implement compatible forecasting and information technology systems. Exam? This is because their suppliers must be able to link electronically into reasoning, the customer’s system to obtain shipping details, production schedules and any other needed information (Copacino, 1996; Coyle et al., 1996; Keller, 1995). 2.Manage inventory investment in the chain. Each constituent of the supply chain desires to hold no more than its fair share of inventory. Sat Essay? For instance, the distributor desires fewer inventories and would like to see inventory held by the manufacturer. As a result, the concept of vendor-managed inventory has become a trend in inventory management. Deductive? This system allows the inventory to be pushed back to the vendor and as a result lowers the investment and sat essay risk for the other chain members (Donovan, 1997; Mayer, 1996). As product life cycles are shortening, lower inventory investment in the chain has become important. Cycle times are being reduced as a result of the quick response inventory system. The quick response system improves customer service because the customer gets the right amount of product, when and lily where it is needed.

Quick response also serves to sat essay exam, increase manufacturing inventory turns. 3.Build a competitive advantage for the channel. Achieving and maintaining competitive advantage in an industry is not an easy undertaking for a firm. Many competitive pressures force a firm to remain efficient. Supply chain management is seen by some as a competitive advantage for firms that employ the resources to model essays republic day, implement the process. It also serves to increase the clout in the channel because these firms are recognized as leading edge and are treated with respect. Attaining competitive advantage in the channel comes with top management support for exam, decreased costs, waste management, and enhanced profits. Many firms want to model essays republic, push costs back to their supplier and take labor costs out exam of the exotic system.

These cost reducing tactics tend to increase the competitive efficiency of the sat essay entire supply chain. Firms have become more market channel focused. They are observing how the entire channel’s activities affect the system operation. In recent times, the channel power has shifted to the retailer. Retailer channel power in republic, the distribution channel is driven by the shift to some large retail firms, such as Wal-Mart, Kmart, and Target. The large size of these retailers allows them the power to dictate exactly how they want their suppliers to sat essay, do business with them. The use of point of sales data and increased efficiency of distribution also have been instrumental in improving channel power and competitive advantage (Magretta, 1998; Robinson, 1998; Ross, 1996). 4.Increase customer responsiveness.

To remain competitive, firms focus on improved supply chain efforts to enhance customer service through increased frequency of day, reliable product deliveries. Increasing demands on customer service levels is exam, driving partnerships between customers and suppliers. The ability to serve their customers with higher levels of quality service, including speedier delivery of products, is vital to partnering efforts. Having a successful relationship with a supplier results in trust and the ability to be customer driven, customer intimate and essay lily customer focused (Willis, 1995). 5.Introduce supply chain management solutions and enabling information technology.

Information is vital to effectively operating the supply chain. Sat Essay Exam? The communication capability of an enterprise is enhanced by an information technology system. However, information system compatibility among trading partners can limit the model republic day capability to exchange information. An improved information technology system that is user friendly, where partners in the channel have access to exam, common databases that are updated in real-time, is needed. Supply chain management is a broader and strategically more significant concept, which includes the entire supply chain from the supply of raw materials, through manufacture, assembly and distribution to simple short, the end customer. It includes the strategic and long-term consideration of sat essay exam, supply chain management issues as well as the short-term control of flow throughout the supply chain. These include the adoption of appropriate attitudes, perspectives, skills and philosophies by all those who are associated with activities in the supply chain. Interpersonal relationships, both internally and externally, play an important part in the development of effective and efficient arrangements. In conclusion, on the basis of new understanding of supply chain and supply chain management, we need to deductive essay writing, find new ways of navigating in a changing world and to learn how to develop supply chains that enable them to maximise the value for the organization. Malcolm Saunders, Strategic Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 1997.

Cooper,M C, Ellram, L.M, 1993,”characteristics of supply chain management and the implications for purchasing and sat essay logistics strategy”. The International Journal of Logistic Management, 4,2,13-24. Copacino, W.C., 1996, “Why you should synchronize logistics and manufacturing”, Logistics Management, 35, 11, 63. Coyle, J.J., Langley, C.J., 1996, The Management of Business Logistics, 6th ed, West Publishing Company, St Paul, MN. Donovan, M. R, 1997, “Reduce inventories and improve business performance”, Midrange EEP, 62-4. Magretta, J., 1998, “Fast, global, and entrepreneurial: supply chain management, Hong Kong style: an interview with Victor Fung”, Harvard Business Review, 103-14. III Linking SCM to company’s overall strategy. The supply chain improvements described indicate that supply chain management has the potential to improve a firm’s competitiveness. Supply chain capability is as important to a company’s overall strategy as overall product strategy. Supply chain management encourage management of essays republic, processes across departments.

By linking supply chain objectives to company strategy, decisions can be made between competing demands on the supply chain. Improvements in performance are driven by externally-based targets rather than by internal department objectives. Managing the supply chain means managing across traditional functional areas in the company and managing interactions external to the company with both supplier and sat essay exam customers. This cross-boundary nature of management supports incorporating supply chain goals and capabilities in the strategic plan of the company. This focus on simple short essay integration can then lead to using the supply chain to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage over competitors. The impact of managing overall product demand and the supply of product will impact the profitability of the company. The supply chain strategy can be viewed as the pattern of decisions related to souring product, capacity planning, conversing of finished product, deployment of finished product, demand management and communication, and delivery. Linking supply chain strategy to the business strategy involved in producing a company’s product.

A company must develop objectives for the management of the supply chain based on corporate objectives. From these higher level objectives, a set of detailed objectives can be developed for exam, each process within the supply chain. This cascading method serves to integrate the supply chain processes with the overall enterprise direction and provides measures for caste discrimination, monitoring and execution. Supply chain management can utilized to be a point of differentiation for a company. Excellence on a certain dimension in product position can provide a competitive marketing opportunity, but shortfalls in providing this dimension by sat essay exam the supply chain can eliminate this advantage. For a company to be competitive, it is essay lily, not enough just to sat essay, vary marketing programs. Telugu Model Day? They must define a working program. They must define a working relationship with customers and put themselves in a position to deliver customer value.

All components of the supply chain must have the capability to meet strategic objectives. Companies must evaluate the effectiveness of the supply chain strategy using a new set of sat essay exam, measures. Typical rewards aimed at improving performance of functions or departments must be revised to strive to improve supply chain performance overall. By trying the supply chain strategy to thesis, the overall company strategy, the objectives become process objective rather than functional objectives. For example, traditionally, one of purchasing’s measurement is material cost or material variance. Buying product at a lower cost is one way to improve that measure.

Purchasing a carton at a lower cost from a new vendor might lower the cost of the carton. However, the new carton may not run as efficiently through the production process as the one from the original supplier. Purchasing’s measure of material variance is favourable, but the manufacturing facility is recognizing added costs in downtime, maintenance, etc. Measurements must be designed to look across the exam supply chain and deductive become process objectives. Included in that process is the internal structure of the supply chain which often is causing as much confusion /cost as external portions of the chain.

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A Biography of Enid BlytonThe Story of Her Life. Enid Mary Blyton was born on exam, 11th August 1897 at 354 Lordship Lane, a two-bedroom flat above a shop in East Dulwich, South London. Shortly after her birth her parents moved to Beckenham in Kent and it was there, in a number of different houses over the years, that Enid Blyton spent her childhood. She had two younger brothers—Hanly, born in 1899, and Carey, born in 1902. 2. ENID AND HER FATHER, THOMAS CAREY BLYTON. Exotic? Enid's father, Thomas, was a cutlery salesman as a young man. He then joined his uncle's firm selling Yorkshire cloth and, later still, set up his own business as a clothing wholesaler. He and his daughter had a close, loving relationship—both had dark hair and sat essay, alert brown eyes, and shared an appetite for knowledge and a zest for essay gilded, life. Together they enjoyed nature rambles, gardening, the theatre, art, music and literature.

When Enid had whooping cough as a baby, and was not expected to live till morning, her father refused to accept the doctor's opinion and sat up all night with her, cradling her and exam, willing her to survive. Essay? Enid learnt a lot from her father, especially about nature. Exam? In her autobiography, The Story of exotic thesis My Life (1952), she wrote: . Sat Essay Exam? my father loved the countryside, loved flowers and birds and wild animals, and knew more about them than anyone I had ever met. And what was more he was willing to republic take me with him on his expeditions, and share his love and his knowledge with me! That was marvellous to me. It's the exam very best way of learning about essay nature if you can go for walks with someone who really knows. Thomas also taught his young daughter lessons that would stand her in exam good stead in daily life.

When she wanted to plant seeds in her own patch of garden he made a bargain with her, saying: If you want anything badly, you have to work for it. Simple? I will give you enough money to buy your own seeds, if you earn it. I want my bicycle cleaned—cleaned well , too. Sat Essay Exam? And I want the weeds cleared from that bed over there. If the work is done properly, it is worth sixpence to me, and model republic day, that will buy you six penny packets of exam seeds. Enid appreciated the seeds, and the flowers which sprang up from them, all the more for having been made to exotic work for them. Part of the pleasure and value lay in exam the fact that she had earned them for herself. 3. ENID AND HER MOTHER, THERESA MARY BLYTON (NEE HARRISON) Although she adored her father, Enid's relationship with her mother, Theresa, was more turbulent. Theresa was a tall, raven-haired woman whose life revolved around housework.

She was not creative and artistic like Thomas, and did not share his interests. She expected her daughter to help with household chores but gave her sons a lot more freedom, which Enid, who was not very domesticated, resented. Stern and house-proud, Theresa did not approve of Enid devoting so much time to nature-walks, reading and essayist a chapter on ears, other hobbies when there was work to be done in the house. Sat Essay Exam? Neither did she understand why her husband encouraged their daughter in such activities. Enid began her schooldays at a small school run by two sisters in a house called Tresco, almost opposite the Blyton home. As an adult, Enid Blyton said about the school: I remember everything about it—the room, the garden, the on ears pictures on the wall, the little chairs, the dog there, and the lovely smells that used to creep out from the kitchen into sat essay, our classroom when we sat doing dictation. I remember how we used to take biscuits for our mid-morning lunch and 'swap' them with one another—and how we used to dislike one small boy who was clever at swapping a small biscuit for a big one. Exotic Animal? Enid's days at Tresco were happy. She was a bright girl, blessed with a good memory, and she shone at sat essay art and nature study, though she struggled with mathematics. Games that Enid played as a child included Red Indians, Burglars and Policemen, building dens and playing with tops, hoops and marbles.

Indoors she played card games, Snakes and Ladders, Draughts and Chess. Her father thought that all young children should learn to play Chess because . if they have any brains it will train them to think clearly, quickly and to essay plan things a long way ahead. And if they haven't any brains it will make the best of those they have! Enid loved reading. Among the exam books she read were Anna Sewell's Black Beauty , Charles Kingsley's The Water Babies and Louisa M. Writing? Alcott's Little Women . She said of the characters in Little Women : Those were real children. 'When I grow up I will write books about real children,' I thought. 'That's the sat essay exam kind of book I like best. That's the kind of book I would know how to simple short essay write.' Enid Blyton enjoyed myths and exam, legends too, and poetry and annuals, and magazines like Strand Magazine and Punch . She was fascinated by Arthur Mee's Children's Encyclopaedia : It gave me my thirst for knowledge of caste all kinds, and taught me as much as ever I learnt at school. Grimm's fairy-tales she considered cruel and exam, frightening and, although she liked Hans Christian Andersen's stories, some of them were too sad. Among her favourite books were Lewis Carroll's Alice books and R. M. Ballantyne's The Coral Island , but the on ears one she loved best of all, and read at least a dozen times, was The Princess and sat essay, the Goblin by George MacDonald. What appealed to her wasn't so much the story as the strange 'feel' of the tale, the 'atmosphere' as we call it.

It hung over me for a very long time, and gave me pleasant shivers. In 1907 Enid Blyton became a pupil at St. Gilded Lily? Christopher's School for Girls in Beckenham. Sat Essay Exam? She was not a boarder, like so many of the characters in her books, but a day-girl. Intelligent, popular and full of fun, she threw herself wholeheartedly into school life. During her time at St. Christopher's she organised concerts, played practical jokes, became tennis champion and captain of the republic day lacrosse team, and was awarded prizes in various subjects, especially English composition. Sat Essay Exam? In her final two years she was appointed Head Girl.

Outside school she and two of her friends, Mary Attenborough and Mirabel Davis, created a magazine called Dab , for which Enid wrote short stories. The title of the magazine was formed from the short initials of the sat essay exam contributors' surnames. Enid's first holiday abroad in 1913 was to stay with one of her French teachers, Mlle. On Ears? Louise Bertraine, at exam her home in Annecy, France. Thomas and Theresa had little in thesis common and grew more and more unhappy and frustrated in their marriage as the sat essay years passed. Deductive? They had frequent violent rows, causing their children great distress. At night-time, Enid, Hanly and exam, Carey would sit at the top of the stairs with their arms around one another for comfort, listening to their parents' heated arguments. One night, when Enid was not quite thirteen, the children heard their father state angrily that he was leaving and would not be coming back. To Enid's shock she learnt that there was another woman in his life, Florence Agnes Delattre, a secretary, and that from now on he would be living with her. Since marital breakdown was regarded as a scandal in suburban Beckenham in 1910, Theresa forced Enid and her brothers to pretend, if asked, that their father was merely away on essayist a chapter on ears, a visit. This pretence, which the family kept up for sat essay, years, appears to simple essay have left Enid with a lifelong tendency to cover up anything unpleasant and put on a faade.

In 1951 she wove this traumatic experience into a novel, The Six Bad Boys . Her father's leaving was hard for Enid to accept and she seems to sat essay have viewed it as a rejection of her personally. Years later, when she was married, she had difficulty conceiving a baby and was found to have an under-developed uterus, equivalent to that of a girl aged twelve or thirteen. Lily? It has been suggested that the sat essay trauma of essay her father's departure may have had a long-term effect on her physical as well as her emotional development. Deprived of Thomas's support and inspiration, Enid was now more than ever at the mercy of sat essay her mother, with whom she did not see eye to eye. To assuage her unhappiness she took to locking herself in animal thesis her bedroom and writing compulsively, setting a pattern which was to be repeated in adulthood. She had a vivid imagination and had known for some time that she wanted to be a writer, and now she spent every spare minute honing her talent. Her mother despaired of her, dismissing her work as mere scribbling. Enid sent off numerous stories and poems to magazines in the hope that they would be published but, except for one poem which was printed by Arthur Mee in his magazine when she was fourteen, she had no luck at this stage, receiving hundreds of rejection slips.

Her mother considered her efforts a waste of time and sat essay exam, money but Enid was encouraged by her schoolfriend Mary's aunt, Mabel Attenborough, who had become a good friend and confidante. Towards the end of 1916 Enid Blyton was due to begin studying at the Guildhall School of discrimination essay Music. She had a gift for music and her family had always assumed that she would become a professional musician like her father's sister, May Crossland. Throughout her childhood Enid had spent many hours practising the sat essay piano but, as she grew older, she begrudged devoting hours to the piano when she would rather be writing. She was aware that her true talent lay in telling stories, but found it impossible to convince her family of that. It was after a spell teaching Sunday School in simple essay the summer of 1916, while staying with friends of exam Mabel Attenborough at Seckford Hall near Woodbridge in Suffolk, that Enid suddenly knew what to do. She made up her mind to turn down her place at the Guildhall School of Music and train as a teacher instead. That would give her close contact with the children for whom she knew she wanted to simple short essay write, and she would be able to study them and get to know their interests. Enid lost no time in putting her plan into action and, in September 1916, she embarked upon a Froebel-based teacher-training course at Ipswich High School. Things had deteriorated badly between her and Theresa and it was around this time that Enid broke ties completely with her mother, spending holidays from sat essay exam college with the Attenboroughs rather than returning home to her mother and brothers. She kept in touch with her father, visiting him at his office in London, but she could not bring herself to model republic day accept Florence, with whom Thomas had had three more children, and she and her father were not as close as they had once been.

12. FIRST RECORDED PUBLICATION OF AN ENID BLYTON WORK. In 1917 one of Enid's poems, Have You. was accepted for sat essay exam, publication by Nash's Magazine . Since a couple of earlier published poems (including the one printed in telugu model the Arthur Mee magazine) have never been traced, Have You. is the first recorded publication of an Enid Blyton work. Enid Blyton proved to be an inventive, energetic teacher and, after completing her training in December 1918, she taught for a year at a boys' preparatory school, Bickley Park School in Kent. Next she became governess to the four Thompson brothers, relatives of Mabel Attenborough, at a house called Southernhay in Surbiton, Surrey. She remained there for four years and, during that time, a number of children from neighbouring families also came to join her experimental school, as she called it. The accounts of lessons at Miss Brown's School in Enid Blyton's Book of the Year (1941) surely owe something to her years as a teacher at her own little school in Surbiton, which she later said was one of the happiest times of my life. It may have been a happy period on the whole but it was in sat essay exam 1920, while teaching at Southernhay, that Enid received the news that her father had died suddenly, of a heart attack, while out caste essay, fishing on sat essay, the Thames. At least, that is what she was told but the truth was that he had suffered a stroke and essay lily, died in an armchair at exam home in Sunbury, where he lived with Florence and his new family. It appears that the true whereabouts of his death was not made public as it would have caused embarrassment owing to caste Theresa having been so secretive about the breakdown of her marriage. Enid had continued to visit her father at his London office, despite being estranged from the sat essay exam rest of animal her family, and the news must have come as a dreadful shock.

However, she did not attend his funeral or even mention his death to the Thompsons. It may be that, having cut herself off from the rest of her family, she did not feel up to dealing with such a difficult and emotional occasion and answering awkward questions from either her family or her employers. Or perhaps her way of sat essay coping was to shut away her feelings, as she had been taught to do as a child. Enid persevered with her writing and, in the early 1920s, began to essay writing achieve success. Stories and articles were accepted for publication by various periodicals, including Teacher's World , and she also wrote verses for greetings cards. Sat Essay Exam? 1922 saw the publication of her first book, Child Whispers , a slim volume of poetry, and in lily 1923 a couple more books were published as well as over a hundred and exam, twenty shorter pieces—stories, verses, reviews and plays. Discrimination Essay? 16. Sat Essay Exam? MARRIAGE TO HUGH ALEXANDER POLLOCK.

On 28th August 1924 Enid Blyton married Hugh Alexander Pollock, who was editor of the book department for the publishing firm George Newnes. The two of them had met when Enid was commissioned by Newnes to write a children's book about London Zoo— The Zoo Book (1924.) Hugh had been born and brought up in Ayr and had joined the Royal Scots Fusiliers at on ears the beginning of the sat essay First World War, being awarded the D.S.O. (Distinguished Service Order) in deductive writing 1919. His first marriage had ended when his wife had an sat essay, affair, and he had to obtain a divorce in order to marry Enid. Essay Gilded? The wedding, at Bromley Register Office, was a quiet occasion, with no member of either Enid's or Hugh's family attending the ceremony. The couple honeymooned in exam Jersey and Enid was later to base Kirrin in the Famous Five books on an island, castle and village they visited there. Short? After the wedding Enid and Hugh lived first of all in an apartment in Chelsea, moving to exam their first house, newly-built Elfin Cottage in Beckenham, in 1926. Enid Blyton worked on a number of educational books in essays the 1920s-30s, among other things, and in 1926 she began writing and sat essay, editing a fortnightly magazine, Sunny Stories for Little Folks . It became a weekly publication in 1937 and changed its name to Enid Blyton's Sunny Stories , finally becoming Sunny Stories . What could be said to short be Enid Blyton's first full-length novel, The Enid Blyton Book of Bunnies , was published in 1925 (it was later re-titled The Adventures of exam Binkle and Flip .) However, that book is episodic in exotic animal nature, reading more like a collection of individual stories about two mischievous rabbits, and The Enid Blyton Book of sat essay Brownies , published in 1926, is perhaps more deserving of the title first novel. In 1927 Hugh persuaded Enid to start using a typewriter.

Before that she had written her manuscripts in reasoning longhand. Hugh was instrumental in helping his wife establish herself as a writer by publishing her stories at sat essay Newnes and, almost certainly, by teaching her about contracts and the business side of her work. Hugh and Enid led a quiet and contented life in the early years of deductive reasoning essay their marriage, their leisure time consisting of gardening, occasional outings to the theatre and cinema, and seaside holidays. Hugh indulged his wife's playful, childlike side and they would build snowmen together, play catch and French cricket in the garden, and sat essay, have games of conkers. In 1929 they moved to Old Thatch, a sixteenth-century thatched cottage with a lovely garden near the River Thames in essay lily Bourne End, Buckinghamshire. Enid described it as being like a house in a fairy tale. It had once been an inn and Dick Turpin was said to have slept there and stabled his horse, Black Bess, in one of the sat essay exam stables. There was also a tale of treasure hidden on the premises, which has never been found. At Old Thatch Hugh and Enid began to have more of a social life, enjoying dinner parties, tennis and bridge.

In October 1930 they went on a cruise to caste essay Madeira and sat essay, the Canary Islands aboard the Stella Polaris, the details of which remained vividly in Enid's mind, providing her with material for books written years later such as The Pole Star Family and The Ship of Adventure , both published in essay 1950. As children, Enid and her brothers had not been allowed to keep pets. Their mother was not fond of animals and their father was worried that cats and dogs might spoil his garden. Enid had once found a stray kitten which she called Chippy and kept secretly for a fortnight, but when her mother found out about it the kitten was sent away. Enid made up for that by having plenty of pets when she was grown-up—dogs, cats, goldfish, hedgehogs, tortoises, fantail pigeons, hens, ducks and many others. One of her most famous pets was Bobs, a fox-terrier.

Enid Blyton wrote letters for her Teacher's World column about family life as seen through the eyes of Bobs—in fact, she kept on writing these Letters from exam Bobs long after the dog had died! Enid and Hugh had trouble starting a family but eventually, on 15th July 1931, their elder daughter Gillian was born. After a miscarriage in 1934 they went on to have another daughter, Imogen, who was born on 27th October 1935. 1938 saw the publication of Enid Blyton's first full-length adventure book, The Secret Island . She had already written another fairly long adventure story, The Wonderful Adventure , in 1927, but that was really a novella rather than a full-length novel. Enid was by now giving more time than ever to her writing, relying increasingly on domestic staff for housework, gardening and childcare, and telugu essays republic, she did not have a lot of time to spend with her children. She played with the girls for an hour after tea and sat essay, sometimes took Imogen out with her to meet Gillian from school. Reasoning Essay Writing? Enid and Hugh no longer had as much time together either.

Both were very busy with their work and sat essay exam, Hugh, who had been working with Churchill on his writings about the essay gilded First World War, was falling into depression at sat essay the realisation that the short world was on exam, the brink of another war. He turned to alcohol for short essay, consolation, drinking secretly in a cubby-hole beneath the stairs, while Enid sought solace in her writing and in the close companionship of her friend, Dorothy. Dorothy Richards, a maternity nurse, had come to help out for a few weeks after Imogen was born, and she and Enid had quickly become firm friends. Dorothy, who often came to stay at Old Thatch, was a serene figure who gave Enid a feeling of security at exam a time when her relationship with Hugh was beginning to disintegrate, and Enid felt that she could rely on essay, her and confide in her. It was to Dorothy, not Hugh, that Enid turned for help and advice when hunting for a new and larger home, settling on a detached eight-bedroom house, about sat essay exam thirty or so years old, in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire. Deductive Reasoning Essay Writing? The house was mock-Tudor in style, with beams and lead-paned windows, and was set in two-and-a-half acres of garden with a great many little lawns surrounded by green yew hedges.

Enid organised the move in August 1938, while Hugh was ill in hospital with pneumonia, and sat essay, her Sunny Stories readers chose a name for the house—Green Hedges. Enid continued writing during the war years. Hugh rejoined his old regiment—the Royal Scots Fusiliers—and was soon posted to Dorking in simple short Surrey to exam train Home Guard officers. His absence put even more strain on essay gilded, the already fragile marriage and, while on holiday with Dorothy in exam Devon in the spring of 1941, Enid Blyton met the man who was to become her second husband, surgeon Kenneth Fraser Darrell Waters. Hugh had also become romantically involved with novelist Ida Crowe, and he and Enid were divorced in 1942. Kenneth divorced his wife too, with whom he had had no children. Deductive Writing? 24. MARRIAGE TO KENNETH FRASER DARRELL WATERS. Kenneth and Enid were married at the City of Westminster Register Office on 20th October 1943, six days before Hugh's wedding to Ida. Exam? Gillian and Imogen had not seen their father since June 1942, when he had left for America to advise on Civil Defence, and on ears, sadly they were never to see him again. Although she had promised that Hugh would be free to see his daughters after the divorce, Enid went back on her word and refused to allow him any access at all.

She cut her first husband out of her life just as she had done with her mother, perhaps pretending to exam herself that neither had ever existed. In doing this she was continuing the pattern of behaviour—pretence and denial—that she had learnt in childhood, and caste, making a fiction of her own life. Sat Essay Exam? Her autobiography, The Story of My Life (1952), contains photographs of her happy little family—herself, her second husband Kenneth, Gillian and Imogen. There is no mention of Hugh and, although it is not explicitly stated, readers are given the essay gilded impression that Kenneth is the girls' father. Kenneth, a surgeon, worked at St. Stephen's Hospital in Chelsea, London. He was an exam, active man who enjoyed gardening, tennis and golf.

While he was serving in the Navy in the First World War, his ship had been torpedoed at the Battle of Jutland, permanently damaging his hearing. Deductive Reasoning Essay? As a result, Kenneth found social situations awkward. His deafness made communication difficult, causing him to come across as rude or insensitive at times. Exam? Immensely proud of one another's achievements, Enid and Kenneth were very happy although they were bitterly disappointed when, after discovering she was pregnant in the spring of 1945, Enid miscarried five months later, following a fall from a ladder. Deductive Reasoning Essay? The baby would have been Kenneth's first child and it would also have been the son for sat essay, which both of them longed.

Kenneth and Enid travelled abroad together only simple essay once, in 1948, when they joined friends for a three week semi-business holiday in New York, sailing out on sat essay exam, the Queen Elizabeth and back on simple short essay, the Queen Mary. Again, Enid Blyton was to use this experience in a book— The Queen Elizabeth Family , published in 1951. Sat Essay Exam? Otherwise, most of their holidays were spent in Dorset where they purchased a golf course and a farm in essayist a chapter on ears the 1950s. The farm in Five on Finniston Farm (1960) was inspired by sat essay exam, Enid and Kenneth's own farm, Manor Farm in reasoning writing Stourton Caundle, while Five Have a Mystery to sat essay exam Solve (1962) is set firmly in a part of Dorset which Enid Blyton loved, with Whispering Island being based on Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour. 25. MAJOR SERIES AND OTHER WRITING. Telugu? Enid Blyton ceased writing her regular column for sat essay, Teacher's World in 1945, after almost twenty-three years, giving her the opportunity to telugu model essays republic day widen the range of her writing activities.

Daughters Gillian and Imogen were both at boarding-school and she had begun most of sat essay her major series by then including the Secret series, the Famous Five books, the Find-Outers mysteries, the simple short Adventure series, the St. Clare's books, the exam Cherry Tree/Willow Farm series and the Faraway Tree and Wishing Chair books. Exotic Animal Thesis? These were later to exam be joined by the Secret Seven books, the Barney (or R) mysteries, the Malory Towers series and the Six Cousins books. Noddy made his first appearance in 1949 and by the mid-fifties there was a huge amount of Noddy-themed merchandise in on ears the shops. Altogether, Enid Blyton is believed to have written around 700 books (including collections of short stories) as well as magazines, articles and poems. She wrote an incredible variety of books for children aged about two to fourteen—adventure and mystery stories, school stories, circus and farm books, fantasy tales, fairy-tales, family stories, nursery stories, nature books, religious books, animal stories, poetry, plays and sat essay exam, songs, as well as re-telling myths, legends and essayist, other traditional tales. She earned a fortune from her writing and in sat essay exam 1950 she set up her own limited company, Darrell Waters Ltd., to manage the gilded financial side of things. In 1952 Enid relinquished Sunny Stories after twenty-six years, launching her fortnightly Enid Blyton's Magazine in March 1953. She wrote all the contents herself except for the advertisements, using the magazine to mould her readership through her stories, editorials and exam, news-pages, encouraging her child readers to be kind, helpful and republic day, responsible and impressing upon them that, if they used their initiative, they could do their bit and make a difference to society, whatever their age.

Through the exam pages of her magazine she promoted four clubs which children could join—the Busy Bees (which helped animals), the Famous Five Club (which raised money for a children's home), the Sunbeam Society (which helped blind children) and the Magazine Club (which raised money for children who had spastic cerebral palsy.) Thousands of readers joined and Enid Blyton spoke proudly of the army of children who were helping her carry out the work she wanted to do. Enid Blyton's Magazine folded in September 1959 as Enid wished to spend more time with Kenneth, who had retired from his work as a surgeon in 1957. By that time the four clubs had approximately 500,000 members between them and had raised about £35,000 in six years—an enormous amount of money in those days. It was in the late 1950s that Enid Blyton's health began to deteriorate. She experienced bouts of breathlessness and had a suspected heart attack. By the early 1960s it was apparent that she was suffering from dementia. Her mind was no longer sharp and she became confused, afflicted by worrying memory lapses and seized by a desire to return to caste her childhood home in Beckenham with both her parents. Her last two books (excluding reprints of earlier material) were re-tellings of Bible stories, The Man Who Stopped to Help and The Boy Who Came Back , both published in August 1965.

Kenneth was ill too, with severe arthritis. The medicine he took for his arthritis damaged his kidneys and sat essay exam, he died on 15th September 1967, leaving Enid a lonely and vulnerable woman. Gillian and caste discrimination, Imogen were in their thirties by then, living away from home. They visited regularly and did what they could for their mother but she declined physically and mentally over the next few months, cared for by her staff at exam Green Hedges. In the reasoning writing late summer of sat essay 1968 Enid was admitted to a Hampstead nursing home and, three months later, she died peacefully in caste essay her sleep on sat essay, 28th November 1968, at the age of 71. She was cremated at telugu model republic day Golders Green in North London and a memorial service was held for her at St.

James's Church, Piccadilly, on 3rd January 1969. Several decades after her death, Enid Blyton is exam not forgotten. Simple Short? The best of her lives on in her books, many of sat essay exam which are still in print, and discrimination essay, she continues to exam entertain, educate and simple short essay, inspire children around the globe through the words she wrote. She encourages her readers to look afresh at sat essay exam the world around them—to observe, explore, investigate, discover and learn. Essay Gilded Lily? Long may that continue! To quote a few apt lines from Enid Blyton's The Poet, published in The Poetry Review in 1919: Dear heart. And soul of a child, In writing this biography I relied heavily on sat essay, the following books: Enid Blyton, The Story of telugu republic My Life , 1952 Barbara Stoney, Enid Blyton—the Biography , 1974.

Additional information was taken from: Gillian Baverstock, Gillian Baverstock Remembers Enid Blyton , 2000 George Greenfield, Enid Blyton , 1998 Imogen Smallwood, A Childhood at Green Hedges , 1989 Brian Stewart and Tony Summerfield, The Enid Blyton Dossier , 1999. I also used articles from The Enid Blyton Society Journal numbers 6 (Imogen Smallwood), 7 (Barbara Stoney) and 17 (Barbara Stoney.)

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essay links Double-click on any word and see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Paragraphs: The main part of the essay: structure and linking. This section should be read in parallel with that which looks at the production of introductions and conclusions (next module). Here the sat essay exam emphasis is on the writing which occurs between the two, the main body of the simple essay essay. It takes practice to manage the material you use in analysing and interpreting a work of literature. With this in mind it should be stressed that it is important to plan the essay in advance . Even in timed conditions such as exams you must take the sat essay exam time to think about the structure of the essay . Think about caste, what points you want to exam, make beforehand, and then think about the reasoning essay best way of arranging this material in exam, sequence. The order in which you make the points will go a long way to determining how clear the arguments you put forward will be. You do not have to say everything there is to be said about a given subject and you should try to develop a feel for the most important elements. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through an extended and flowing sequence of points and illustrations . This entails work at the level of the sentence, of gilded course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph. The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument . Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences, and develop your use of linking words by which the various sentences of a paragraph are bound together.

It takes experience and practice to exam, develop a sense of when a new paragraph is needed and when it has run its course. Examine the general guide to essay writing to get some sense of how the paragraphs, or 'idea units' as they have also been called, have been constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and ends appear. The first sentence of the paragraph should generally be a ' strong ' one, used to signal or indicate the essay idea to be discussed within the paragraph . Think of a ' topic sentence ', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, and practised (examples are ' furthermore ', ' moreover ', ' in sat essay exam, addition ', ' to qualify the deductive reasoning essay writing above ', ' however ', ' in order to ', ' in this connection ', ' having established that ' etc.). Sat Essay? The argument should develop through the language you use and a chapter on ears therefore in a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on sat essay a given subject or subjects. It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant . Although students sometimes complain that the lengths demanded of essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the skill of animal thesis writing is to write concisely and economically, without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Once the sat essay points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently, so do not leap about from simple short essay, point to sat essay exam, point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and caste discrimination the one which follows. If you do leave one part of the essay to move onto another, but intend later to go back to sat essay exam, the point you have left and show, for simple, example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by ' signposting ', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to later, after taking into consideration . '. After each draft of the essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order.

Read each draft carefully and critically . Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about? Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out sat essay, and/or reduce some of the telugu model republic text. Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the sat essay exam main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the discrimination whole process. Strong sentences are essential in terms of the flow of sat essay exam your essay. When signalling the fact that they now want to begin a discussion about the imagery of the text in question, students often begin paragraphs with a sentence such as the following: 'I will now go on to discuss the imagery, which plays an essay, important role in this story.' Whilst this would be fine in a first draft for more refined essay writing there are much better alternatives and methods. What is wrong with this particular sentence?

To start with there is no real need to introduce the subject so mechanically: as you are writing about exam, literature it will come as no great surprise to the reader that imagery is to be discussed at essay some point. Secondly, as the student has chosen to write about the imagery there is no need to state that it is important. If it was not important then the student should not have chosen to write about it. (Please note that there would be no objection to sat essay exam, a sentence such as 'I will now go on to discuss the imagery, which is fundamental to a full understanding of the story', although it would be even better if the type of simple essay imagery was identified. This says something different. Do not repeat these phrases mechanically in sat essay exam, your essays - the imagery will not always be absolutely key to understanding the animal thesis story. Sat Essay? Use your common sense.) You can introduce the subject of imagery in a strong sentence, at the beginning of a paragraph, by simply starting to simple essay, discuss it straightaway. If you have identified a number of images, metaphors, etc., but have decided that, in the end, they can be collected under two separate headings, then it is a good idea to say so.

As an example, here is a paragraph which starts to deal with the literary language in Graham Greene's 'The Destructors'. This paragraph would ideally come about a third or half way into the essay, as it comes after the introduction and signals the fact that some analysis has already been carried out. A discussion of the imagery can reinforce the general points made above; broadly speaking there are two main sets of images and metaphors, dealing firstly with the tensions between the individual and the community, to which I will turn later, and secondly focusing on Christian symbolism. A number of the images have religious connotations. It is significant that Old Misery's house was designed by Christopher Wren, who was the seventeenth century architect of St.

Paul's cathedral. Exam? By mentioning Wren Greene is attempting to show the simple essay presence of the past in the present and how irrelevant it seems to the boys: 'Who's Wren?' asks Blackie, the initial leader of the gang. Exam? Their experience of massive destruction has eroded references and deprived them of values. Instead of the integration and shared common values illustrated by, among others, the fact that Wren designed both a public place of worship and a private home, the post-war period leaves them with fragmentation and mutual distrust: the gang are aware of rival gangs, there is distrust between the generations - shown by telugu model day the gang's suspicion of Old Misery's gift of sweets - and T. rejects all values. Sat Essay Exam? For him 'All this hate and love [is]soft, it's hooey. There's only day things.' For Greene, the ideological vacuum is reflected in the wasteland in which the gang organises its activities.

The next paragraph might begin: Furthermore, the passage describing the destruction of the house is an ironic parody of the opening chapter of Genesis. The vocabulary is similar: Blackie notices that 'chaos had advanced', an ironic reversal of God's imposing of form on a void. Furthermore, the phrase 'streaks of light came in through the closed shutters where they worked with the seriousness of creators', used in the context of destruction, also parodies the creation of light and darkness in the early passages of the Biblical book.[. ] There might be another paragraph, or two, on religious metaphors, or the next paragraph might begin: Images and metaphors concerning the individual and community are centred on Trevor, and are also linked to sat essay, the theme of leadership. [. ] What are the advantages of such a sequence of paragraphs? Notice that the opening sentence in reasoning essay, each paragraph is a strong one. There are several strong points about the sat essay first paragraph: · The fact that literary language (metaphors, symbols, images) are now the focus is signalled efficiently and economically, through the strategy of launching the discussion directly.

The main extended images are mentioned in the first sentence, which is preferable to 'I am now going to discuss the imagery of Graham Greene's story.' · The first sentence, however complex, is essays day clear and sat essay does a lot of work by model republic clearly situating the reader in the overall structure of the essay . · The paragraph refers back to analysis already done, thus emphasising the clear structure of the essay and enhancing the interrelationships of its parts. Importantly, whilst it is sat essay obvious that there is to be some reference to ideas already mentioned, it is also clear that there is to lily, be no repetition. Instead, the analysis is to be deepened and extended. · The paragraph also refers ahead to analysis still to come. The anxious reader, who might be wondering why the important theme of the sat essay exam individual and the community has not been mentioned, can relax and enjoy the analysis of the religious symbolism in the full knowledge that the former theme has not been neglected. · The images are not merely identified, pointed out and listed.; there is essay active interpretation and analysis of what they actually mean.

In other words the writer is actively engaging with Greene's story. What of the second paragraph? Firstly one might ask why a second paragraph is needed, given that the theme is still that of religion. True, but the first paragraph is sat essay exam becoming quite long, it is reaching the 'natural' length of a paragraph. There are no hard or fast rules and regulations here - no writing committee has decreed that a paragraph should contain an ideal number of deductive words or sentences or run a certain length over a page. Extended writing practice will give you a 'feel' and an instinct for realising that a paragraph is complete and it is time to start a new one. More importantly here there is a very strong sense that the first paragraph in the model is 'full'. The writer has identified a link between the house and the ideological vacuum in which the gang exist and has tried to interpret and sat essay explain it. Next s/he wants to highlight the links between Greene's vocabulary and discrimination that of the book of Genesis.

The theme is still religion, but the writer is now going to approach a different aspect of it. The third paragraph begins to produce what has been promised: an analysis of the theme of the individual and the community. Sat Essay Exam? Note how this is done. There is no need to state mechanically that this is the theme that is now to be discussed. It has already been anticipated and the 'full' nature of the first sentence makes clear what is being discussed. Again, the reader is being clearly led through the arguments in a well structured and simple thought out manner. One further point, by way of providing another model. Exam? The analysis in model republic, the second paragraph could lead in the following direction. 'The Destructors' deals with, obviously, destruction, whilst the book of Genesis deals with creation.

The vocabulary is exam similar: Blackie notices that 'chaos had advanced', an ironic reversal of God's imposing of form on a void. Furthermore, the short phrase 'streaks of light came in sat essay, through the closed shutters where they worked with the essay seriousness of creators', used in the context of destruction, also parodies the creation of light and darkness in the early passages of the Biblical book. Greene's ironic use of the vocabulary of the Bible might be making the exam point that, for him, the Second World War signalled the end of a particular Christian era. Now, it is perfectly arguable that the rise of fascism is reasoning essay writing linked to this, or that it is the cause. The cult of personality and secular leadership has, for Greene, taken over from the key role of the church in sat essay, Western societies. In this way the caste discrimination essay two main themes identified above - the tension between individual and community, and religion - are linked. Exam? In terms of essay writing this link could well be made after the discussion of the theme of the individual and the community, and its links with the theme of thesis leadership.

This might be the general conclusion to sat essay, the essay. After thoughtful consideration and interpretation a student may well decide that this is what 'The Destructors' boils down to: Greene is reasoning essay making a clear link between the rise of sat essay exam fascism and essay the decline of the Church's influence. Despite the sat essay fact that fascism has been recently defeated, Greene sees the lack of any contemporary values which could provide social cohesion as providing the potential for its reappearance. However, whilst this is the conclusion the deductive reasoning essay student has come to, this should not be mentioned for sat essay, the first time in the conclusion / concluding paragraph. This is the climax to the essay, but the concluding paragraph should generally be a brief paraphrase or summary of the essay. This also adheres to the generally held view that the conclusion should not introduce new ideas. Paragraphs need to be coherent, which will be only achieved through the careful arrangement of the sentences within them. Staying with an analysis of Graham Greene's 'The Destructors', let us see how this can be achieved. (1) The apple is compared to Old Misery's house and this house symbolises perhaps the a chapter Church. (2) Actually it may mean that the Church is losing its credibility, first from inside, and then, when everything will be lost, a single push could destroy it. (3) But why the Church? (4) We know that as well as the destruction of everything this house symbolises temptation too; hence the sat essay image of the deductive writing apple: it refers to Adam and the temptation. (5) If Adam ate the apple, all his happiness would be destroyed. (6) For Trevor, the house is the only thing that tempts his urge to destroy.

This is by no means a terrible paragraph, but there are weaknesses within it, the chief of them being that whilst it demonstrates that the student is going beyond superficial summarising and interpreting the sat essay exam story, the ideas are struggling to make themselves heard. Some of the sentences lack detail or are a little ambiguous, and at times there is a lack of tight connection between several of the sentences. Various ideas are referred to and introduced without ever being fully explained or analysed. For example there is simple no explanation for the introduction of the notions of happiness and temptation. To some extent the reader has to guess what the writer is really trying to exam, express. This is a crucial point: you must present your arguments clearly and unambiguously, and deductive reasoning essay grades will we lost if the marker has to try to guess what is being said. (1) In the first sentence there is a lack of detail and also inappropriate emphasis. First of all, no apple has been mentioned before in the essay and its introduction here is exam a little confusing. This is because in the story the apple is not compared to a house, but it is the exotic animal house which is compared to an apple. Sat Essay? Furthermore there is no evidence provided for the assertion that the house can be linked to a church. In addition, the 'perhaps' does not inspire confidence that the student is fully on top of the idea. (2) There are several problems with the second sentence.

Most importantly there is caste discrimination no clear connection with the preceding and succeeding sentence. Also, the 'actually' is too informal and, equally importantly, it suggests that the idea to come has just popped into sat essay exam, the student's mind. Essay? The first 'it' is exam ambiguous, and it is not exactly clear what it refers to. Caste? Finally, the overall idea - that weaknesses within the church make it vulnerable to attacks from the outside - is not very clearly expressed. (3) There is no problem with the third sentence, and a question can be a good way of sat essay introducing or emphasising a particular subject. The problem with this paragraph lies in the other sentences. (4) The fourth sentence does not really address the question just asked in any coherent way. Essayist On Ears? 'The destruction of everything' is sat essay exam too sweeping and needs more detail. The phrase 'it refers to Adam and the temptation' is a poor one - it should be 'it refers to the tempting of Adam'. The main problem with this sentence is that it has become detached from the first sentence of the reasoning essay writing paragraph, and one of the sat essay exam problems of the paragraph is that the theme of temptation is referred to and hinted at without ever being fully interpreted and analysed. (5) The fifth sentence is far too vague and empty, and short essay introduces a subject - Adam's happiness - which is not picked up on. Where in the story could the religious references suggest that this is a significant point? Why happiness? (6) The sixth sentence contains some of the problems of some of the other sentences.

The writer shifts the emphasis from Adams's temptation - which has not been analysed - to Trevor's temptation, without explanation. Sat Essay? There is some dislocation in that whilst there was an earlier suggestion or hint (again unclearly expressed) that the church was destroying itself, now there is a suggestion that Trevor is caste discrimination solely responsible for the destruction of the sat essay exam church, in the symbolic form of the house. Furthermore, there is a weakness in the comparison in that Trevor's destruction of the house is in no way punished. The paragraph could be rewritten in the following way: The comparison of Old Misery's house to gilded, an apple may recall the Garden of Eden and the temptation of Adam, given the many religious images in sat essay, the text and the fact that T. says 'We'd be like worms, don't you see, in an apple'. Perhaps not the house in itself but the prospect of completely destroying its beauty certainly represents a strong temptation for the new leader. An important difference is caste obviously the fact that whilst Adam fell from a state of grace following his transgression, T. Sat Essay Exam? escapes any punishment.

This suggests that without a coherent and discrimination integrated system of values contemporary society has no way of deciding what is right and wrong. Please note that there is a very large sense in which the student example cannot really be redeemed, given its contradictory arguments and exam lack of caste discrimination clarity. Exam? Students should learn how to interpret literary texts and go beyond a mere recounting of the plot or themes, for example, but they should avoid wild extrapolations. Further model example:the theme of reasoning essay impersonality in 'The Destructors' The theme of impersonality is exam embedded in the story in complex, perhaps ambivalent, ways, reflected by the T.’s own ambivalence towards the house. T. persuades the gang to destroy the model republic house he paradoxically admires: he finds the interior of the house 'beautiful', and sat essay exam is particularly impressed by the old staircase and 'the opposite day forces' which prevent it collapsing. It should be noted that his finding the house beautiful initially causes tension within the gang. Sat Essay Exam? Blackie is immediately suspicious and, whilst it is explicitly stated that this suspicion is related to class, implicitly it is the fact that T. is making a personal response that is the source of the tension. Evidence for this is found in the fact that 'it only needed a single use of his real name and the gang would be at his heels.' His personal response, symbolic of a set of values, is not permitted and it threatens the identity he has within the caste essay gang. The power the gang has to name is also linked to impersonality: one's previous identity, symbolised by a 'real name', has to be sacrificed in order to join.

The gang itself has the characteristics of a separate society; it has elaborate rules and punishes the breaking of exam them, it is disciplined, it elects leaders, and it is also self-policing, symbolised by the surveillance carried out during the game of stealing rides. In other words it is a very impersonal society which permits little individuality, symbolised by the description of it as 'a hive in swarm.' Blackie also refuses to take his loss of leadership personally, and essay gilded stays because of the potential fame the impersonal gang might gain. Old Misery comes to be aware of the impersonal forces dominating society. Locked in a toilet which has earlier been described as a 'tomb in a neglected graveyard', which symbolises a lack of respect and a brutal and callous world, his cries for help are ignored and he is instead 'rebuked by the silence', suggesting a lack of personal communication. At the end of the exam story the lorry driver insists that his laughter is 'nothing personal', echoing an earlier statement made by an unnamed member of the gang. Ironically the driver denies his own humanity and expresses the callousness and impersonality of world lacking values. After reading this module carefully, choose two subjects/topics/themes from the list below and write two substantial paragraphs on each of the two chosen subjects/topics/themes.

Each paragraph should consist of a minimum of five full, preferably rather complex sentences (see module 2, Sentences ). Use clear links and transitions and make sure that the first sentence of each paragraph is a strong one (see above). 1. The theme of advertising in Larkin's ' Sunny Prestatyn '. How is caste essay it related to stereotyping? 2. The atmosphere evoked by the description of sat essay exam Mr Duffy's house . (' A Painful Case' by James Joyce.) 3. The function and symbolism of the stuffed animals in Clanchy's ' The Natural History Museum '. 4. The theme of challenging authority in ' The Conversion of the Jews ' by P. Roth.

Feel free to write complete essays on any of the subjects, or ask your tutors to provide you with more subjects and themes to model essays republic day, write about. Click here to go to Essay questions in Short Stories and Sample Essays .

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Keystone Heights, FL. Resume Quiz Questions #1 - The Answers In Detail. If you find yourself here without having had the opportunity to take the quiz, first - go to Resume Questions Quiz - and caste, see how you do! Question 1: A resume is. A) An autobiography of sat essay one's career life and professional experiences in order to secure employment. . Incorrect; on exotic thesis two levels: 1) a resume rarely secures employment. Sat Essay Exam. Its sole purpose is to secure interviews, and 2) this should not be taken as an opportunity to gilded lily create an autobiography of one's career life. Your reader wants to know what you have to contribute, and exam, is much less interested in who you are and what you hope to gain from the experience. Therefore, the model essays day, resume document needs to be focused on meeting the needs of the reader (hiring manager) rather than the needs of the writer (job candidate). B) A detailed listing of a job candidate's skills, experiences, responsibilities and achievements as these relate to the position and company being targeted.

. This is the best answer. When writing a resume, the focus of the document needs to be on the skills, experiences, responsibilities and achievements most directly relevant and exam, valuable to the position and company being targeted. This is writing with the reader in discrimination mind. C) A complete listing of an individual's education, work experience and professional training. . Incorrect: While this may sound correct, a complete listing of information not relevant to exam the position or company being targeted has little or no value for your reader. In addition, your reader is most interested in that information which is most current (the most recent 10-15 years).

Therefore, while your experience and achievements in 1970 may be impressive, they may have little value in essayist on ears today's market, particularly if you have nothing recent to exam add. Question 2: The purpose of a resume is to. A) Establish a candidate's qualifications for a position - in order to secure an lily, interview. . This is the best answer. The sole purpose of the resume is to generate enough interest for the reader to feel compelled to invite the candidate for an interview. To achieve this result, the resume must effectively qualify the candidate for the position and company being targeted.

B) Establish a candidate's qualifications for a position - in order to exam secure employment. . Incorrect: A resume, alone, will rarely secure employment. Short. The resume's sole purpose is to secure interviews. C) Establish a candidate's qualifications for a position - in order to eliminate the exam, competition. . Incorrect: While a focused, well-written resume may help place a candidate in gilded the running for a position, a resume, alone, will rarely eliminate all other competition. Question 3: The length of a resume must be.

. Sat Essay Exam. Incorrect: While a one-page resume may be sufficient for certain job candidates, the one-page rule no longer exists. Caste Discrimination Essay. For those who require two pages in order to effectively document relevant history and achievements, trying to sat essay get this information on to a one-page format may reduce the gilded lily, final document's value, readability and sat essay, effectiveness. . Essay. Incorrect: While a two-page resume may be sufficient for certain job candidates, for those who would be better served with a one-page document, or for those who require more extensive documentation in order to exam include information vital to the reader, such as certain individuals in the medical or academic industries, a two-page resume may be a poor choice. C) Whatever number of pages is necessary to qualify the candidate. . This is the best answer. The best guide regarding length is a chapter on ears, to: 1) include all information that is directly relevant and valuable to the position and company being targeted, and 2) leave everything else off. For some job candidates this is best achieved within a one-page document. Exam. For others, two pages is essayist a chapter, required.

And for exam some, a more detailed document is the reasoning writing, more effective choice. However, keep in mind that your reader is sat essay, going to essay invest a limited amount of exam time in the reading of your document. In fact, most resumes only essay, receive an initial reading time of 15 seconds, or less. Therefore, if you present a three-page document when a two-page document would suffice, or you draw out sat essay exam, your information into two pages when a one-page resume would suffice, you may leave your reader wondering if you are able to gilded lily state your case and qualifications in a succinct manner, or you may lose your reader's interest long before he or she has had the opportunity to appreciate all you truly have to offer. Be considerate of your reader's time. Question 4: The most important information on my resume is. A) Job experience and education.

. Incorrect: while this information is vital, your reader must know how to contact you in sat essay exam order to schedule an interview. . This is the best answer. When all is said and done, how to contact you is the most important information in your resume, therefore, make certain this information is essay, easy to locate, read and reference at a glance. This may feel like a trick question, but hundreds of resumes are submitted each year containing incorrect, inadequate or poorly presented contact information, taking candidates who would otherwise be considered serious contenders out of the job search game. . Incorrect: while this information is vital, your reader must know how to exam contact you in order to schedule an interview. Question 5: It's okay to exaggerate information on my resume when. A) I'm writing about discrimination, older, less important positions and need to make my career path more logical. . Incorrect: any deception in exam the resume can result in discrimination essay the removal of a candidate's opportunity for a position, or dismissal from a position he or she has accepted.

Simply put: don't lie. Sat Essay Exam. It's not worth it. B) I was shy of completing a degree by only a few credits - and a degree is short essay, a requirement of the position. . Incorrect: any deception in the resume can result in sat essay the removal of a candidate's opportunity for a position, or dismissal from animal a position he or she has accepted. Sat Essay. Simply put: don't lie.

It's not worth it. Short Essay. Just check out RadioShack CEO resigns in resume flap. Edmondson admits misstating academic record, leaves after less than a year on the job - from CCNMoney.com. C) It's never okay to sat essay exaggerate information in a resume. . This is the best answer. If the information in your resume won't hold up under a detailed background investigation, you're in trouble.

Simply put, don't lie or exaggerate your information in your resume. It's not worth it. Question 6: When writing my resume, my main focus should be on. A) Who will be reading my resume. . This is the best answer. When we write anything, the focus should always be on the person who will be reading our document.

In this case, the targeted reader of a resume is usually a hiring manager or potential employer. Keeping this reader in essayist focus, and writing for his or her benefit, will enable you to exam create and deliver a more effective and productive resume presentation. B) Presenting my best skills, experiences and achievements in priority. . Incorrect: Although this is important, and discrimination, should be one of the critical factors you consider when writing your resume, without keeping your targeted reader in mind, and understanding the information he or she most wants to secure from potential candidates, it may be difficult to know which skills, experience and achievements are best. C) The readability and visual presentation of sat essay exam my document. . Incorrect: While the readability and visual presentation of your document is extremely important, understanding who will be reading your document, and knowing what information will be most valuable and relevant to this targeted reader, should remain your top focus and priority when writing your resume. Question 7: When submitting my resume to a job advertisement, I need to make certain that. A) I provide as many options for animal thesis retrieving my resume as possible (ASCII, PDF, Word processed document, etc.). . Exam. Incorrect: It's a great idea to have your resume in the various formats needed for animal thesis an effective job search, but it's more important to know which document your recipient requires.

B) I follow the directions of the ad explicitly. . This is the sat essay exam, best answer. The ad should tell you in essayist what format the sat essay, resume is to gilded be submitted, including file type (Word, ASCII, PDF) and exam, transmission requirements (hardcopy, fax, via e-mail). Failing to follow the directions of an ad can lead to the submission of a document that the simple essay, recipient can not access (for example, submitting a WordPerfect file to exam a recipient who doesn't have the software requirements necessary to open, view or print this type of document, when the ad explicitly stated that all resumes were to be submitted as MS Word attachments), or in deductive a format that the recipient has clearly prohibited. For example, if an states, No faxed submissions, and exam, you fax your resume, then you've wasted both your time and your recipient's resources. Follow the short, directions of the ad, explicitly. C) I secure the sat essay exam, name of the hiring manager or decision maker. . Incorrect: It's a good idea to secure the name of the targeted reader of your cover letter and resume, but it's more important to follow the caste discrimination, directions of the ad to the letter. Question 8: When salary history is required in an ad, I should. A) Ignore the request. Sat Essay Exam. This information may damage my ability to compete for the position.

. Caste Essay. Incorrect: While providing salary history may diminish your ability to compete for a position or to effectively negotiate compensation later in the process, if an ad states that only those resume submissions including salary history will be considered, it's important to recognize and respond to sat essay the request if you're sincerely interested in the position. Ignoring the request may indicate that you are unable or unwilling to following directions, or that your salary history is questionable. B) Include this information in its own document and submit it with my resume. . This is the best answer. For ads that request salary history or indicate that only telugu model essays republic day, those submissions including salary history information will be considered, it's important to sat essay exam address and answer the request. This is best achieved by creating a separate salary history document. C) Include this information in the cover letter. . Incorrect: Use the cover letter as your introduction and enticement to discrimination encourage your reader to turn to your resume with real interest. Keep salary history separate from both the cover letter and resume information, by sat essay exam creating an individual document to address this particular history.

See B, above. Question 9: When salary requirements are requested, I should. A) Address this in my resume and provide a specific salary amount. . Incorrect: The resume is the wrong place for this type of information, and providing a set or specific salary amount will substantially reduce your ability to effectively negotiate salary, later. B) Ignore the lily, request.

Salary requirements are best discussed at the interview stage. . Incorrect: While it's true that salary is best discussed at the interview stage - where the job candidate has the opportunity to learn the exam, full criteria of the position and to address this criteria with his or her unique skills, experience and abilities - ignoring this request may indicate to your recipient that you are unable or unwilling to follow directions, or that your salary requirements may be unreasonable or inflexible. C) Address this in my cover letter by caste discrimination providing a salary range or by indicating that salary is negotiable. . This is the best answer. Providing a salary range leaves room for sat essay negotiation. It's wise, therefore, to essay lily do your homework on salary rates for your location, field and industry (see salary calculators) prior to exam engaging in a job search. Another good option is to address the question without quite answering it, Salary is fully negotiable, which shows that you recognize the request and on ears, are willing to discuss the issue at sat essay, interview. Question 10: Certain personal information needs to discrimination essay be included in the resume, such as. A) My name and contact information. . This is the best answer.

It's important that the reader of sat essay your resume (usually a hiring manager or potential employer) knows who you are (your name) and how to contact you. It is, however, illegal under the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) regulations for potential employers to inquire about a job candidate's age, marital status, religious beliefs, number of dependents, and other specific personal information. Therefore, it's a good idea for job candidates and potential employers (including those who interview job candidates) to animal understand what is permitted and to become very familiar with potential discrimination issues under the EEOC. Sat Essay. Worth your review: Equal Employment Opportunity Laws. B) My name, contact information and date of birth.

. Incorrect: A potential employer in the United States is republic, restricted from inquiring about a job candidate's age. See answer A, above. C) My name, contact information, date of birth and number of dependents. . Incorrect: A potential employer in the United States is restricted from inquiring about a job candidate's age or number of dependents. See answer A, above. Question 11: A potential employer is permitted to sat essay ask me the date(s) of my _____________________ graduation, and, therefore, I should include this/these date(s) on my resume. . On Ears. Incorrect: Providing the date of graduation from high school allows a potential employer to determine a candidate's age, which can be considered discriminatory under U.S. EEOC regulations.

B) high school and college. . Incorrect: Providing the date of graduation from high school allows a potential employer to sat essay exam determine a candidate's age, which can be considered discriminatory under U.S. EEOC regulations. . This is the best answer. Because college can be completed at any stage of a job candidate's life, the date of college graduation is not necessarily indicative of exotic a candidate's age.

Potential employers are permitted to ask for college graduation dates, and this information is sat essay, often included when performing candidate background checks and verification of degrees. Question 12: Posting my resume on gilded a job search database online will make my resume available to: . Incorrect: While this may be true, it's important to understand that others may have access to your resume and exam, information, as well - including your current employer. B) Only those ads to which I respond. . Simple Short. Incorrect: Once your resume is uploaded into an online database, you have very limited control (if any) regarding who will be able to access your resume and sat essay exam, information - including your current employer. C) Almost anyone, including my current employer.

. This is the best answer. Gilded Lily. When you include your resume in an online database, you essentially make your document and information available to anyone who can access the database, including your current employer. See: Privacy issues for online job seekers : Good luck in sat essay exam your job search! Sue Campbell Jones, 1st-Writer.com - over 15 years experience helping clients achieve their career and business goals. Feel free to e-mail me with any questions you may have. I'll be glad to short essay help! 1st-Writer.com • P.O. Box 1128, Keystone Heights, FL 32656-1128 • (904) 248-2493 • E-mail Sue Campbell Jones.

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