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Berwick collaborates to build thesis that birdsong and primate talk are at waseda english, root of human language. EECS faculty member, Robert Berwick , principal investigator in the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems (LIDS) has teamed with MIT Linguistics and Philosophy professor Shigeru Miyagawa to reinforce the thesis that human language development is based on bird song and other primates communication. With collaborators at flies, the University of Tokyo, Berwick and Miyagawa's work titled “The Integration Hypothesis of Human Language Evolution and the Nature of Contemporary Languages,” is published this week in Frontiers in Psychology. Read more in the June 11, 2014 MIT News Office article by waseda english essay Peter Dizikes titled From contemporary syntax to human language’s deep origins - New paper amplifies hypothesis that human language builds on birdsong and speech forms of other primates, also posted below. [Graphic courtesy MIT News Office/Christine Daniloff] On the island of Java, in Indonesia, the silvery gibbon, an endangered primate, lives in the rainforests. In a behavior that’s unusual for a primate, the silvery gibbon sings: It can vocalize long, complicated songs, using 14 different note types, that signal territory and send messages to potential mates and family. Effect Essay On Children. Far from being a mere curiosity, the silvery gibbon may hold clues to the development of language in humans. In a newly published paper, two MIT professors assert that by re-examining contemporary human language, we can see indications of how human communication could have evolved from the systems underlying the older communication modes of birds and waseda, other primates. From birds, the thesis, researchers say, we derived the melodic part of our language, and waseda english essay, from other primates, the pragmatic, content-carrying parts of speech.

Sometime within the last 100,000 years, those capacities fused into roughly the master social, form of human language that we know today. English Essay. But how? Other animals, it appears, have finite sets of things they can express; human language is essays flies vs savagery, unique in allowing for an infinite set of new meanings. Essay. What allowed unbounded human language to evolve from writing, bounded language systems? “How did human language arise? It’s far enough in essay, the past that we can’t just go back and figure it out directly,” says linguist Shigeru Miyagawa, the Kochi-Manjiro Professor of Japanese Language and effective research, Culture at MIT. “The best we can do is come up with a theory that is broadly compatible with what we know about human language and other similar systems in nature.” Specifically, Miyagawa and his co-authors think that some apparently infinite qualities of modern human language, when reanalyzed, actually display the finite qualities of languages of english essay, other animals — meaning that human communication is more similar to that of other animals than we generally realized. “Yes, human language is unique, but if you take it apart in the right way, the two parts we identify are in fact of a finite state,” Miyagawa says. “Those two components have antecedents in the animal world. According to our hypothesis, they came together uniquely in human language.” Introducing the ‘integration hypothesis’

The current paper, “The Integration Hypothesis of Human Language Evolution and the Nature of master social, Contemporary Languages,” is published this week in waseda essay, Frontiers in Psychology. Developing Effective Research. The authors are Miyagawa; Robert Berwick, a professor of computational linguistics and computer science and engineering in MIT’s Laboratory for Information and waseda english, Decision Systems; and master social, Shiro Ojima and Kazuo Okanoya, scholars at essay, the University of Tokyo. The paper’s conclusions build on past work by Miyagawa, which holds that human language consists of two distinct layers: the essays vs savagery, expressive layer, which relates to waseda english essay the mutable structure of sentences, and the lexical layer, where the core content of a sentence resides. That idea, in turn, is based on previous work by linguistics scholars including Noam Chomsky, Kenneth Hale, and Samuel Jay Keyser. The expressive layer and lexical layer have antecedents, the researchers believe, in the languages of birds and other mammals, respectively. Thesis. For instance, in another paper published last year, Miyagawa, Berwick, and Okanoya presented a broader case for english essay the connection between the expressive layer of human language and birdsong, including similarities in melody and range of beat patterns. Birds, however, have a limited number of thesis, melodies they can sing or recombine, and nonhuman primates have a limited number of sounds they make with particular meanings. That would seem to present a challenge to the idea that human language could have derived from waseda, those modes of communication, given the seemingly infinite expression possibilities of humans.

But the researchers think certain parts of human language actually reveal finite-state operations that may be linked to our ancestral past. Consider a linguistic phenomenon known as “discontiguous word formation,” which involve sequences formed using the prefix “anti,” such as “antimissile missile,” or “anti-antimissile missile missile,” and of divorce on children, so on. Some linguists have argued that this kind of construction reveals the infinite nature of human language, since the term “antimissile” can continually be embedded in the middle of the phrase. However, as the english essay, researchers state in the new paper, “This is not the correct analysis.” The word “antimissile” is effect essay of divorce on children, actually a modifier, meaning that as the phrase grows larger, “each successive expansion forms via strict adjacency.” That means the construction consists of discrete units of language. In this case and others, Miyagawa says, humans use “finite-state” components to build out their communications. The complexity of such language formations, Berwick observes, “doesn’t occur in birdsong, and waseda english, doesn’t occur anywhere else, as far as we can tell, in the rest of the animal kingdom.” Indeed, he adds, “As we find more evidence that other animals don’t seem to posses this kind of system, it bolsters our case for saying these two elements were brought together in humans.” To be sure, the researchers acknowledge, their hypothesis is eveline thesis, a work in progress. After all, Charles Darwin and others have explored the connection between birdsong and english essay, human language.

Now, Miyagawa says, the researchers think that “the relationship is between birdsong and five paragraph prompts school, the expression system,” with the lexical component of language having come from waseda english essay, primates. Indeed, as the paper notes, the most recent common ancestor between birds and eveline essay thesis, humans appears to have existed about 300 million years ago, so there would almost have to essay be an indirect connection via older primates — even possibly the silvery gibbon. As Berwick notes, researchers are still exploring how these two modes could have merged in humans, but the general concept of effect of divorce, new functions developing from existing building blocks is a familiar one in evolution. English. “You have these two pieces,” Berwick says. Essay High School. “You put them together and something novel emerges. We can’t go back with a time machine and see what happened, but we think that’s the basic story we’re seeing with language.” Andrea Moro, a linguist at the Institute for Advanced Study IUSS, in waseda essay, Pavia, Italy, says the current paper provides a useful way of thinking about how human language may be a synthesis of other communication forms. “It must be the case that this integration or synthesis [developed] from some evolutionary and functional processes that are still beyond our understanding,” says Moro, who edited the article. “The authors of the paper, though, provide an extremely interesting clue at essays on lord vs savagery, the formal level.” Indeed, Moro adds, he thinks the researchers are “essentially correct” about the existence of finite elements in waseda english essay, human language, adding, “Interestingly, many of them involve the on lord of the vs savagery, morphological level — that is, the level of composition of words from waseda english essay, morphemes, rather than the sentence level.” Miyagawa acknowledges that research and discussion in the field will continue, but says he hopes colleagues will engage with the integration hypothesis. “It’s worthy of being considered, and then potentially challenged,” Miyagawa says.

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Recent advances in application of chitosan in fuel cells. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Waseda! Fuel cells have attracted attention due to flies civilization vs savagery, their potential as a promising alternative to waseda essay, traditional power sources. Essays On Lord Flies Vs Savagery! More recently, efficient and environmentally benign biopolymer “chitosan” have been extensively investigated as a novel material for its application in waseda english essay fuel cells. This biopolymer can be used in both membrane electrolyte and electrode in essay prompts high school various fuel cells such as alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells and waseda english essay biofuel cells. This review provides an master social overview of main available fuel cells following by english essay application of chitosan as novel biopolymer in fuel cells technology. Recent achievements are included and recommendations are also given for areas of essay thesis, future research. The online version of english, this article (doi: 10.1186/2043-7129-1-16 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

The extensive use of developing research, fossil fuels has resulted to severe pollutant emissions, including SO x , NO x , CO, and particulates which pose severe threat to the health of human beings [ 1 ]. Waseda! In addition, a steady depletion of five high school, world’s limited fossil fuel, reserves calls for efficient, benign and sustainable technologies for english essay, energy conversion and master thesis power generation. Fuel cells are among the waseda essay most efficient and deductive essay writing environmental friendly devices for english essay, energy conversion and power generation due to five paragraph essay prompts, their zero-emission power source [ 2 ]. Fuel cells have been identified as one of the most promising and potent technologies which meet energy security, economic growth, and environmental sustainability requirements [ 2 ]. Waseda! Although fuel cell technology has matured substantially over the past decades, technological barriers, such as insufficient durability, cell life time and essay fuel cell component costs, still delay commercialization in many applications [ 3 ]. There are different types of fuel cells that are generally characterized by electrolyte material. Among electrolyte material, solid polymer-based electrolyte membranes offer advantages such as high efficiency and english high energy density [ 4 ]. However, polymer electrolyte membrane is the of the flies vs savagery most expensive component of a polymer electrolyte-based fuel cell [ 5 ]. Therefore, cost effective and eco-friendly polymer electrolytes from renewable sources can become a promising substitute for synthetic polymers in fuel cells. Among natural polymers, polysaccharides are among the best candidates due to their abundance in environment [ 5 ]. Chitosan, as a derivative of chitin, is a naturally abundant and low-cost biopolymer which has attracted attention in various scientific and essay engineering processes due to its excellent biocompatibility, non-toxicity and chemical and thermal stability [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. The presence of amino groups in the glucosamine residue imparts an additional characteristic feature to chitosan in comparison to eveline essay thesis, these polysaccharides. The positive charge arising due to the highly protonated amino functionalities enables chitosan to form polyelectrolyte complexes spontaneously with a wide variety of waseda english, negatively charged polyanions such as lipids, collagen, glycosaminoglycans, lignosulfonate, and alginate, as well as charged synthetic polymers and DNA through electrostatic interaction [ 4 , 7 ]. The objectives of the eveline essay present review are to investigate the current status of english, fuel cells and advances in utilization of chitosan biopolymer for polymer electrolyte membrane technologies. Fuel cells-relevance and five school importance. Fuel cells are environmental friendly devices for energy conversion, power generation, and one of the most promising candidates as zero-emission power sources [ 2 ]. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which convert the chemical energy obtained from a redox reaction directly into electrical energy [ 5 ]. These cells consist of an electrolyte material that is packed between two thin electrodes (porous anode and cathode). Waseda Essay! The input fuel passes over the anode and paragraph prompts school oxygen passes over the cathode where they are dissociated catalytically into ions and english essay electrons. The electrons pass through an of the flies civilization external electrical circuit to provide power while the ions move through the electrolyte toward the oppositely charged electrode [ 2 , 4 ]. Fuel cells classification and engineering.

Schematic representation of an waseda english alkaline fuel cell (AFC) [ 2 ] . AFCs offer some advantages over other fuel cells, mainly relatively low operating temperature. High-temperature AFCs operate at on lord, temperatures between 100°C and 250°C. However, newer AFC designs operate at much lower temperatures ranging from 23°C to 70°C. Another advantage is that higher reaction kinetics at the electrodes results in waseda higher cell voltages. This high electrical efficiency permits the use of lower quantities of a noble expensive metal catalyst like platinum [ 9 ]. Deductive Reasoning Essay Writing! AFCs produce potable water in addition to electricity.

Therefore, they have been a logical choice for waseda english, spacecrafts. Most of the AFCs have been designed for essay of divorce, transport applications [ 13 ]. One of the major drawbacks of the AFCs is that alkaline cells need very pure fuels [ 9 ]. It is related to the use of the liquid electrolyte [ 14 , 15 ]. The KOH solution is very sensitive to the presence of CO 2 . When air is waseda essay used instead of oxygen, the hydroxyl ions may react with CO 2 contained in the air and an unwanted chemical reaction forms a solid K 2 CO 3 that interferes with the other chemical reactions inside the cell [ 14 , 16 , 17 ]. Another disadvantage is related to the amount of essay, liquid electrolyte. If the liquid is higher or below the required level, it can lead to electrode flooding or electrode drying [ 9 ]. Schematic representation of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) [ 2 ] . The high operating temperature of english, these cells limits damage from the carbon monoxide poisoning of the cells and on lord flies civilization vs savagery waste heat can also be recycled to make additional electricity [ 19 , 20 ]. The primary disadvantage of current MCFC technology is durability. High operating temperatures and the use of corrosive electrolytes accelerates component breakdown and cell life. English! Scientists are currently exploring corrosion-resistant materials for components as well as fuel cell designs that can increase cell life without decreasing their performance [ 2 ]. Schematic representation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) [ 2 ] . Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) Schematic representation of on children, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) [ 4 ] . Compared to hydrogen fuel cells, DMFC is further advantageous for its ease of fuel delivery, storage, operation at low temperature and lack of humidification requirements, as well as its reduced design complexity and high power density [ 26 ]. Despite these advantages limited operating temperatures, susceptibility to waseda, osmotic swelling, methanol crossover and essay writing high costs are among the factors hindering the commercialization of DMFC [ 27 ]. Schematic representation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) [ 2 ] . High-temperature operation removes the waseda essay need for precious-metal catalyst, thereby reducing the cost. However, the high temperature limits applications of SOFCs units and they tend to eveline essay, be rather large, while solid electrolytes cannot leak, they can crack [ 32 ].

Microorganisms are able to convert enormous amounts of energy from an incomparable range of chemical substrates [ 33 ]. Waseda English! Biofuel cells are a subset of fuel cells that employ biocatalysts such as a microbe, enzyme or even organelle interacting with an electrode surface [ 34 , 35 ]. The main types of deductive reasoning writing, biofuel cells are defined by the type of biocatalyst. Waseda Essay! Microbial fuel cells employ living cells to catalyze the deductive essay writing oxidation of the fuel, whereas enzymatic fuel cells use enzymes for this purpose [ 36 ]. These types of catalysts offer great benefits in catalytic activity, specificity and english cost. However, development and full evaluation of of divorce, these dynamic and often sensitive bioelectrochemical systems require a diverse range of expertise [ 33 ]. Biofuel cells like other ones require porous anode and cathode structures that support fuel transport to the catalyst reaction sites [ 36 ]. Either a polymer electrolyte membrane or a salt bridge can separate the english essay electrodes. Effect Essay On Children! The two main application areas that are being considered for enzymatic biofuel cells are in waseda essay vivo, implantable power supplies for sensors and pacemakers and ex-vivo power supplies for small portable power devices (wireless sensor networks, portable electronics, etc.) [ 33 ]. Schematic representation of an enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) [ 36 ] . Schematic representation of paragraph essay school, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) [ 44 ] . Interest in some kinds of fuel cell technologies dropped owing to economic factors, material problems, and certain inadequacies in the operation of electrochemical devices [ 49 ]. One of the main drawbacks of the fuel cells is related to the use of the liquid electrolyte. Using a polymer membrane as an electrolyte can solve some limiting requirements of waseda, fuel cells.

For instance the deductive reasoning essay writing essentially need for using pure fuels in AFCs have been overcome by using a polymer membrane as an electrolyte [ 14 , 15 ]. Fuel cell membranes must meet several desired properties such as high proton conductivity, low electronic conductivity, impermeability to fuel gas or liquid, good mechanical toughness in both the dry and hydrated states, and high oxidative and hydrolytic stability in the actual fuel cell environment [ 4 ]. These properties are related to properties such as ion exchange capacity, morphology and water uptake that must be assessed as well when characterizing potential of english, a new fuel cell membrane [ 9 ]. Recent development of proton exchange membranes. The first polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) used in reasoning essay writing a fuel cell system was sulfonated polystyrene membrane. It was developed by General Electric for NASA in the early 1960s, as on-board power source in the Apollo flight space mission [ 50 ]. However, this material was found to have several major weaknesses such as lack of waseda essay, stability and developing research proposals limited power density [ 51 ]. Currently, most commercially available membranes for fuel cells are based on perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer membranes (e.g., Nafion, Flemion and waseda english Acipex) [ 4 ]. Alternative polymer membranes used in deductive reasoning essay writing fuel cell. Alternative polymer membranes.

Alternative polymer membranes. The depositing of waseda essay, thin plasma polymerized barrier films on deductive essay, Nafion® membrane. sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) Poly methyl methacrylate (MAA) Poly vinyl sulfonic acid (PVS) Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) plasma etched and waseda english Pd-sputtered membrane. Nafion® with montmorillonite (MMT) and MMT containing dodecylamine (m-MMT) membranes. Poly p-Styrene carboxylic (SCA) Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) Nafion®/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Nafion®/phosphotungstic acid-impregnated silicon dioxide (SiO2/PWA), Nafion®/zirconium phosphate (ZrP) Sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (SPPEK) PVA/PWA and silica. TFS/vinyl fluoro monomers. SPEEK/Synthetic non-spherical silicates. Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) PVA/Polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) Poly (ethylene-alt tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) PBI/Sulfonated polysulfone (SPf)

Sulfonated polyimides (SPI) Recent development of anion exchange membranes. Anion exchange membranes used in AFCs [ 9 ] Anion exchange membranes. Tetra alkyl ammonium Functionalized polyethylene. PVA/poly(1,3-diethyl-1 vinyl imidazolium bromide) Cationic poly (phenylene) Carboxylic Nafion 117. Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl-acrylate-co-vinyl benzyl. Alkoxysilane/acrylate or epoxy alkoxysilane. Crosslinked ionic liquid.

Tetra alkyl ammonium functionalized cyclooctene. Quaternary ammonia polysulfone. Poly(methyl methacrylate-co butyl-acrylate-co-vinyl benzyl. Polyarylene sulfonium membrane. Chitosan biopolymer for developing research proposals, fuel cell applications. Current advances in application of chitosan biopolymer as electrolyte membrane in fuel cells. Membrane is the core component of PEMFCs.

Considering that polymer membrane electrolyte is the most expensive component of a polymer electrolyte-based fuel cell, the use of low-cost chitosan-based membrane might bring down the cost of a fuel cell [ 5 ]. Waseda English! Chitosan-based membrane electrolyte is being studied as alternative candidate for eveline, polymer electrolyte membrane application to possibly produce economical fuel cells [ 5 ]. To achieve high efficiency, membrane must possess as mentioned before some desirable properties [ 83 ]. Modification of chitosan such as sulfonation, phosphorylation, quaternization, chemical cross-linking makes it cost-effective polymer electrolyte membrane with low methanol permeability and english essay suitable ion conductivity especially at high temperature [ 3 ]. Recently, derivatives of chitosan were created to developing effective research proposals, serve as novel polyelectrolytes for essay, AFCs. N-[(2-Hydroxy-3- trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan chloride was synthesized, followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde [ 85 ]. Crosslinked quaternized-PVA has a low mechanical strength; therefore, Xiong et al. blended this polymer with chitosan to improve their performance [ 86 ]. The obtained composite membranes have more compact structure and good mechanical strength. Wan et al. examined the paragraph high ionic conductivity of waseda english essay, different chitosan membranes, such as pure chitosan membranes with different degree of deacetylation and molecular weight, di-o-butyrylchitosan, epichlorohydrin or glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan and proposed that they are suitable for use in alkaline fuel cells [ 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 ]. Polystyrene (PS) was introduced to form an interpenetrating network with quaternized chitosan. Polystyrene is more hydrophobic than quaternized chitosan and deductive reasoning essay has good mechanical strength. It was found that introduction of PS improves tensile strength, and waseda yet reduces elongation. The addition of PS enabled the quaternary ammonia-based membranes to have a higher tolerance to essays on lord vs savagery, bases. Waseda! However, the essay on children membranes with a higher PS exhibit lower ionic conductivity due to the PS are a nonionic conductor [ 91 ].

For application in a DMFC, polymer electrolyte membrane needs to have a low methanol crossover. The commonly used Nafion membrane has relatively high methanol permeability. Chitosan has been employed as a promising polymeric matrix for DMFC application considering its low cost, desirable alcohol barrier property and proton conductivity as well as adequate thermal stability after cross-linking [ 26 , 92 ]. In its dry state, chitosan has a very low electrical conductivity. The addition of salts leads to the formation of complex between salts and chitosan matrix, and also enhancement of its amorphous nature [ 93 ]. Waseda! Plasticization is able to increase the amorphous content and thus improves the conductivity of a solid polymer electrolyte [ 94 ]. Cross-linking is proposed to reduce crystallinity of reasoning essay writing, chitosan membrane and simultaneously enhance the ionic transport [ 95 ]. Chitosan is hydrophilic and waseda english essay consequently has a high degree of swelling. An excessively high level of water uptake increases the fragility of the membrane and makes it less durable in fuel cells. Five Paragraph Prompts High School! To overcome the english essay disadvantage of loss in mechanical strength in the wet state, chitosan is blended with tough polymers such as polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) [ 96 ]. Mat, et al. fabricated a polymer electrolyte composite membrane that comprises of essay thesis, chitosan, PVA and calcium oxide (CaO). English Essay! These results indicate that chitosan-PVA-CaO composite membranes have excellent methanol barrier properties which in turn make them feasible for developing proposals, DMFC applications [ 3 ]. Current advances in application of chitosan biopolymer as electrode in fuel cells. An electrode in english a polymer electrolyte-based fuel cell usually consists of supported or unsupported catalyst with or without binder loaded on an electrode substrate or a gas diffusion layer. Polymeric materials are often employed as binder to bond catalyst particles and also provide ionic conduction [ 5 ]. Nafion material is also used as electrode binder which facilitates ionic conduction that provides mechanical support for catalyst particles and enhances dispersion of effect on children, catalyst particles in waseda essay the catalyst layer.

Nafion possesses many desirable properties as a polymer electrolyte, and yet it is very expensive and loses ionic conductivity if not sufficiently hydrated [ 5 ]. The chitosan binder exhibited better performance than a Nafion binder especially at elevated cell temperatures, ascribed to the hydrophilic nature and effect on children water retention characteristics of chitosan. In addition, the english essay amount of required chitosan binder for making electrode is much less than that of Nafion binder [ 97 ]. Klotzbach et al. Effective Research! modified chitosan with butanal, hexanal, octanal or decanal aldehydes to essay, prepare a biocompatible and biodegradable hydrophobic chitosan membrane that can replace Nafion for electrode coatings in essays on lord of the flies vs savagery both sensor and fuel cell applications [ 98 , 99 ]. Functionalization of waseda english essay, carbon nanotube by chitosan introduces positively charged functional groups on the surface of carbon nanotube which serves as a medium to stabilize and anchor metal nanoparticles through electrostatic self-assembly and also provides proton path for developing proposals, methanol electrooxidation reactions [ 100 ]. Waseda English Essay! Wang et al. reported that chitosan/tungstophosphoric acid modified Pt/C catalyst demonstrated higher utilization efficiency as compared to pristine Pt/C catalyst [ 101 ]. To develop a stable enzymatic biofuel cell, a matrix for enzyme immobilization is critical to thesis social, retain the activity of enzyme in a long period [ 102 ]. Carboxyl and amine side groups of chitosan can serve as protein-binding ligands for enzyme immobilization [ 103 , 104 , 105 ]. Three-dimensional electrodes possessing multidimensional and multidirectional pore structures are possible solution to improve performance of a biofuel cell. Waseda English Essay! Chitosan scaffold was used to fabricate enzymatic electrode that oxidizes glucose and produce electrical current more effectively than the same electrode made of effective proposals, a chitosan film [ 106 ]. The large pore size of chitosan scaffold enables it to support bacterial colonization of internal pores without increasing flow resistance [ 107 ]. It was reported that carbon nanotube/chitosan nanocomposite bioelectrode enhanced the electricity generation of waseda, microbial fuel cells [ 108 , 109 , 110 ]. Fuel cells are often regarded as one of the thesis social advanced energy technologies for english essay, the future. However, commercialization of fuel cells is five prompts still a subject of the ongoing research. The development of PEMFC power system has been accelerated for vehicular and home-use applications. Pure hydrogen fuel appears likely to be the appropriate choice for vehicle applications. Although fuel cell technology has matured substantially over the past decades, special attention has to be given to composite techniques in developing electrolyte membrane since these techniques have proven their effectiveness. It is waseda english essay necessary to on children, develop alternative membranes that have high ionic conductivity and have sufficient mechanical strength and chemical stability to english essay, be made as thin as possible. Recently, many efforts have been made in utilization of chitosan with improved properties for being used as a polymer electrolyte membrane and electrode in fuel cells.

These chitosan based membranes generally do not offer significant advantages over essay on children traditional Nafion membrane as far as proton conductivity is concerned and as a result the corresponding power density of related fuel cells is also lower than Nafion-based ones. The intrinsic ionic conductivity of waseda english, chitosan-based membrane, therefore, needs to be further improved for fuel cell application. Essays On Lord Of The Vs Savagery! The mechanical strength and shelf life of chitosan also need further enhancements which have not been given extensive attention to date. Efforts have been made to improve properties of english essay, chitosan membrane, including chemical modification such as sulfonation, phosphorylation, quaternization and formation of chitosan composite. These methods improve some properties of flies civilization, chitosan with or without sacrificing the others. Waseda English! Application of chitosan composite membranes has been proved to be effective approach in reducing their cost as well as improving their operating reliability. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. HV, HJM, AB and NA have contributed mainly to the study of reasoning, application of chitosan in fuel cells, participated in the sequence alignment and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the waseda terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Hamideh Vaghari 1 Hoda Jafarizadeh-Malmiri 1 Email author Aydin Berenjian 2 Navideh Anarjan 3 1. Department of deductive essay, Chemical Engineering Sahand University of Technology Tabriz Iran 2. School of Chemical and essay Biomolecular Engineering The University of Sydney Sydney Australia 3. Department of Engineering, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University Tabriz Iran. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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Why your PDF resume might be killing you. My allergies are absolutely killing me. The battle of my body versus my environment has now reached an english essay annoying three weeks. What’s worse is that this is the civilization vs savagery, first year I’ve ever experienced an allergic catastrophe like I’m dealing with now. Seriously, it just came out of no where. But enough about english essay me, time to talk about master what might be killing you! For several years, I’ve been thinking of waseda essay, writing about the horror that a PDF resume can bring to eveline essay job seekers. For too long, I’ve been waiting for the right time or the right idea/inspiration to write about english this menacing problem. However, FINS absolutely crushed this topic and beat me to the punch, so I feel I must review their post and pass it on to you.

I was recently quoted in FINS in a Cover Letter story , and while there, I noticed their very strong PDF v. Developing Research Proposals? Word post. Waseda? While reading through, I knew it was going to be awesome when I saw one of my best friends in the world, Sarah White, quoted in the piece. Deductive Reasoning Essay Writing? She’s brilliant and shows off her HR technology brain in the article. You can read the full post by clicking here , and I invite you to waseda english check out my review of the eveline thesis, post below. If you weren’t aware already, most companies these days use an Applicant Tracking System (ATS) to receive, organize, review, and search the english essay, resume that you (and everyone) send in for the job. Ever apply to deductive a job and waseda english, receive an almost instant email back?

Yep, that’s the ATS saying “howdy” to your face. As Sarah White mentions in the article, about reasoning essay 61% of North American companies have an english ATS now , and job seekers will find that more and more companies will start using them. There are roughly 55 different ATS vendors on the market. Of those 55, only essays on lord of the flies civilization vs savagery a few are able to translate the information from your PDF resume into their system. This means that if their software can not detect your info, you are simply lost in waseda english, the mix. The company is just NOT able to search your resume or your name because your information is effective research, just blank in the system. Time For An Awesome Sarah White Quote: I think you’re always safer using a Word document than a PDF, as well as sticking to .doc instead of waseda essay, .docx extensions. A PDF could potentially be readable, but you know a Word document will be read by one of these systems.

Almost every large company uses an of divorce ATS, so common sense must be on your side. If the company employs more than 500 employees, they probably have an ATS. If you send a PDF resume and receive an automatic response, it might be in your best interest to apply again, this time with Word formatted resume. I know that the PDF resumes can look fun and make you seem techy and innovative, so use them when the waseda english, company is also techy and innovative. Perfect example would be for a startup. Most startup companies can’t afford an ATS and deductive reasoning essay writing, probably just use a excel spreadsheet to keep track of everything. Waseda English Essay? Feel free to send them your wacky and wild or pretty and fun PDF resume. Just be smart, and proposals, when applying to english essay a larger organization use common sense and send your Word resume. When you opt for prompts high AppliView ( ) you will have a competitive advantage over many other firms. That is because you will be able to english hire the best candidates into developing effective your company. Waseda Essay? A lot of companies struggle hard to master thesis social hire the finest in essay, the industry.

They look for ways to avoid resume duplication and master thesis social, hefty placement fees. Great article. After learning about resume screeners I didn€™t want to leave my application to chance, so I apply using Jobscan to make sure my resume is seen. The reason people use pdf documents for resumes is to protect the integrity of the english, information they provide. Personally, I trust no one. So how do you insure the thesis, integrity of the waseda english essay, document once it leaves your computer if not by pdf?

Very informative post. Most of the master social, job seekers are not aware of this ATS system. Thanks for waseda english the post. Visit following website, they deliver a beautiful resume of yourself. Do you want to track your CV once it leaves your mailbox.Please try Well, we just can't win.

Maybe this is reasoning essay, one of the reason why more than 50 percent of the recruitment went to failure. After all if you think about english essay it a resume is of the flies civilization vs savagery, just a piece of paper, do it in english essay, their way there's no biggie, we are the effect of divorce on children, seekers and they are the choosers. It's the reality. With all the people complaining, it's almost funny to be honest.. Like businesses not updating their Word programs when one comes out every couple of years(costing a very large amount of money) and facing some compatibility issues (like not being able to read .docx and such new formats), many large businesses will not update/change their text-scanning software and essay, they will not be able to read stuff like .pdf no matter how 'easy' it apparently is to extract it. If it costs more money/time, they probably don't want to deal with it.

And I don't blame them one bit.. As for your I spent sooo much time designing this fancy resum© in .pdf, and deductive reasoning essay writing, why won't they read it? :'( the skipping out on some resum©s probably helps these companies. Not only does it lower the number of resum©s(probably somewhere in essay, the hundreds or thousands) that they have to scan through (thereby lowering the load on computers and the staff hired to developing proposals look at resum©s), fancy .pdfs are going to have a higher file size than a simple .doc. The only place where I could see that being justified is in a small design business. Otherwise, your pretty little .pdf means absolutely nothing to them. You can make some very nice documents in most word processors if you know what you`re doing, it shouldn`t be a problem at all. Use your design skills there(not really tech skills to be honest, anyone can use that program). Overall, a large business that needs a text-extractor will not care if your resum© is a little bit nicer than the others. English? They don`t care, in effect of divorce on children, a place where they employ 1000 people if one singular person who was above average was cut out in favour of someone who was average.

0 poos given. If you are trying to highlight yourself before you even get a job offer, do it by researching industry standards(such as this one) and use them to your advantage! You are now one of the 'x' number of people who didn`t get cut out by the text-scanning system for using a.pdf, congratulations! People, please stop whining, use this stuff to your advantage! @ Palkia The Office Open XML (DOCX, XLSX etc) standard was designed by Microsoft in 2006 for Office 2007. Most businesses should have a version of Word thats capable of opening a DOCX, as it's over 8 years old.

XPDF, a FREE and essay, open source PDF text extractor has been around since 1995. There's zero excuse for these software packages to not extract text out of a PDF. This just absolutely upsets me in so many ways. Why are you recruiters depended on social, a system that refuses to adapt? I have been spending hours on waseda english, my resume to stick out and essay, just to waseda english find out that it simply doesn't matter what efforts I have made. Yes, I do use these key word in my resume because I was aware of the ATF searches but I had no idea about the PDF issue. Prompts School? I had preferred to submit my resume in PDF because I created my resume on waseda english essay, InDesign to highlight my tech and design skills. and plus I figured recruiter would have issues with layout if it was in a doc format. I am sooo upset right now. Some digital age we are in.

This is absolutely ridiculous. Five Paragraph Essay High? What kind of system is not reading my bloody resume in PDF. RETARDED DESIGN IDEA!! DO YOU KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE LOSING THEIR MINDS BECAUSE THEY DON 'T KNOW THIS CRUCIAL FUCKING REQUIREMENTS ?? IT 'S NOT LIKE THEY'RE IT TECHNICIANS!! @ huntingbird30 I literally crying.

I have sent so many resumes in PDF because they were designed and I spent hours on it.. and to find out they won't be looked just makes me sooo angry!. I have sent over waseda, 1000 resumes under pdf not one response. only in america lol. What about sending a simple version of the PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume? The simple version would have all formating removed, and would be the machine readable version, while the social, PDF itself would be the version the HR person would refer to. What about sending a simple version of the PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume? The simple version would have all formating removed, and would be the waseda english essay, machine readable version, while the thesis, PDF itself would be the version the HR person would refer to. Seriously? PDF text extraction is easy, there are a million open source tools for this with MIT license.

Any program that is waseda english essay, designed to scan text out of files that cannot read PDFs has some lazy ass programmers. We should not prepare the resumes format in the PDF's style.The recruiters won't allow this type of format. free pdf (lol) resume hosting at Hey this is a nice one. Thanks for reasoning essay writing explaining it so brief.

How to transfer car loan to my name? We don't scan for key words so in our system it doesn't matter if it's a word doc. or pdf resume you upload. = recruitment just got free. Regarding PDF files. Disclosure: I have NEVER seen the waseda, recruiter side of an ATS tool. There seems to be two ways to essay of divorce create a PDF: 1) print, scan, save 2) direct from software Option 1 would require OCR technology to convert the scanned picture to text. While this improved over the years it is not perfect and formatting will drive OCR nuts. Option 2 usually embeds the raw text as well. These are the waseda english, PDF files you can use the reasoning essay, search function of the reader with. My assumption, I know how that can turn out, is that the ATS systems should be able to pull the raw text from the computer generated file where Option 1 would cause issues.

Regardless, why buck the system? Use the .doc or .txt format when applying and avoid the issue. If you want to publish your resume online and are concerned with someone modifying it then use the PDF format there or set the .doc file to read only. Just a thought. Rich, First, I really enjoy your site and your posts . eh, most of which I agree with. :-) Second, this PDF-v-DOC discussion is one that I have had with with many people over the last several years as I lecture on resume writing and english essay, online job searching here in the Atlanta area. Master? I wrote a entry for my blog ( about a year ago and discussed this very issue. But, like in essay, my post, let me extend your warning comments to master include the waseda english, .ODT format as well as the .PDF format. Both are a challenge to current-day ATS platforms. For those of you not familiar with .ODT, it's the deductive reasoning, default file format for Open Documents created with a variety of Open word processing packages, such as Sun's Open Office suite. While it is a standard format (ISO/IEC), it's not broadly accepted on ATS platforms yet without additional (sometimes costly) add-on packages.

So, as Rich (and others) has pointed out effectively, when applying on-line, the de facto standard for essay resume file formats continues to be .DOC (.DOCX is almost on-par with .DOC .. give it another year) -- stick with it for now. Keep the great posts coming along! Pardon my ignorance (I'm a job seeker, not a recruiter) but what do you mean by thesis, keywords of waseda english, your industry? How can someone describe their experience and skills without using the same words as you may use to search for candidates? Are seekers and recruiters using such different language? How can I get a list of master thesis social, keywords for my industry, so I make sure my resume is written in the language of recruiters? Many thanks. Use a word cloud tool like or to build a visual of the job descriptions. Waseda English Essay? 1) find a job description that interests you 2) copy text 3) go to word cloud tool, paste text 4) look at visual representation of the words on the cloud. The keywords should be in a larger font Just a thought. Rich, Great column!

Just one question regarding, My allergies are absolutely killing me. Couldn't be allergic to corn, could you?! AMEN! It is one of my biggest pet peeves, is havinbg PDF resumes. The only thinkg that drives me over the edge is eveline essay thesis, people who send the resume with the title of resume.doc. These people do not think anyone else use that defualt title. I used to rename them to be a nice recruiter, but when i have volumes of resumes coming in, in is easier to reject it since my ATS will not process it since there is waseda english essay, ALWAYS one already in the database!

Hi Michael - Thanks for the comment and stopping by! YES, I hate generally titled resumes as well. I may need to five paragraph prompts write a post simply on waseda english, that. Thanks! I have also found that it is good to place a list of key words at the bottom in very small type and white characters that do not show up when printed however, many ATSs still pick up those key words when searching resumes. Just make sure those key words are relevant to developing effective research the job and waseda english, the industry otherwise they are of no use. Hey RBC - thanks for commenting. Excellent point about keywords. Very important to note that ATS look for essay writing keywords and that's how people are found in the systme.

Thanks. @rbc, if you are thoughtful in developing accomplishment-based bullets that include the crucial keywords of your industry, then you won't need to rely on tricks such as white font, right? Recruiters and employers will quickly lose respect (and the waseda english, contact info) of candidates who can't play straight. You can also introduce keywords in your Summary Statement (not objective statement). Developing Effective Research Proposals? Don't spend your energy playing games, but rather, spend your energy creating useful and unique content. We have a saying here at ResuMAYDAY and that's, give yourself the essay, best resume that you've EARNED. Nothing more, nothing less. With a bit of master thesis social, wordsmithing and strategy, you won't have to essay resort to trickery. Great comment, ResuMAYDAY!

Trickery is five paragraph essay school, certainly not ideal. Waseda English? Thanks for stopping by! Hi Rich - I always knew that job seekers should definitely have multiple formats of their resume, but I didn't realize that submitting .PDFs could be such a problem. If a job seeker is emailing their resume, what do you think of attaching all the formats they have (or at least both a .Doc and .PDF)? Whenever there's an online system, the .Doc submission always works better, even if .PDF can be submitted. Of Divorce? In those instances, it seems like the .Doc just translates better into the system. Thanks for the tips! - Corey Career Blogger at Urban Interns. Hey Corey - thanks for the comment.

Attaching all of the english, formats may work if it's just through email. That's a good way to go about it if they know for sure it's going to a recruiters inbox. Vs Savagery? The .doc is always best for online submissions and online systems. These systems are the waseda english essay, ATS which basically shred up the PDF format. Thanks again! Rich, Great tip on effect on children, .docx vs. .doc. Waseda English? It's something I suspected, but wasn't entirely sure. Thanks for the heads up. Lee. Hey Lee - thanks for the comment.

I'll give Sarah White the nod for reasoning writing that tip! That was from her brain! Thanks! Geez . just when I'd decided (based on other articles) that I was going to start sending out .pdf versions of my resume, I read this! Frankly, I have a jam-packed resume, reflecting 30+ years of experience in four or five (depending how one wants to slice-and-dice it) areas of the essay, Communications field, and it has a nasty habit of trying very hard to on children push the english essay, last few items off the eveline essay thesis, second page when left to the variables of how different systems display a .doc file.

Obviously, having a .pdf version keeps all the essay, info where it's supposed to be . however, if nobody is actually READING these (either on-screen or in a print-out), I guess it doesn't matter. Heck, from reading the essay writing, above I'm wondering if the no more than two pages rule is waseda english, still active . if it's a computer scanning my resume for keywords, I can spew out a 10-page EPIC of my professional life and stuff it to the gills with likely keywords. Eh . Proposals? anyway . you've convinced me to keep attaching the .doc version for the time being! - B.T. Hey BTRIPP - I'm sorry to have made you start over on waseda, this! It may be a hassle, but it MIGHT Be your best option to essay high switch to the word resume. KEEP both formats, but only send the PDF to smaller companies. Waseda? Good luck!

Excellent advice, Rich. On Lord? First off, I completely, absolutely, 100 percent agree with everything you've written so don't take anything below as being at all contradictory but instead just additional to waseda english what you've written: 1. Deductive Essay Writing? Erin's comment from waseda, a few minutes ago is one that we hear a lot. Essay High School? If she could only see what employers see when they're looking at their ATS then she'd understand. Essay? Most of the developing effective, ATS software vendors seem to think that formatting is for wimps and what recruiters really want is a page of english essay, unformatted, straight text with no discernible columns, bullet points, numbering, etc. So all that nice formatting like putting your dates of employment in one column and your job title and description in developing proposals, another so employers can read at a glance where you've been and what you've done? Forget about waseda english essay it. It all mashes together. Essay Thesis? So any benefit that she or other job seekers perceive being there from a PDF versus a Word document quickly vanishes as soon as that PDF is sucked into english essay a typical ATS. 2. In the 20 years since I founded this business, I've never talked with a recruiter who speaks highly of their ATS.

Never. 3. I don't recall the exact percentage but it is something like 60 percent of essay, resumes in ATS are essentially invisible to waseda english essay the recruiters using their ATS. The percentage was given to me by the folks at Preptel, which have created a system which will convert the resume you post at a job board or other web site into a format that is compatible with each of the major ATS and then posts your resume for you. Incredibly, putting dates in one column and research proposals, job titles and descriptions in another -- like most resumes seem to be -- is one of the biggest problems for the ATS. English? These resumes often end up with all of the information from the first column (the dates) being lumped together in developing proposals, one paragraph and then all of the essay, information from the second column (job titles and descriptions) appearing at the bottom of the research, resume so the recruiter has no easy way of essay, determining which dates go with which jobs. These ATS have only been around for 15 years. You'd think they'd care more about the of the vs savagery, candidates and their clients. If they did, you'd never see a problem like this. By the way, we'll be implementing a partnership with Preptel this fall so candidates who apply to jobs on our site will have their resumes properly posted to the employer's ATS.

4. Waseda English? If the employer's system allows you to do so, upload your resume as a PDF, Word document, AND a plain text document. Five Prompts? Look long and hard at that last one. Waseda? If you can read it on your screen, then the employer should be able to read it in their ATS. Plain text documents force you to essay on children trash all of waseda english, those columns, bullets, etc. Developing Research Proposals? so what you end up with is a 1993-looking document that should be perfectly compatible with just about every ATS out there and waseda, that will greatly increase your chances of the employer being able to find you. 5. Employers using ATS find candidates who have applied to jobs not by reading through a stack of resumes like so many candidates think but instead by five paragraph prompts school, keyword searching.

An employer might receive hundreds or even thousands of english, resumes per day and many of them tell me that at least 90 percent are unqualified. Rather than wasting time reading through the 90 percent, the employers try to find the 10 percent by running keyword searches just like we all do when we go to effect essay of divorce on children Google, Bing, or Yahoo. But just like those searches, you often end up missing what you're searching for because you didn't use the right keyword phrase or the page that has the information you want didn't include the keyword phrase that you used when you were searching for it. So think about waseda english what keyword phrases the employer would use -- even if there's an idiot on their end -- and then use those same phrases in your resume. Of The Civilization? Keep up the good work, Rich! What is the waseda, best thing to reasoning do if i have pdf resume? im not getting any response. Hey Steven - Anything you say I listen to. Disagreeing with me or not. English? Not blowing smoke up your ass here, but I do tend to learn a thing or two from you when you speak (or type).

I agree with you on your points. Specifically, ATS programs need to get better. I didn't like the developing effective, one we had, but I'll tell you that when we didn't have it, things were worse. English Essay? It didn't complete solve the problem, but it helped me reach more people. I was more efficient in my job, and master thesis social, as the english essay, only recruiter for my company, I felt more in control. In regards to essay on children #3, I think recruiters are constantly trying to do their job better. In our field, what slows us down is what we usually think about. If something slows us down, we are to blame.

For that reason, the ATS is english, critical. When it fails (which does happen), it hurts us. I think that's why many don't like their ATS, or at least want something better. Great points in on children, #4. Regards to #5, completely forgot to mention keywords in the post.

Excellent! I shouldn't have wrote it at 3am! If recruiters aren't trained on key word searching, then they are missing out. But if they don't know what key words to search, then they probably have larger issues. Thanks again for the kind words and your thoughts! Seriously, WTF?

It sounds like ATS systems are the dumbest thing on the planet, HR people hate them, and yet they keep using them because . . . why? Why hasn't sheer demand forced the companies that make these systems create something acceptable? And yet job seekers are still expected to waseda essay sift through endless conflicting sources of advice despite the fact that almost nothing they will do can give them a reasonable chance of not being rejected by effective proposals, an idiotic system? I suppose I am lucky that I am in an industry (architecture) where most firms are far too small to use such systems. At least if I am rejected, it's most often by a human being who has actually at waseda essay least glanced at my resume, instead of a computer system that doesn't properly do the deductive essay, job it was designed to do even half the time. Sheesh. Hey there, Rich, I'm interested in hearing more about Steve's #4 and your original point #3: If you send a PDF resume and waseda english essay, receive an reasoning automatic response, it might be in your best interest to apply again, this time with Word formatted resume. I've thought about applying multiple times with different formats, but hesitated on the grounds that it would be redundant, annoying and perceived as unprofessional. You've changed my mind!

I still have questions though: Steve's answer was limited to one application with multiple file formats, but it didn't exclude the multiple applications idea. What do you think of this idea, Steve? Also, Rich, your original point #3 is not be a popular alternative in the comments, and I'm not sure why, since it appears to waseda english essay solve the social, file format problem nicely and waseda english, increase visibility in the ATS. Could you expound on this more, and maybe take a stab at the reasons why someone might not use multiple applications? Also, do you have any resources about the various ATS systems in use? Where and developing effective research, how can I find information about the capabilities of each system? I understand the the rules of the job hunt are not determined by me.

I must humbly conform to the needs of english essay, HR representatives, and I do. Of Divorce? That being said, I can still grumble grumble a little at this. Waseda English Essay? As a mac user (like many others), I save my resumes as PDFs before submitting. I can save as a Word doc, but I have had issues in the past with formatting not saving properly. Five Paragraph? I find it hard to imagine that these HR professionals aren't aware that they are missing out on a number of english essay, candidates because of a PDF submission. Unless they are looking to filter out as many candidates as possible, why would they intentionally use a software that completely ignores a number of developing research, candidates that may be the waseda, perfect fit for a position? Is it just that they don't understand the software or does it make their job easier by cutting the essay of divorce on children, number of candidates?

Can't say I like it, but I understand your point and will take your advice to submit .doc's going forward. Hi Erin - thanks for your comment! Perfectly understand your grumbling, and you aren't alone. It's not something that I love about the system. It's just how it is. English? But I'll say this. Paragraph Prompts? As a resume reviewer, I care LESS about the format, than I do about the content. The purpose of the ATS is to waseda english organize your information once you're in the system.

If your content is solid, I'll probably find you in there and review your information. Paragraph Essay Prompts High School? If the waseda english, format is messed up, I'll still consider you if the information is good. Developing Effective Proposals? Format is less important than content and grammar. That's key to understand. But. if you do have the PDF and waseda english essay, it doesn't come through, then I'm not even able to read your content. Why do people use it? A large company may receive 500 resumes per day.

They simply can not open each one in an email. It would clog their email and they'd miss many people. It's not that recruiters don't understand the software, it's that the software doesn't understand PDF's. That needs to change, and I'm sure in the next couple years that will absolutely change. Thanks again for effect on children your thoughts! […] Medicare fee schedule in effect for Calendar Years 2013 and 2014, or the fee schedule … Why your PDF resume might be killing you | Corn on the Job Aug 18, 2011 … This post explains why you should use a word format for your resume. Essay? … […]

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Test : EA ACCESS sur Xbox One, mon avis ! par SuzuKube 30 octobre 2014 6780 vues Temps de lecture estime : 3 minutes. Waseda Essay! Test effectue a partir d’une version commerciale achetee sur le Xbox Live. Essay Writing! Promotion : Le EA Access est disponible a 23ˆ seulement sur ! Offre valable dans la limite des stocks disponible ! J e vous avoue que j’attends toujours Bayonetta 2, Forza Horizon 2 et Sunset Overdrive, du coup, jouer a Forza 5 sur la Xbox One m’apporte une certaine monotonie, je l’admet#8230; Et puis en parcourant les applications Xbox One, je suis tombe sur cette application toute bleue. Waseda English Essay! Vous savez, l’EA ACCESS ! N’ayant pas trouve beaucoup de retour sur le net, et le prix etant de seulement 3ˆ99 par mois (ou 24ˆ99 a l’annee), et bien je me suis lance#8230; L’abonnement est tres simple. Vous selectionnez l’un des jeux que vous souhaiteriez avoir dans l’application, elle vous redirigera sur la page du Store Xbox du jeu correspondant avec 2 options d’achat. Essays On Lord Of The! L’achat classique sur le store (39ˆ90 sur Plants Vs Zombies Garden Warfare par exemple#8230;) Ou l’abonnement a EA ACCESS. Waseda Essay! Vous choisissez votre duree. Deductive Essay Writing! Personnellement, j’ai choisi 1 mois, car EA n’a publie que 16 jeux sur Xbox One#8230; J’ai un peu peur pour les prochains ajouts au coffre (c’est comme cela que s’appelle l’espace dedie aux jeux loues dans le cadre de l’abonnement), car sachant que Titanfall est exclu de l’offre (la licence appartient a Respawn ?), il ne reste que Need For Speed Rivals, Plants vs Zombies Garden Warfare, Battlefield 4, et l’immense catalogue de jeux de sport d’EA SPORTS (Fifa, NHL, NBA, MADDEN etc#8230;) eligible a cette offre#8230;. Essay! Et je n’aime pas les jeux de sport. On Lord Flies! La predominance de jeux de sport m’effraye ! Bon, le soucis, c’est que je voulais acheter Need For Speed Rivals (il etait en promo a 29ˆ dans un magasin pres de chez moi) et je me suis dit qu’au final, je prefere payer 4ˆ pour le louer et y jouer.

C’est donc une offre qui a clairement ete mise sur le marche pour casser la revente de jeux video d’occasion#8230; Personnellement, si j’avais un BF4 Day One, je l’aurais revendu illico pour me prendre un abonnement a 25ˆ pour l’annee : Non seulement je pourrais toujours y jouer, mais en plus j’aurais acces a d’autres jeux en bonus ! Niveau telechargement, les jeux sont telecharges du store directement. Waseda Essay! Pas de soucis a ce niveau donc. Eveline Thesis! En bonus, nous avons acces sur certains jeux a plusieurs heures de jeux gratuites, quelques jours avant leur sortie ! Actuellement, je peux par exemple tester NBA LIVE 2015, en version complete sans aucune restriction, durant 2h ! Par contre ces offres sont ponctuelles, donc je ne peux plus, par exemple, essayer FIFA 15 a l’heure actuelle#8230; Dommage#8230; Sinon je tiens a souligner le remarquable effort au niveau du multitache de la Xbox One : Tout est parfaitement fluide. Waseda! Pendant que vous jouez a Forza 5 (hehe) vous pouvez vous rendre sur le store, choisir un jeu EA, le mettre a se telecharger, et revenir a votre partie sans que le jeu ne rame durant le telechargement ! Je sais que c’est lie a la gestion des telechargement de la Xbox One, mais c’est si transparent et agreable que je tenais a le signaler ici.

Incontournable ! Vous devez avoir ce jeu dans votre bibliotheque ! He oui ! C’est une Classe S ! Avec son catalogue compose de 6 jeux a l’heure actuel, soit quasiment la moitie de la bibliotheque EA (et meme l’integralite de la bibliotheque si on reasoning, exclu EA Sports), son prix mesure de 4ˆ/mois (et meme 2ˆ/mois si l’on s’abonne annuellement), une application clair, limpide, et rapide, je n’ai rien a reprocher a cet EA ACCESS. Waseda Essay! Je crains juste qu’il n’y ait pas assez de titre pour remplir ce fameux coffre de jeux#8230; Mais si EA me surprend, je me laisserais tenter par l’abonnement annuel ! Aidez-nous a dominer la planete en partageant cet article ! Accueil » Test » Test : EA ACCESS sur Xbox One, mon avis ! Vous avez aime ? Ces articles sont pour vous ! Apercu : Quantum Break, l’exclusivite « XBOX » est entre mes mains ! Test : Les figurines Assassin’s Creed Syndicate Jacob et Evie. Five Paragraph Prompts! Gamescom 2015 : nous seront sur place ! (+ horaire conference Xbox) 15 Commentaires sur Test : EA ACCESS sur Xbox One, mon avis ! aucun interet pour moi donc#8230; Je n’aurais pas crache dessus si le service etait disponible egalement sur PS4, Mais vu que Sony a refuse, c’est forcement qu’ils preparent un truc. Waseda Essay! Hello ! Je pense que Microsoft a ete force de rajoute les Games With Gold (jeux gratuit) suite a l’offre de Sony. Paragraph Prompts High School! Sony, lui, a cherche un moyen de « justifier » le paiement du PSN sur PS Vita et PS3.

Ils ont donc ajoute ces fameux jeux loues avec l’abonnement#8230; Resultat : Aujourd’hui, c’est un service a part entiere J’ai eu par exemple Battlefield 3 de EA (!) dans le cadre du PS+. Waseda Essay! Je pense surtout que Sony ne veut pas concurrencer son propre service, et se reserve les jeux EA du lancement pour son offre PS+ [Peut etre que Fifa 14 sera le premier jeu AAA de la PS4 ?]. Effect Essay On Children! En tous cas, sur Xbox One, c’est que du bonheur. En plus, j’ai pris Need For Speed, alors d’une part le jeu est magnifique [J’ai presque envie de l’acheter en jeu boite] et interessant, d’autre part, 4ˆ pour le tester 1 mois, ca m’arrangeait clairement, en attendant mon Forza Horizon 2 #128520; ! PS : J’ai pas pense aux joueurs Playstation #128545; Je ne sais pas si je devrais sanctionner le service d’une classe A parce qu’il n’est disponible ni sur PC, ni sur Playstation, ni sur#8230; Wii U Ah ah ! #128526; l’an passe, j’avais profite d’une offre micromania 2 choix au choix sur ps360 pour 80e entre fifa14 bf4 et nfs rivals une semaine avant la sortie de la one#8230;le jour de sa sortie, j’ai fais les maj ps360 - xbox one pour 10 par jeux#8230; a la sortie de ea access, j’ai revendu mes 2jeux pour 50e et me suis pris un mois d’ea access donc j’ai recup fifa14 et bf4 au passage#8230;entre temps, j’avais achete nfs 30e en occaz, et la il a ete repris 30e lors de l’achat destiny aussi #128512; tout benef pour moi quoi :p. English Essay! bon pvz, j’avais achete cela en digital donc je me suis fait avoir. Thesis! sinon, l’acces anticipe de 5j pour 6h de jeu j’en ai profite pour teste fifa15 avec mon neveu super fan de la serie, et pour tester un nhl. English! tu dl le jeux complet, tu a reellement acces a tout son contenu, ca permet de se faire une bonne idee du jeu! j’ai hate de pouvoir commencer DA inquisition avant sa sortie officielle :p. Essay Prompts High! en prochain ajout, j’aurais bien vu titan mais au vue de tes infos sur la licence a voir (suffit de voir sur origin le nombre de week gratuit sur le jeu, les nombreuses reduc donc actuellement le season pass a 8e, le jeux partout a 30-35e etc.) sinon UFC #128521; Si tu regarde bien a cette page (, il y a ecrit en toutes lettres en bas de page « Titanfall excluded from english essay, all EA Access features ». Effect On Children! L’appartenance de la licence entre EA, Respawn et Microsoft est un peu floue, il faut l’admettre#8230; Sinon effectivement, pour les jeux POPCORN qu’on ne garde pas pour la collection, plutot que de les acheter, ca vaut clairement le coup, et ca permet de decouvrir d’autre types de jeux ! En revendant ses jeux d’occasion, on waseda english, fait meme une jolie plus-value : Le debut de la richesse ? #128521; au final nous avons a present. Developing Proposals! nba live 14 et 15 (le dernier) madden nfl25 et nfl15 (le dernier aussi donc) bf4 et son 1er dlc du season pass. English! ufc (date de juin dernier) peggle 2(bon ok, c’est pas l’argument choc)#8230; je sens bien venir nhl15 sous peu, je l’attends celui-la ! a noter que des le 10 ou 12.03 je ne sais plus, BF hardline dispo 10h pour solo (prologue + chapitre 1) et multi ! nous avons en perman 10% de reduc sur le contenu EA (jeux comme DLC) #8230;. Essay Of Divorce! a noter que ces 10% fonctionnent sur les stores ou vous pouvez acheter avec compte compte qui est membre EA access#8230;donc store russe - 10% de reduc en plus etc#8230;. Essay! teste je confirme que les 10% sont bien pris en compte ^^ Pour ceux qui aiment EA Sport, ca vaut clairement le coup ! Et comme tu l’as dit : Les 10% de reduction sont compatible avec TOUS LES STORES ! En plus, il est vraiment pas cher comme abonnement#8230; Au pire, testez pour 1 mois, vous n’avez rien a perdre ! Je ne suis pas trop sur de bien comprendre le principe de ce service#8230; En fait EA met dans ce coffre des « vieux » jeu? Mais on developing proposals, ne peut pas avoir les jeux recents (genre le dernier Madden a sa sortie)?

En general, pour les jeux recents (Ex : Battlefield Hardline), tu as droit a 6h de jeu gratuit. Waseda English Essay! Vois le comme un systeme complementaire aux Games With Gold ou au jeux offerts par le PSN+ : Tant que tu paies ton abonnement, tu a acces a la liste de jeux inclu dans « The Vault » (le coffre) #128521; actuellement tu as fifa14, bf4 et le 1er dlc du season pass, nfs rivals, ufc, plants vs zombie,, nba live 15 (le dernier) et madden 15 en illimite. en temps de jeux « test », tu as fifa 15 / nhl 15 / dragon age inqui 6h et BF hardline 10h de jeu (solo : prologue et episode 1 + multi sans limite). Developing Research Proposals! ufc / madden 15 / nba15 sont arrives assez vite #128521; Ils viennent d’ajouter NHL 15 ! Au passage, c’est l’ancien systeme de notation qui est sur cette page, c’est trop marrant, ca me rappelle le passe d’ #128549; fifa 15 en approche ! j’vois bien rajouter 1-2 dlc de BF4 dans les prochains mois, voir un ptit DA inquisition dans la 2eme moitie / fin de l’annee. Essay! bon bah #8230;. Five Paragraph Prompts School! titan fall bonjour ! ajout de dragon age ! En continuant sur mon blog, tu autorises les cookies pour personnaliser les publicites, assurer son bon fonctionnement et faire des mesures d’audience. Waseda English Essay! Visite ma page intitulee Les Cookies pour plus d'information sur ce qu'est un cookie et la facon dont je les utilise !

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essay on feminist within Wonder Woman point to the evolution of and english contradictions within our social constructions of womanhood. Paragraph Prompts High. One of the founding principles of waseda, feminist criticism is the thesis social need to be conscious of the ways that gender is waseda english, a constructed category, to realize that there is nothing inherent or essential about what we associate with the essay school feminine. As first-wave feminist Simone de Beauvoir put it, “One is not born, but rather. Feminist Criticism Theory in the Novel “Harry Potter” by J.K. Rowling. this case the waseda essay house-elves accept and understand their fates. Hermione decides there is a way to make a stand about elf-rights. Harry and Ron do not really support her actually for this movement, but Hermione doesn’t care. She struggles like what feminist do.

She does the campaign that. Her animality is all there is; it is not worth examining a woman’s moral or spiritual qualities because she has none that are available to developing effective either correction or representation by husband or storyteller. (225) By stating the previous idea, she expresses that Alisoun is objectified. Through that objectification, the choice, not the object [Alisoun] is punished (225). Not only is Alisoun free from waseda punishment through that objectification, but she is also removed from the focus of Nicholas, Absolon. Feminist Criticism of Henrik Isben#x27;s A Doll#x27;s House Essay. Nora starts out in the play as the on children typical woman of her time, flowing through the house with hums of sweetness. However, she is sneaky by hiding such things as the macaroons, the Christmas tree, and presents. She also hides riskier subjects such as the forged unpaid loan she took out for her husband’s life, and the blackmail presented by waseda english, Krogstad, leaving her with the challenge of master thesis social, finding herself. A challenge that the majority of women back in this era would not think twice of attempting. Nora. Essay Is it Feminist to be a Power Feminist?

reading some of her blog posts I kept thinking to myself that she sounds like a power feminist because she keeps talking like she is sick of feminists feeling sorry for themselves. She mentioned that many statistics that feminists bring up can be looked at in more than one way, however that is true for nearly anything. Waseda. This blog is a great example of how many power feminists feel. Essay Of Divorce. She has a quote from another power feminist by the name of Susan Brownmiller that states “rape is nothing more or less than. Essay about The Global Feminist and the Transnational Feminist. This is to say that transnational feminist discourse is concerned, at its core, with the same goals as global feminism, but is also acutely aware of the boundaries that separate women on several levels and actively questions such assumptions as women being unified by the very definition of “woman”. Waseda English. Transnational feminism is no more perfect than, but critical of global feminism, due to these inherent differences in eveline perspective. The discourse of essay, Women's Rights as Human's Rights arose out of United.

The Function of Literary Criticism Essay. The essay “The Function of Criticism at the Present Time” he outlines the master thesis social strong feelings that he has against the critical power, he believes “everybody, too, would be willing to admit, as a general proposition, that the critical faculty is lower than the inventive,” with that being said, one derives from the statement his true feelings toward the critic (Arnold 696). Even though, Arnold later discusses the essay requirements one should possess to be a true critic, the main thing he must possess is curiosity. In short, the “creative power has . . . Essays On Lord Of The Vs Savagery. appointed elements, and those elements are not in its control” (593). The “creative power” (593) depends, Arnold claims, upon the “critical power” (593). The goal of criticism, Arnold argues, is “to see the object as in itself it really is” (593). Criticism consequently functions to establish an order of ideas, if not absolutely true, yet true by comparison with that which it displaces; to essay make the best ideas prevail.

Presently these new ideas reach society, It is here that the concept of patriarchy is introduced; “patriarchy was first used in feminist writing as a universal term for male dominance; it was only later it became a clear object of analysis for theoretical work” (Foord Gregson, 1986). This idea of understanding patriarchy is integral to the feminist argument since if it is not understood fully, then the deductive reasoning writing arguments situated from waseda english essay a feminist viewpoint will not take into account external factors, and deductive reasoning thus objective positionality. the children’ is not a valid difference to argue that women are not capable of english essay, doing things that men are capable of. To conclude, there are justified arguments suggesting that Plato was not a feminist which in doing so contradicts Martha Nussbaum’s claim that Plato is the first feminist, however, the essay on children above evidence is waseda english essay, sufficient enough to prove that there is good evidence for social, Martha Nussbaum’s claim that Plato is the First. An Analysis of Feminist Articles Essay. Freeman wrote an article in 1984, the same decade as Huchet. Kinoshita makes the comparison between Huchet and Freeman. Like Huchet, Freeman compares Marie's works with the works of her contemporaries. Conversely, unlike Huchet, Freeman believes the feminist aspect of Marie's works is revealed in her `poetics of silence,' her strategic deployment of understatement and elision, (Kinoshita 264).

While in some areas Freeman's article is like that of Huchet, it also has similarities to William S. Wood's. Essay on Structuralistic Criticism and Gerard Genette. Traditional criticism regards criticism as a message without code; Russian Formalism regards literature as code without message. Structuralism by structural analysis makes it possible to uncover the connection that exists between a system of forms and a system of meanings, by replacing the search for term by term analysis with one for over all homologies (likeness, similarity)”. Meaning is yielded by waseda essay, the structural relationship within a given work. It is not introduced from outside.

Genette believed. After the master important legal accomplishments during the early twentieth century, feminists turned their attention more towards social issues. Previously, at marches for women’s suffrage, white women walked first, then men, and english last african-american women. This time, feminists worked closely with the uprising civil rights movement to promote equality for women of all races. Second wave feminism began in the early 1960’s and lasted through the early 1980’s.

Other interests of second wave feminism included. Bolshevik Criticisms of Tsarist Russia Essay. increasingly disillusioned with the Tsar. This disillusionment was increased when the essays of the flies Tsar took personal control of the english essay army in 1915. The results were disastrous as Nicholas was not a very intelligent or charismatic leader. Another criticism of the regime was the immense power of the church. The Bolsheviks, as Marxists, believed that religion was the opium of the masses, i.e. just another part of the superstructure used to oppress the proletariat. The church was closely. activity. Women are also less likely to be in public places in which crime and deviance normally occur especially at essay writing, night, because of the threat or fear of male violence or the fear of acquiring a bad reputation. Waseda. Rational choices is another feminist explanation of gender and crime.

Pat Carlen conducted a study and found that working class females may commit crimes because, they lack the four controls that prevent most people from committing crime. Carlen argues that criminal women are often. Jane Eyre is a Feminist Novel Essay. intrigued with Jane, and eventually asks her to marry him. When the time comes Jane independently runs away. Janes character in these situations makes her very independent and a little feminist, and during the essays of the flies civilization victorian era this was unheard of. This could make Jane one of the waseda essay first feminists. In the Victorian times a woman was expected to thesis social keep up the household, raise children, and obey what her. Essay on english essay Black Theology and Feminist Theology. ‘Black’ theology, much like feminist theology, deals with being the oppressed. With that, our faith comes from knowing that our oppression brings us closer to God.

In both society and within Christian churches, the feminist movement has given white women the freedom and privilege to become militant without fearing consequences as harsh as a woman of color or of lower class. This has resulted in the White women’s experience becoming presented as the universal and only known experience of all women. Hamlet from a Feminist Perspective Essay. gender; however we are still affected by eveline, sexism and gender stereotypes even today. The problematic area that occurs with the english feminist premise is that women are equal to men in many areas such as intelligence but not in others such as aggression and strength. This also adds to our acknowledgement of Gertrude's guilt. Patricia Pearson confronts this directly awkward paradox in feminist argument: if we concede that women are ambitious, like men, and possess a will to power as men do, then we need to concede. Half the Sky Feminist Review Essay. focus on three particular important issues that need to be addressed, “sex trafficking and forced prostitution; gender-based violence, including honor killings and mass rape; and maternal mortality” (Kristof/WuDunn, 2009, p. xxi). On the other hand, feminist Liz Kelly writes that all women experience sexual violence at some point in their lives.

Therefore, she argues that all women are victims to of divorce oppression from men and the only english essay variance is to the degree of oppression. Kelly’s (1987) stance is that, The Victorian feminist art writers attributed natural explanation to women’s arts by master, establishing that there are different spheres for waseda essay, women artist and male artist (Pollock Parker 2013,4). Nonetheless, while Nochlin took a defensive approach in evaluating women and art, Parker and Pollock took an entirely different approach they examined women and art from a historical and ideological position (Peterson Mathew 1987, 327). Pollock and research Parker identified that the legacy of the Victorian views on. Essay on Feminist Theories and essay Uttar Predash. down into the subgroups of liberal feminism and rational choice feminism. Liberal feminism argues that women are equal to men and five school that gender inequality exists because of the history of patriarchal rule and the sexist division of english, labor. Liberal feminists believe that gender inequality can be fixed if the division of labor is reconfigured. Master Social. Rational choice feminism states that women make rational decisions, but who have more institutional constraints and more pressing opportunity costs than men. 1930s America-Feminist Void ? Essay.

legislation often restricted the english essay number of hours a woman could work, or the type of civilization vs savagery, labor she could perform, making her less competitive in the industrial workforce. Indeed, the english split of female opinion on this issue would be divisive, as clear cut feminists refused protective legislation on the principle that it impeded equal rights for men and women, while other. Feminist Approaches to Women#x27;s Writing Essay. requirements to gratify the developing men in their lives, and for this, women eventually only have themselves to waseda english essay culpability. Weldon's view of the thesis social womanly mind is ferocious, undeviating, and quite remorseless.

Weldon is principally regarded as a feminist writer, and I think that is a rather. Chopin, Mallard, and Calixta - Feminists? Essay. only to english be practiced by the most modest of society. As Bob Dylan has said, `The times they are a-changin'. Eveline. So it started, although slowly, but growing with the momentum of waseda english essay, a boulder down a mountain.

What we see here is that Chopin does have a feminist state of mind, but not an in your face type of feminism. I can see that Chopin wanted her readers to question and to analyze the deductive reasoning essay writing fact that women and men have great difficulty in trying to live together as a couple in a close relationship but also. Penelope: In Search of the Feminist in waseda english essay James Joyce#x27;s Ulysses. heroine, Molly Bloom. Perhaps even more than Ulysses’s other books, “Penelope” is a dramatic challenge to master social the very idea of a societal convention. “Penelope” invites much examination on the part of feminist critics of Joyce. However, the task of defining Joyce’s feminist character is one yielding many conclusions - there is essay, nothing approaching consensus in modern Joycean scholarship. Reasoning Essay. This is no surprise considering how enigmatic and open to interpretation “Penelope,” and waseda indeed the.

The Feminist Struggle Portrayed in essays of the vs savagery Brief History Of The Horse. her hours of stillness or the english essay mad sound of flies eating her ears (260). Therefore, men(the soldiers) are not able to comprehend, nor are they willing to understand the feminine struggle. This unwillingness from master thesis social men to accept or understand the english essay feminist perspective is effective, demonstrated in the next line: each remembers being pushed through the waseda pale thighs of his wound away from the field where he fell. Thus, men reject the high school notion of the fact that women are the waseda essay bearers; humanity is carried and born by. Outline and Assess Feminist Views of Crme and Deviance. Essay. socialisation of men and women has now changed. Many Feminist accounts have ignored the effective research fact that women can now participate in most areas of waseda english, life and are free from control. Therefore, it could be that the crime statistics are flawed and women do commit just as much crime as men.

Between 1981 and 1997, the number of girls under 18 years of age convicted of violence in England and Wales more doubled – from developing research 65 per english 100,000 to 135 per 100,000. Liberal Feminist Adler created the Liberation Thesis which claims. Feminist Ideals in Woman on the Edge of Time Essay. contrast to Connie's world is Luciente's feminist Utopia. Here men and women are equal in eveline almost every way, i.e. political, economic, social, sexual, and even biological in some ways. English. The language of the effect essay on children future reflects this equality. He and she have been replaced with the pronoun person and his and hers replaced by the possessive pronoun per.

The language, as well as the waseda androgynous nature of the society and people, places emphasis on essays on lord flies civilization vs savagery the feminist ideal of eliminating gender separations. Buchi Emecheta#x27;s The Joys of Motherhood as an African Feminist Text. Yet what ultimately resulted in my desire not to claim the novel as a feminist text was something said not by a fictional character, but by Emecheta herself as she sat among other authors at the Second African Writers Conference in 1986: In many cases polygamy can be liberating to the woman, rather than inhibiting her, especially if she is educated. The husband has no reason for stopping her from attending international conferences like this one, from going back to University and updating her. A Sociological Look at essay, the Feminist Movement the Civil Rights Movement. superior because they maintained the stability of their beliefs. Eventually, many women began to challenge the symbols associated with them including their traditional roles and they began re-thinking the meaning of womanhood which eventually led to the Feminist Movement which similar to the Civil Rights Movement, resulted in reform.

New symbols associated with women began to emerge and offered a new subjective view reflecting equality and potential for greatness. Some of of the flies civilization, these symbols include more gender. Feminist Performance and waseda english essay the Silence of Isabella in Measure for Measure. such puzzling silences: Some commentators will then seek to help the text into coherence…[by] supplying characters with feasible thoughts and effective research motives to smooth over the difficulty. Waseda English. This has been the virtual raison d’etre of traditional criticism. Other commentators may take the master thesis social opportunity to english address the ideological scope of the text—how its closures provoke collusion or questioning. Research Proposals. (74) When producing such a play, theatrical personnel may also choose either to gloss over english essay or. Feminist Perspective of Paulina in Shakespeare#x27;s The Winter#x27;s Tale. engineers the penance that will transform his [Leontes'] tragic actions to a comic conclusion (Neeley 223). Paragraph Essay Prompts. Combining magic with wisdom, Paulina becomes goddess-like by breathing life into essay the statue of Hermione. Developing Effective. Paulina fulfills a multitude of feminist expectations, both action-based and symbolic: she confronts the patriarch, she defends the sisterhood, she speaks. Essay about The Great Gatsby as a Criticism of American Society.

audience how the high class life which most Americans strive to achieve is a life simply an waseda english essay pretentious show full of fakes and materialism. In The Great Gatsby characters such as Tom, Daisy, Jordan, Myrtle, and Wilson demonstrate further Fitzgerald’s criticism of American society due to their outlandish personalities and bizarre lives. The character Jordan in essay of divorce the novel describes these kinds of people as bad drivers stating to Nick, “You said a bad driver was only safe until she met another bad driver. Public Perception of Feminist Performance Activism Essay. religious viewers slowly become a discourse of their subjective views on DeGeneres’ performances on waseda essay screen. Having different cultural and religious backgrounds, audiences begin to essay debate the differences between sinners and angels. With their subjective criticisms, public is therefore misled with the responses as irrelevant as “Gays are wicked sinners” (Ellen DeGeneres Slams Sarah Palin on Gay Marriage). In some ways, one may say that the topic is being discussed, but the main focus of gay rights is lost. The Life and waseda english Work of Mary Crawford: A Feminist Psychologist Essay. grateful considering she was the first of her family to attend college (Crawford 2001). Eveline Essay Thesis. Although her observations of traditional gender roles and sex-discrimination did not directly influence her decision for her first college degree, we will see a feminist develop shortly after her first college experience.

Mary Crawford married at the young age of 18 (Crawford 2001). Crawford became pregnant and a mother of two during her time at waseda english essay, West Chester State College while studying Music Education (Korostoliev. Essay about essays of the flies, Reproductive Rights as a Historical and Feminist Issue. kept women from being able to control their bodies, defining who, when, and under what condition a woman could have the procedure. Many “pro-life” activists began criminal attacks on abortion clinics, 167 were reported between 1982 and 1997.[3] Feminists, especially in the second-wave. Feminist Perspective of Addie Bundren of english, Faulkner#x27;s As I Lay Dying. by men that represents males as subjects and females as objects. Deductive Reasoning Essay. It follows, then, that because language, or the symbolic order, is phallocentric, women are not represented within it and cannot effectively use it to english essay define themselves. Using this feminist definition of language, I will illustrate that Addie sees language as a patriarchal construct that she stands outside of, that cannot explain her identity or her sexuality, and that she cannot use. Julia Kristeva writes, many women . . . complain. Dickens#x27; Criticism of the 1834 Poor Law in Oliver Twist Essay.

His criticism extends from the actual carer to the authorities that are supposed to keep check on how the new law is implemented , but their reports amount to nothing. Dickens also describes Mr Bumble with apparent glee as this pompous, fat and self important man who is literally living off the poor. The significance of Oliver?s characterisation is master thesis social, important because he is described as ?reckless with misery? suggesting that his life and possibly other peoples lives are so awful that they could. Essay on essay Kate vs Kat: the Independent, Feminist Role Model. one another and they protect each other.

In Kat's first entrance in the film, Joan Jett's song Bad Reputation is played, the lyrics of which echo Kat's feminist point of view. Effect Of Divorce. The first line of the song, I don't give a damn about my bad reputation, would be indicative of both Kat and Kate, the rest of the song is only indicative of the feminist attitude that Kat displays in the film. I don't give a damn about my reputation. You're living in the past. It's a new generation. A girl can do what.

Reader-Response Criticism: Langston Hughes’ Dream Boogie Essay. It also gives the reader more room to come to their own conclusions on the work that they read. “The easiest way to explain reader-response criticism is to relate it to the common experience of essay, re-reading a favorite book after many years. A book one read as a child might seem shockingly different when re-read as an adolescent or as an adult…The book has not changed. Master Thesis. However, our life experiences between the first reading and any subsequent re-reading can affect the waseda essay way we respond to a story…” (Gioia. Critique of Black Writing, White Reading: Race and the Politics of Feminist Interpretation. She draws upon a large pool of feminist authors to support her interpretations of essays of the civilization, Recitatif.

Her strongest source that she draws upon is, of course, her correspondence with Toni Morrison. Unfortunately, Morrison's response simply raises more questions. Morrison, of english, course, never specifies her intentions for which girl is white, and which is black (476). Abel's arguments begin to lose credence when she makes light of the fact that through out the second half of Recitatif, her colleague Lula. Why Can the Film Sex and the City Be Considered a Post-Feminist Movie? Samantha, for example, injects botox on a regular basis and they all have to work out and take care for their bodies to keep in shape. So all in all I can say that the Sex and essay the City film is a post – feminist movie. Sources movie Sex and the City watched during the lecture Hermes, Joke. “ ‘Ally McBeal, ‚Sex and the City‘, and the Tragic Success of Feminism.“ Feminism in Popular Culture. Ed. Joanne Hollows and Rachel Moseley. Oxford: berg, 2006.

79 - 80. Hermes, Joke. “ ‘Ally McBeal. Today, feminist theory has manifested in waseda essay a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history, feminist theology, and feminist literary criticism and essay school has changed traditional perspectives on english a wide range of areas in human life, from culture to law. Feminist activists have campaigned for essays of the flies civilization vs savagery, women's legal rights such as rights of waseda, contract, property rights, and voting rights while also promoting women's rights to bodily integrity and autonomy, abortion rights, and reproductive rights. legal reforms. For liberal feminists, the subordination of women is primarily due to women not having equal access to five paragraph essay prompts high the political system or any direct influence on legislation and policy. Issues such as voting, reproductive rights, equal access to education, family-friendly work policies, and affordable healthcare are emphasized by liberal feminists.

Socialist feminists looks at women’s subordination as a function of an oppressive capitalist economy. Socialist feminists view men as the primary. of the mobilization against slavery and fir political rights for the middle class. The Akron Convention, where Sojourner Truth gave her amazing speech Ain't I a Woman, is an english example of the (Rossi, 1973). Other events that helped to develop the Feminist Theory were massive mobilization for women's suffrage and for industrial and developing research proposals civic reform legislation in the early twentieth century, especially the Progressive Era in the United States ( Ritzer, 2000). In the intervals between those periods, feminism. “Consumption, Markets and Culture “, Volume 9, No 3,September 2006. English. The article is a re?inquiry into the previous ethnographic study of Harley Davidson motorcycle owners conducted by Schouten and Alexander. Five High School. It argues from essay a feminist perspective to elucidate the voice of women riders in eveline essay thesis a hyper masculine consumption context. It makes explicit the waseda essay various assumptions, which limited the original ethnographic work, thus restating the deductive writing problem of hegemonic masculinity.

Criticism of American Apparel Essay. The ASA decided to ban the photos because of nudity and a few for waseda, being exploitive (Krupnick). Eveline Essay. While the ads for American Apparel are extremely provocative and can be seen as offensive and exploitive, there are no signs to show that Dov Charney and english his company will change their style of advertising. Legalize LA is a movement started by American Apparel supporting immigration. Immigration is an five essay prompts issue that American Apparel feels strongly about and supports tremendously. However, it’s been shown.

Another religious symbol is when the family is driving and takes the wrong road and is led straight to The Misfit. This represents a person’s life and how easy it is to stray away from their beliefs and from Jesus. Flannery O’Connor uses characterization to create, reveal, or develop a character to give the reader a better understanding of the story. This method of writing is seen when O’Connor describes what the grandmother is wearing, “Her collars and cuffs were white organdy trimmed with lace. This becomes more evident as Neddy decides to return home by swimming in all the pools from his current location.

This immaturity for a man of waseda, his status and deductive essay age is english essay, interesting, though as the story evolves the five prompts school reader can see that his swimming is waseda essay, a metaphor for the life of the male breadwinner. Cheever’s character also possesses a quality that makes him like most men of his stature. It was not enough to have money, family, and friends. Neddy Merrill wanted more and had a “modest idea of flies civilization, himself. In the previous paragraph, the types of readers that would get hooked into the survivor’s work would be those who have endured something similar. Right now, hope be with them, the waseda english essay victims of Northern Japan and the innocent in master thesis Libya would be definitely be reading something like this.

Even though the work took place in english a different time and place, people can still relate to the material and effective proposals realize there are others that undergo the same struggle and live in conditions that are inhumanely possible. Speaking.

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essay on bagpipes Each year, the SAS gives a $500 scholarship to a college-bound High School Senior or a student who is already enrolled in a college. Applicants, who come from the english essay local area , must demonstrate an interest in or connection to: Scottish ancestry, history, culture, art or music. The 2014 Robert Burns' Scholarship went to five prompts high school Juliet Downie of Painted Post. In her application, she included a picture of herself, tartan clad, giving a report on Scotland. Her essay was delightful! “ I have always been interested in studying and appreciating other cultures, and have often tried to waseda learn more about the history and traditional customs of various nations. In particular, I feel a strong tie to Scotland and its culture, and I enjoy immersing myself in the Scottish tradition. My fascination with Scotland began in third grade, when I researched Scotland and its culture for a school project.

I knew that I had Scottish ancestry on my father’s side; my father often boasted about his Scottish heritage. I enjoyed learning about kilts and tartan patterns, and developing effective research proposals, about bagpipes and other hallmarks of Scottish culture. For the presentation at school, I proudly wore my own tartan skirt in waseda essay, an effort to dress the part of a Scottish lassie. I was charmed by the historical appeal of Scotland and its folk traditions. A few years later, my mother undertook a large genealogy project in which she researched my ancestors many generations back. Through her research and the contributions of essay of divorce on children, other family members, I became much more knowledgeable about my Scottish heritage. I learned that I have a direct line back to Scotland through my paternal side.

My great-great-great grandfather, John Downie, emigrated from Scotland to Bovina, New York, in english, 1858 with his first wife and son. His family came from research proposals Coatbridge, near Glasgow, where John was originally a boatman but then retrained to become a shoemaker before immigrating to the United States. The Downies were members of the waseda english Lindsay clan. I also discovered that I have a physical connection to my Scottish roots; my family has inherited my paternal great-great-great-grandfather John Downie’s wooden chest, a large trunk used to transport his belongings. It was used by later generations to store tools and eveline thesis, other possessions.

This chest made the waseda essay journey in 1858 from Scotland to New York onboard the ship City of New York , and it now resides in my living room. It serves as a constant reminder of my Scottish heritage, and of the deductive essay resilience and steadfastness of the Scots. Like its original owner and Scottish culture at large, this chest has weathered hardships and stood the test of time. My father is proud of his Scottish heritage, and several years ago, he received the book Howthe Scots Invented the Modern World by waseda, Arthur Herman as a Christmas present. He relished it and I, too, have flipped through its pages, enjoying the eveline historical detail and waseda english, information about everything that the Scots have accomplished, from feats that are widely known to developing research more obscure accomplishments. Today I still become attentive and excited whenever I hear or see something about Scotland in my history textbooks or on the news. As a senior in waseda essay, high school, I am looking forward to the opportunities that college may bring to developing effective study abroad at a foreign university. In particular, I am greatly interested in traveling to waseda english and studying in Scotland.

I can envision myself living amid the centuries-old buildings of Edinburgh or Glasgow, hearing church bells toll in essays vs savagery, magnificent cathedrals, and becoming steeped in waseda, Scottish culture. Until the opportunity arises, I will have to satisfy my interest in Scotland by listening to Fiona Ritchie’s weekly radio program The Thistle and the Shamrock , broadcast on on lord of the vs savagery NPR from essay her studio in rural Scotland. Developing Effective Proposals? The program showcases Celtic music, both old and essay, new, from Scotland and areas with strong Scottish roots. Listening to eveline thesis the diverse mix of Celtic styles and musical traditions momentarily transports me to the foothills of the english Scottish Highlands and essay prompts, reminds me that while Scotland has a rich and waseda, storied history and celebrated traditions, it also has a firm place in the modern world. I would like to explore that place, but for five high school, now, I must appreciate Scotland from afar. The Society’s Robert Burns Scholarship was given to Jenna Cunningham, a recent graduate of West Genesee High School in Camillus, New York.

Jenna is the granddaughter of waseda english, our first Chief, George Cunningham, and his wife Barbara. She will attend the University of Buffalo in the fall to study math and music. My Scottish heritage has always proven a strong part of who I am. My grandpa, George Cunningham, was born in Scotland and moved to America in essays civilization vs savagery, his late twenties, and waseda essay, was president of the Scottish American Society. My family has always taken pride in our Scottish heritage. Eveline Essay Thesis? Each year, we go to the Scottish Games. Essay? At this festival, we hear bagpipe music, eat Scottish food such as meat pies, look at Scottish artwork, and watch the traditional Scottish games. I have also had the opportunity to participate in the Robert Burns dinner. I ate traditional Scottish food such as haggis, and was exposed to the poems of Robert Burns, a truly talented poet.

Furthermore, I had the master social privilege of singing “I Belong to waseda Glasgow” with my sister and father at the dinner. Although I have had many great Scottish related experiences, nothing surpasses the experience I had during one summer. The summer before my sophomore year, I was privileged enough to go to England and Scotland to deductive reasoning essay writing visit relatives and explore these countries with my family. We were able to drive all around the country, starting in Edinburgh, going up north to Inverness, next to waseda english essay Oban, and then traveling back down to Glasgow. The farther north we traveled, the stronger the Scottish brogue. During our travels, I experienced many of the research foods and traditions of english, these countries, many of which I was already familiar with because of my grandpa. We ate Scottish meat pies, bridies, haggis, and essay thesis, homemade scones. English Essay? Every morning, we were treated to an “English Breakfast,” which consisted of effect on children, beans, black pudding, bangers (sausage), eggs, tea, toast, and marmalade. We were also lucky enough to visit the Culloden Battlefield.

Scotland’s history is waseda english essay filled with battles and wars, fought in eveline, an attempt to waseda english essay gain their independence from England. My visit to Culloden Battlefield made me think of all the hardships my ancestors had to endure. The highlight of my trip was when I visited my Scottish relatives. I was able to essay learn about their different viewpoints. Many of my relatives are socialists, and were curious about what we thought of english essay, President Bush. We also talked with them about their government and their healthcare system. In talking to five paragraph essay prompts high them, I learned of some of the drawbacks of having universal healthcare, as well as some of the waseda english benefits. I will be majoring in essays on lord of the flies civilization vs savagery, music in college and would love to study Celtic music.

I also compose music, and have just begun a piece that has a Celtic influence. I am considering starting a Scottish Heritage club in college to celebrate my heritage with other people my age. Furthermore, one of waseda, my dreams is to eveline essay attend Carnegie Mellon University. They have a very strong Scottish heritage there and celebrate it avidly. I am considering joining the Kiltie band and participate in other Scottish activities.

Traveling overseas and exploring England and Scotland broadened the way I think about the world. I was surprised to find that there were more similarities than differences between the different cultures. This experience has stimulated a desire in me to learn even more about waseda english Scottish heritage. I am truly grateful for being immersed in Scottish culture. 2012s winner is Piper Chester, a recent graduate of Alfred-Almond Central School, who will attend Rochester Institute of Technology. The scholarship this year is given in memory of Shirley Sutherland MacIntyre, Phillis MacDonell and Jean MacKenzie, all long-time SAS members.

Although applications are solicited early in the year, they are welcome at any time and are available from master thesis social Trustee Gil Ferris. Click #x68;e#x72;#x65; to essay contact Gil. Bruce Stewart Memorial Scholarship. The 2014 Bruce Stewart Memorial Scholarship was given to Tristan Ponader of Beaver Dams. Paragraph High? He is from Clan Stewart so this is most appropriate. Waseda English Essay? The committee loved that he ended his essay with Lang may yer lum reek!

Scotland holds special interest to me. First, I knew that I had Scottish ancestry. Through my father’s mother, I am a member of the Wilson sept, under Clan Gunn, and through my mother’s father, I have a Scottish great grandmother who actually taught at the University of Edinburgh! Unfortunately, her name has been lost to effect essay on children time, but we believe that she was of the Stewart Clan. Second, my interest was sparked by a visit to the United Kingdom. Waseda English Essay? As a member of the West High Viking Marching Band, I performed in the London New Year’s Day Parade in eveline essay thesis, 2011. While I was there I saw a real highland pipe band.

I always liked hearing the bagpipes in parades, but for some reason I was especially fascinated in London. Upon my return home, I began looking into Scottish culture. I started off looking up my family history in Scotland. My grandmother has done a bit of research of waseda english, her side of the family, and from her I learned about the Gunn Clan. This clan is essays on lord of the vs savagery from the Caithness area of waseda essay, Scotland, and essay thesis, is descended from the Norse chieftain Gunni, who settled there in the late 1100’s. The Caithness is the northmost part of the Scotland mainland, an area with vast rolling hills, farmlands, and conifer forests. From my uncle I learned about my distant grandmother of the Stewart Clan. The Stewart Clan is from the southern part of Scotland, in the Teviotdale and Lauderdale districts. This clan is english essay descended from French nobles who acquired land in essay of divorce, the British Islas after the Norman Invasion of waseda, 1066. The clan got its name because an effect essay early member, Robert Fladd, was appointed Steward of Scotland under King David the english First in the early 1100’s.

The name Steward got corrupted to Stewart over the years. Perhaps my favorite aspect of Scottish culture is the system of identification of clans through clan kilts and master thesis social, tartans. Waseda Essay? I discovered a guidebook to the various clans that had belonged to essays on lord civilization my grandmother, which was really interesting. I read the book, and learned about essay my sept and clan, as well as other clans. In fact, I amuse myself by identifying the various tartan patterns in shirts and other clothing I see people wearing. However, to fully understand the story behind the tartans and clans I had to learn Scottish history. I bought a book on the country, from which I learned Scottish history, as well as more about the culture. I also decided that I want a kilt. I think wearing a kilt would help me connect with my heritage. I don’t own one yet, but would like to eveline thesis have a kilt in waseda english, the Gunn Tartan once I can afford it.

Besides owning a kilt, I’d also like to learn the bagpipes. Learning about essays on lord civilization Scotland is a connection to my heritage. English Essay? In modern America, history and heritage are often pushed to the side and ignored. Like many Americans, I didn’t know much about my own family history or heritage. Learning about my heritage allows me to have a link to the past. To deepen this connection to the past I have taught myself many old and deductive reasoning essay writing, nearly forgotten skills that relate to both Scottish and American history. For example, I can build and use axes, start fires, and find food in the wilderness.

I am currently learning how timber framing works. It is a construction technique used in many traditional Scottish buildings. And I recently felled a pine tree with an ax and am making a bench from it, all by hand. Waseda? I’d like. to go to the Scottish Games this summer and watch the traditional sports--maybe even learn how to toss a caber myself! Over all, my interest in Scotland and Scottish history has taught me something about the Scottish part of my past, the history of a unique culture, as well as useful skills. Lang may yer lum reek! The Society also oversees the selection of a recipient for the Bruce Stewart Memorial Scholarship which is presented by the family of the late beloved member of the five essay prompts SAS. Essay? This year, it was presented to Sydney Farmer, graduate of Hammondsport Central School. Sydney was Valedictorian of her class and will attend New York University in September, to major in global business studies.

I have known that I had some Scottish ancestry since I was young, but it was not until my Aunt Debbi began to trace our family genealogy that I really began to think about my heritage. My aunt’s research reached all the way back to master thesis the 1300’s and found that we are descendants of Malcolm Wallace, brother of Scottish hero William Wallace. As Braveheart has always been a favorite movie in our home, this piece of information really made me stop to think about what kind of people my ancestors were. What does my Scottish heritage mean to me? I think that parts of family history can be passed down from generation to waseda english essay generation, not necessarily as first hand memories, but as traits and attitudes that naturally get passed down.Thinking about what kind of people we come from sheds light on why we are the on lord vs savagery way we are. Where my ancestors lived speaks volumes about the type of people they were. Scotland’s rugged terrain is both beautiful and unforgiving. They must have really appreciated their land to want to stay in a place that can be so harsh. One can imagine a healthy respect for nature and a higher power presenting such a beautiful and challenging place to live.

Scottish history tells us about the clans that set aside their differences to fight for their freedom. The Picts and essay, Scoti united to high fight the Norse invaders. Also, freedom from English domination was a unifying cause that illustrated the Scottish need to be free. Scottish culture is far more than men in the Highlands playing the bagpipes and wearing kilts. Waseda? The importance of developing research, family unity, education, literature, and history show people of heart and substance.

To have Scottish ancestors means that my family comes from people who were tough in body as well as spirit. They had a respect for their land as well as God. They were people who cherished their freedom, loved their families with all their heart, and stood tall. That explains a lot about my family. George Cunningham Scottish Essay Award. New in 2014 is the George Cunningham Scottish Essay award of $500.

It was presented to Toni Olkey of Painted Post.