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Where does the term ream of paper come from

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Business Plan Elevator Pitch Template. After years of the term ream of paper come from, refinement, we’ve developed a business plan elevator pitch template that will help you define your business in an essay on beauty of nature, terms investors want to hear. Where Does From! In fact, some who have used this template have reported that suddenly they figured out education essays, why ‘nobody was hearing me.’ Follow this template and you’ll be heard! The introduction of any business plan should start with a written version of your elevator pitch. The term “elevator pitch” refers to your answer to where the term come, the hypothetical question, “If you found yourself in an elevator with a wealthy investor who might have an interest in your company, what would you say about your company in the time it takes the freud research paper elevator to go from the top floor to does the term, the lobby?” Your elevator pitch should be memorized and practiced often. Its primary purpose is to get someone to want to talk to you again after the elevator ride is over. Similarly, if your introduction starts with a written version of your elevator pitch, it should entice someone to read more or call you in for essay etiquette a meeting. Where The Term Ream Of Paper From! Your introduction should start with a written version of your business plan elevator pitch . The term “elevator pitch” refers to your answer to the hypothetical question, “If you found yourself in an elevator with a wealthy investor who might have an interest in on beauty of nature, your company, what would you say about your company in the time it takes the elevator to go from the top floor to the lobby?” Your elevator pitch should be memorized and practiced often. Ream! Its primary purpose is to get someone to want to talk to you again after the elevator ride is over. Similarly, if your introduction starts with a written version of beowulf, your elevator pitch , it should entice someone to read more or call you in for where does the term ream a meeting.

Because it’s so important, we’ll take extra care to walk you through writing your elevator pitch . This step-by-step structure and the examples that follow will help you with the process. Finish Your Business Plan in One Day. Your Elevator Pitch Should Include: The Problem Your Business Solves Who Has the Problem How Big the Market for research paper the Solution Is Your Qualifications to Run this Business. Easy to Follow Elevator Pitch Template. Before you start to create your own elevator pitch , read through this entire section, including the ream come examples at the end. Then, by following the elevator pitch template below, you’ll be able to create a compelling elevator pitch for your business in no time. Start with a clear mind and a blank sheet of freud research, paper.

As you’ll see, each of the steps below asks you to where does the term of paper, write a very specific sentence or two, or in some cases, simply fill in the blanks of the objectives of value essays sentence provided. Where Come! For fill-in-the-blank sentences, the portions you are to hero essay, supply are bracketed [like this]. [Name of your company] provides [your products or services] for [describe the specific segment of the market you will serve] who [describe the problem this solves for them]. [Enter one sentence that tells why this business is does ream of paper from, needed and by whom.] [Make a statement about the size and/or growth trend of the industry.] [Write a sentence or two, no more, to an essay on beauty, address your qualifications to ream of paper from, run the business.) [Make an honest, upbeat, substantive and essay etiquette, credible claim about the business potential in terms of ream of paper from, sales or profitability.] Below are sample elevator pitches for two companies: WhirlyBird Yogurt Stores and shakespeare influence essay essays, JD Software Solutions. For each company, you’ll find a “good” example and a “bad” example of an where does of paper come Elevator Pitch. The good examples follow the formula above. Notice that this elevator pitch template works very well even with two completely different businesses. The poor examples demonstrate common mistakes in elevator pitches. Read these examples and the critiques that follow, to avoid the common pitfalls. When you are finished with your elevator pitch , make sure you’ve followed the formula above and eliminated the common mistakes. It should have a similar tone to the “good” examples in this section. Essay! WhirlyBird Yogurt Stores. Each WhirlyBird Yogurt store will offer 10 flavors of yogurt and 25 toppings to people within a five-mile radius of their carefully selected locations, ideal for where of paper from people who want a healthy meal or snack.

As an research example, now the 300,000 people who live and work in Meadowbrook won’t have to drive more than five minutes to get great yogurt, served by friendly people in the term of paper come from, a sparkling clean store. Research! Frozen yogurt has been the fastest growing category in come from, over-the-counter snack foods for the past 3 years, with year-over-year growth rates of 17%. WhirlyBird’s founder, Ronald Smith, has 10 years experience as a regional manager of quick-service restaurants, where he learned how to run efficient, profitable stores. With that experience, Mr. Smith is confident about opening WhirlyBird Yogurt Stores at the rate of 1 every 6 months and building a business that is profitable from year one and shakespeare influence, surpasses $25 million in revenue within 5 years. WhirlyBird Yogurt Stores will be poised to take over the competition because our products are the most healthy and nutritious available. The difference is where the term of paper from, gluten-free products that don’t have the toxins found in other yogurts. Of Nature! All of our yogurts contain two forms of live bacteria: bulgaricus and thermophilus. Where The Term Ream Of Paper Come! Our founder, Ron Smith, has been eating it for years and credits that with his ability to education, run three marathons a year at where of paper come from, age 45. As more people learn about the detoxifying powers of bacteria-rich yogurt, WhirlyBird’s business will soar.

The pitch assumes that the reader is as informed, health-conscious and passionate about yogurt as is the founder. Nothing is mentioned about the size or growth of the health-conscious market versus the segment of people who just like to eat things that taste good. Shakespeare Essay! It is admirable that the does come from founder runs so many marathons, but has this person ever run a business? The elevator pitch doesn’t say. JD Software provides custom online commerce and back-office solutions to businesses with less than $10 million in write on beauty, sales that can’t afford the high prices of big-name consulting firms. These business customers will be eager to drive their sales and improve efficiency, now that it can be accomplished with a fraction of the time and money required by the big-name firms. Our founder, John DelMonte, has 8 years’ experience as a senior project manager for EDS, where he learned how to manage projects from start to ream from, finish using skilled independent contractors. With a market of over 8,000 small businesses in San Diego with revenue ranging from $1 million and $10 million, JD Software Solutions will be cash-flow positive and profitable in descriptive place my childhood, less than 12 months. Technology is moving fast and JD Software Solutions is on the leading edge.

All of ream of paper come from, our developers are Web2.0 certified and we have been developing Cloud applications that work asynchronously since Ajax was first introduced. We can save clients thousands of dollars using MySQL or if they’re tied to Oracle or SQL Server, we can implement open source middleware to beowulf, perform data transformations in real time. We have that experience. Since the where does the term of paper come from customer actually saves money over alternatives, selling will not be difficult and an essay, the potential of our business is unlimited. The pitch doesn’t tell about the problem that the business solves for its customers, who its customers will be, or how the founder is qualified to where does from, run a business. It also contains vague claims, such as, “JD Software Solutions is on the leading edge.” Based on this elevator pitch, the beowulf reader would understand that the company has qualified software engineers, but a lender or investor wants to know that the does ream come from founders can run a business. Follow this business plan elevator pitch formula and you’ll start turning heads immediately! Want a small business plan template you can complete in one day? Click #8220;Get it Now#8221; to the right to access our great fill in the blank business plan. Our template is in-depth and covers all the details you need to develop a foundation for many businesses of various industries.

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Where Can I Find MBA Dissertation Topics. I have been asked on my occasions by students on where the term come from, where to find quality MBA dissertation topics. Well, I responded by saying that you can find them in a university library or on the internet on credible websites. Before we go any further on explaining how to find relevant MBA dissertation topics it is vital that we establish what an MBA dissertation is. Essay Etiquette. Firstly, An integral part of any MBA degree is the where ream of paper come from successful completion of a research dissertation. In near enough every case, you must complete an influence MBA dissertation before graduating you cannot elect to where, sidestep the dissertation requirements of an MBA degree. As you are already aware, an essay etiquette MBA degree is a study into the theory and application of business management principles, often applied to a variety of ream real world business situations. It would be prudent to essay etiquette, base your MBA dissertation topic on the most common components or subject areas of an MBA degree; Accounting Operations Management Business Management Finance Marketing Information Technology Management Strategic Risk Management Entrepreneurship Human Resource Management E-Commerce Economics. We will attempt to highlight areas of interest and typical dissertation titles that MBA students across the where does the term come from globe undertake. One of the most satisfying aspects of research paper writing your own MBA dissertation topic is that you chose your own dissertation title and you have the opportunity to does ream come from, contribute to the field of study you have chosen.

Below are some MBA dissertation topics that have been written in their respective field that may help to objectives of value education, guide you. Accounting MBA Dissertation Topics. An MBA Accounting Thesis is not restricted to does the term of paper from, one major category or subject area. You have the ability to think outside the box and an epic essay, generalize about the term ream from wider subject matter which fall into essays, the accounting field. You could begin to look at new global accounting principles, account practices across boarders, how information technology affects traditional accounting techniques, or base your research on the performance of where ream of paper from a specific company while considering a whole host of external factors, the list goes on. Beowulf Essay. Below is a list of accounting based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Operations Management MBA Dissertation Topics. An MBA Operations Management Thesis will not be limited to one common operations management technique. You would have gained enough operations management knowledge during your MBA degree to does the term from, adequately compose a dissertation in essay this field. It is does ream tempting to of value, add more knowledge to an existing topic but you should relish the opportunity to does ream come, contribute something new to the operations management field of study. You could begin to look at global supply chain management, inventory control, performance management, TQM, statistical process control and quality management within prestigious organisations.

The following is of nature a list of operations management themed MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Business Management Dissertation Topics. When undertaking an MBA Business Management Thesis you will discover that the subject is not limited to one particular organisation or management technique. Business management is probably the broadest business subject area out there. Management techniques go back centuries and where does ream come from, there has been a lot of academic contribution within this field, but with changes in an epic hero culture and does the term ream come, global management techniques you should have a wealth of information at your disposal in order to adequately compose a dissertation in this subject field.

It is tempting to write about existing management techniques and how they are applied to organisations but you should embrace the opportunity to contribute something new to the business management field of study. You could begin to look at global management techniques (challenges and opportunities), business performance and evolving management techniques within prestigious organisations or profitability challenges faced by organisations, the list goes on. The following is a list of management theory based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Writing an MBA Finance Dissertation is an exciting prospect to say the shakespeare essay essays least, there is so much happening within the field of finance and you will have the opportunity to where of paper from, write a remarkable dissertation in this field. Finance is probably one of the most talked about write an essay subjects out there at the moment. Finance is where does the term from becoming a global phenomenon and changes on a daily basis with the influence of stock exchanges and freud, governments. Where The Term Ream Of Paper From. It is safe to say that you will have a plethora of information at your disposal when compiling your dissertation in this subject field. For an insight you could begin to look at global finance techniques, financial performance of global organisations, global money markets, and hero essay, financial comparisons of countries, the list goes on and on.

The following is a list of finance related MBA dissertation topics that have been written by where does ream of paper come, successful MBA graduates; Marketing MBA Dissertation Topics. Similar to on beauty of nature, business management, the field of marketing is a very common research preference for MBA Students. Writing an MBA Marketing Thesis will be an exciting opportunity to write a cutting edge dissertation. The field of marketing is often seen to cross over into other fields of does the term ream come study but you can remain on topic and base your dissertation purely on marketing theories and techniques. The marketing discipline is wide and varied and you can start to look at relationship marketing, advertising, branding, cross-culture marketing, direct marketing, consumer behavior, online marketing and marketing ethics. Influence Essay. The following is a list of marketing based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates in 2014 / 2015; Technology Management MBA Dissertation Topics.

Constructing an MBA Technology Management thesis on technology management can be a demanding task due to where does the term ream of paper come, the fact that information technology changes at freud research paper such a rapid rate. Don’t be put off by this as writing a technology management MBA dissertation is fulfilling and grabs attention as business graduates with information technology skills and knowledge are a rare commodity. Be sure to write your dissertation on up to date technologies and organisations, it is not advisable to investigate outdated research or defunct organisations in this field. Why write an MBA technology management dissertation on outdated technologies? You should look into the term ream of paper come, cutting edge research fields such as nanotechnology, IT outsourcing, global IT Infrastructure, ERP systems, VoIP technology, e-learning and key IT mergers and of value education, acquisitions. Try to relate you research to the business management field and try to avoid writing a scientific dissertation that would detract from you MBA degree. The following is a list of information technology based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Strategic Risk Management MBA Dissertation Topics. Basing you MBA Thesis on strategic risk management suggests that you are writing a piece of research that would help organisations to where the term from, reduce exposure to risk or adverse trading conditions.

It is safe to say that strategic risk management will be rigorously covered in the MBA degree and you will have built up a significant amount of knowledge relating to this field, you should be able to apply the essay etiquette knowledge and techniques gained into an MBA dissertation. You could look at the volatility of global stock exchanges, social risk in global organisations, risk management in derivative markets, risk management within the supply chain and risk factors affecting shareholder value. This list goes on. The following is a list of Strategic Risk MBA Dissertation Topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Entrepreneurship Dissertation Topics.

Developing an MBA thesis on entrepreneurship is a very interesting proposition for any MBA student. Does The Term. Entrepreneurship has a lot of exposure on most MBA taught degrees and many successful entrepreneurs hold an essay etiquette MBA, it is common knowledge that an MBA and entrepreneurs sit side by side in the business world. For inspiration you could look at where does the term ream of paper come competitiveness of nations, investigate business enterprise, outsourcing, or ask whether entrepreneurs born or made? There are many interesting topics surrounding enterprise and entrepreneurship. The following is a list of research Entrepreneurship based MBA Dissertation Topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Human Resource Management Dissertation Topics.

Writing an where does ream of paper come MBA HRM Thesis is place my childhood not restricted to one organisation or technique, HRM has become a global phenomenon due to cross boarder training practices, worker migration and organisations trading on a global scale. If you need a starting point for your HRM dissertation you can look at where of paper global recruitment trends, staff motivation within organisations, analyse staff retention techniques and staff training and engagement. There is of value education essays so much to explore within the field of HRM. The following is a list of does ream of paper come from HRM based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by essay place, successful MBA graduates; Similar to where does the term ream come, technology management, writing an MBA E-Commerce Thesis can be a tricky proposition due to freud paper, the fact that electronic commerce changes on a daily basis.

This includes stocks, shares and does of paper come from, any organisation that trade online. Essay Essays. Be sure to write your dissertation on up to date methods and does the term from, organisations, it is not advisable to investigate outdated research or defunct organisations as e-commerce has come a long way in a short period of time. Writing an e-commerce MBA dissertation on eBay or Amazon is old hat and uninspiring to freud research, a large extent. If you need inspiration for your e-commerce dissertation you can look at security risks and threats to does of paper, organisations, the emergence and impact of online shopping, e-commerce strategies and business process re-engineering. The following is a list of e-commerce themed MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; When writing your MBA Economics Thesis you will discover that the freud paper subject is not confined to a particular economics theory or technique. Where Does The Term Of Paper Come From. We are all exposed to economic conditions these range from domestic to global factors all of which make a firm foundation to base you economics dissertation on. Business economics is such an encompassing subject and descriptive essay place, there are many areas to investigate, you could start to look at global economic trends, hyperinflation, macroeconomics, economic policy, influence of the IMF and economic development.

Below is a list of economics based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; MBA Dissertation Topics. How MBA Dissertation Examples Can Help You. As you can see, there are a lot of possible MBA dissertation topics for you to choose from, and we have pointed you in the direction of quality pre-written MBA dissertation topics. The material is to be used to structure your own MBA dissertation we do not encourage you to the term of paper from, copy or plagiarize any reference material you encounter during your studies. Hopefully, we have given you a positive insight on how to begin and research your own MBA dissertation topic. Good luck and all the best! Click Here To View MBA Dissertation Topics.

My name is Steve Jones and I’m the creator and administrator of the dissertation topics blog. Freud Research. I’m a senior writer at and hold a BA (hons) Business degree and MBA, I live in Birmingham (just moved here from London), I’m a keen writer, always glued to a book and have an where does the term interest in freud economics theory. View all posts by Steve Jones. 44 thoughts on where does ream of paper come from, “MBA Dissertation Topics” Thanks for finally talking about MBA Dissertation Topics and essay place, Liked it, As an MBA student I found this post really interesting and does of paper come from, valuable as I am about to start writing my own MBA dissertation Q1 2015. Do you have any dissertations relating to Operations Management at a North American SME? Thanks Ivan.

Thanks for the response Ivan, I suggest you search all the MBA dissertation topics in the link provided at the bottom of the post. An Epic Hero. I’m sure you will find a dissertation topic relating to your MBA studies. Let me know. I’ve been having so much trouble getting started on my e-commerce dissertation. Does Ream Of Paper Come From. As you mentioned, my stumbling block is the fast changing nature of the field.

But it’s growing so fast that I know it’s a good area to get into. An Epic Hero Essay. I’m taking a look at your topics now, hopefully it can get me started! No problem, let me know if you need anything in particular if you’re unable to find the dissertation topic on the website. I have my MBA dissertation coming up and where does the term ream of paper come from, have been struggling with finding a topic idea that I feel comfortable with. I was so relieved come across your website – you have some really good, practical suggestions here. Paper. I enjoy writing, so have no problem with that part. Where Ream Of Paper Come From. My big fear is correctly citing my sources after I’ve written the write an essay dissertation.

Do you have any suggestions or good sites I could go to does the term, help with that? Hi, referencing should not become a problem if you follow your university’s guidelines.mthis blog contains posts on essay essays, referencing and citing the where does come work of others appropriately. Objectives Of Value Education. Also, our main website should provide you with the information you’re looking for. Good luck. This is an does ream of paper excellent MBA sample dissertation. I’m in freud research paper accounting, and have to say that whoever wrote this really knows their stuff. I appreciate the fact that you post examples so those of us who are flailing around trying to where does from, decide how to place, go about where the term ream this can benefit. I’m grateful to the friend who directed me here. Thanks for providing a great service. Steve- I left Ireland in September 2008 for the UK and descriptive place my childhood, my Masters dissertation in Manchester was on the Global Financial Crisis a history showing the role of US, Japan, The Asian Tigers and leading to the demise of does the term ream from major economics post 2008, I’ve created a timeline of events (up to mid-2013) at present but have information up to date.

This will give a chronological history of UK, EU, US events 2008 to shakespeare influence essay, date. Come From. It will be published early 2015. It is the US people have had to pay dearly for the toxic assets bought by Nama. Banks in Ireland are not lending, nor are they in the UK. I did here a figure mentioned that a third of the UK commercial lending was done by Irish banks. How can Nama be increasing lending when a lot of toxic assets have simply been “parked” by banks to be released shortly at essay etiquette knock-down prices onto the market? Thanks so much for does the term of paper come from, all this work! I’m blown away by the level of beowulf an epic detail you’ve gone into.

On some other sites I’ve looked at the content really only skims the surface and doesn’t take the reader in depth with a chance to really develop ideas and give a helping hand regarding this type of content. I know I have a million questions for you but I’m off to read other pages here and collect my thoughts before I bombard you. No problem at all, be mindful that we have uploaded more MBA dissertation topics since you posted your reply. Where Does The Term. Hopefully, there are more titles that will interest you further. Hi i have trouble in finding topic of my mba thesis.

I’m looking on regional economic management area. can you help me. I’m very intrigued with the material on offer – Can you custom write an essay etiquette MBA dissertation or do you only supply pre-written / submitted MBA dissertations? Hi do u have any topics related to health care financing or health economics. I’m kinda lost. Hi do u have any topics about where does come promotional strategy and tool for any company. Yes, I do.

I suggest you check out the beowulf an epic business dissertation pages, I’m sure you will find what you’re looking for. Cheers, Steve. Hello Steve got an interesting topic and I am in China really wonna reed it I am doing my MBA – The Impact of TQM on the Service Industry. Help! How can I get that. Thank you for starting up with such an initiative. I would like to where does, know whether I can get any good Dissertation topics in Operations management (Supply Chain Management) prior to the Middle East (UAE). Hi, please take a look at the business management dissertation pages.

I’m sure you’ll find something. I’ve just taken a look at some of the MBA dissertation topics you have. Do you offer any discounts if I purchased 2 dissertations from the essay website? I’m interested in 1 x outsourcing dissertation and 1 x investment strategies dissertation. Do you have any dissertations written specifically on business strategy at a world leading IT company? Kevin – No discounts I’m afraid. PM if you have additional requirements. Does The Term Come From. Thanks. I sincerely appreciate your effort of coming out with these reference materials for dissertations. This site is of great help for beowulf an epic, me as I need to does the term, submit 5 Topics this week for approval of the Dean of the essay etiquette Graduate School.

Thank you so much. You’re very much welcome. Very nice post. I just stumbled upon where does the term come, your weblog and wished to descriptive essay place, say that I have truly enjoyed browsing your MBA related blog posts. Come From. After all I’ll be subscribing to your dissertation RSS feed and I hope you write again very soon. Lastly, your MBA dissertation titles are truly amazing and will take that away. Please let me know if you’re looking for write an essay of nature, an MBA writer for does the term ream come from, your weblog. You have some really good posts and I think I would be a good asset. I’d absolutely love to write some content for your blog in exchange for a link back to descriptive place, mine.

Please send me an does the term of paper from e-mail if interested. I’d like to write for your website. I love the efforts you have put in essay etiquette this, thanks for providing the MBA dissertation links, I have taken a look at 40 dissertations titles so far. Thanks for the comments Kira. Hi, the link is where the term ream of paper come there for you but you cannot access the file for free. Thanks for descriptive place, sharing your MBA dissertation thoughts and where does the term of paper come, experiences. No problem Selma. I do like your MBA Dissertation Topics post that you just made some days ago?

My English is not too good and I’m studying at Durham University. Can you email a list of MBA Dissertation Topics in Microsoft Word so I can change? Thanks for the reply – We do not have, or supply the links in MS Word. Please check the MBA dissertation collection. I’m sure you will find a title that relates to your studies. This is the kind of MBA post I’ve been looking for. Appreciate your sharing you MBA Dissertation Topics with us. I’m sure many students will benefit from the links and shakespeare influence essays, resources presented.

Thanks Kate – Please check the MBA dissertation collection. I’m sure you will find a title that relates to your studies. I just stumbled upon does the term come from, your MBA website, can you write MBA dissertation topics for me? I need help and I have 3 weeks before I hand my MBA dissertation. Objectives Education. Thanks. Hi Lou, we do not write MBA dissertations for students.

This is the first time I frequented your web page and so far? I amazed with the MBA Dissertation Topics you made to make this actual publish amazing. Excellent process! I will access these later. Wow – There are some tremendous MBA dissertation titles here. I will take a look at the management dissertation section.

I’m doing a Masters in does ream come from International Business and these resources will help out. Cheers. Do you have any collection for place, DBA dissertation titles? If not where do I find them? Hi, we do provide Doctor of Business Administration dissertations. We only provide undergraduate and where of paper come, postgraduate business dissertations, MBA is our uppermost level. You have Amazing MBA Dissertation Topics, could you please upload them in beowulf an epic Microsoft Word or PDF format? Thanks. Thanks Anita, we are always adding new MBA dissertations titles.

I know this web site presents quality MBA blog posts and additional material but could you upload these MBA Dissertation Topics outlined in this post. I would like to access them. Thank you. Hello, thanks so much for posting these MBA Dissertation Topics – Could you upload a few titles as I would like to access them.

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Ream - definition of ream by The Free Dictionary

The Crucible Summary and Analysis of Act One. The play is set in Salem, Massachusetts in the spring of 1692, and the first act begins in where the term of paper come from a small upper bedroom of the home of Reverend Samuel Parris, who kneels in prayer at the bed of his daughter, Betty. Tituba, Rev. Parris' slave from Barbados, enters the room. She is concerned for Betty's welfare, but Parris makes her leave. Abigail Williams, the niece of Rev.

Parris, also enters, along with Susanna Walcott, who tells Rev. Parris that Dr. Griggs can find no cure for Betty's ailment. An Epic Hero Essay. Parris has sent for Reverend Hale of Beverly, who will confirm the possibility of an unnatural cause of Betty's illness, but he orders Susanna to say nothing of unnatural causes to others. Abigail warns Parris that there are rumors of witchcraft and that the parlor is packed with people. Parris tells her that he cannot reveal that he found his daughter and niece dancing in the forest like heathens. Abigail admits to the term of paper dancing and is willing to accept the punishment, but will not admit to witchcraft. Parris warns Abigail that he has enemies who will use this situation against essay etiquette, him, and claims that he saw a dress lying on does the term of paper come from, the grass and someone naked running through the trees. He thinks that Tituba was screeching gibberish when he found the girls, but Abigail says they were only singing Barbados songs. Write On Beauty. Parris demands to know whether Abigail has a good reputation, following up on rumors that her former employee, Goody Proctor, thinks Abigail is corrupt, but Abigail calls Goody Proctor a gossiping liar. Mrs.

Ann Putnam and the term of paper come, Mr. Thomas Putnam enter; she claims that Betty's illness is certainly a stroke of hell. There are rumors that Betty was flying over the Ingersoll's barn, according to an essay on beauty of nature Mrs. Putnam. Their daughter Ruth is also sick, and they assume witchcraft to be the cause. Mrs. Putnam admits that she sent Ruth to Tituba.

She believes that Tituba knows how to speak to the dead, and she wished to learn who murdered her seven children during their infancy. The Putnams' servant, Mercy Lewis, arrives and visits Betty. She discusses Ruth's sickness with Abigail, and where of paper come from, suggests beating Betty to snap her out of her illness. Essay Etiquette. Abigail tells Ruth that Rev. Parris knows that Tituba conjured Ruth's sisters, and that Parris saw Mercy naked. Mary Warren, the Proctors' current servant, enters in a panic because the town is talking witchcraft. Betty suddenly sits up and cries that Abigail drank blood to kill Goody Proctor.

Abigail threatens the other girls: if they say anything other than that they danced and Tituba conjured Ruth Putnam's sisters, Abigail will make their lives difficult. John Proctor arrives and orders Mary Warren to go home. Abigail speaks tenderly to ream of paper him and references an affair between them, but Proctor states that he will cut off his hand before he ever touches her again. As they hear the people downstairs sing a hymn downstairs, Abigail insists that Proctor loves her yet. He fends her off, firmly but not without sympathy. Hearing the hymn outside, Betty sits up and screams. Abigail calls for Rev. Parris, who believes that Betty cannot bear to descriptive place hear the Lord's name. The elderly Giles Corey enters with Rebecca Nurse, wife of Francis Nurse. Where Does The Term Ream. Rebecca, who has eleven children and twenty-six grandchildren, claims that Betty's illness is nothing serious. Research. She is skeptical of the claims of witchcraft.

Putnam suspects Proctor, because he has not been at where ream of paper come from, Sabbath recently, but Proctor claims there is no need for attendance since all Parris ever talks about are finances. Influence Essays. Parris warns that there must be obedience or the where ream of paper come, church will burn like Hell, and Proctor wonders whether Parris can speak one minute without mentioning Hell. Reverend John Hale of Beverly then arrives, bringing with him half a dozen heavy books. He introduces himself to an essay on beauty Rebecca Nurse, and has heard of her great charity. Giles Corey tells Hale that Proctor does not believe in witches, but Proctor says he did not speak one way or another. Ream. Hale says that they cannot look to superstition in issues of witchcraft, because the research, Devil is precise. Parris admits to the dancing and the conjuring, while Mrs. Where Does Of Paper From. Putnam claims that witchcraft must be the cause of death for her seven children. Giles Corey asks Hale what the reading of shakespeare influence essay, strange books signifies. He says that he often awakes to find Martha reading in a corner and does of paper, cannot say his prayers, but Hale dismisses his concerns for the moment. Hale asks Abigail what happened in the forest.

Parris claims he saw a kettle, but Abigail says it contained only hero, soup, although a frog may have jumped in it. Parris asks whether they drank anything in it, and Hale asks Abigail if she has sold her soul to Lucifer. Finally Abigail blames Tituba, claiming that Tituba made her and Betty drink chicken blood. Abigail says that Tituba sends her spirit on her in church and makes her laugh at prayer. Putnam declares that Tituba must be hanged. Hale confronts Tituba. Does Ream Come. He says that if she loves these children she must let God's light shine on education essays, her. Hale asks if the Devil comes to her with anybody else. Tituba admits that the where from, devil has come to her, and that the devil promises to return her to Barbados. Furthermore, she shows how he has white people working for her, including Goody Good and essay etiquette, Goody Osburn. Betty claims that she saw George Jacobs with the where the term ream come from, Devil, while Abigail claims she saw several others with the freud paper, devil, and the curtain falls on a rising chorus of accusations.

First performed in January of 1953 at the height of America's red scare, The Crucible is first and foremost a political argument, relating the where, Salem witchcraft trials to beowulf their contemporary equivalent in Miller's time, the McCarthy hearings. Where Does The Term Ream Of Paper. The figurative 'witch hunt' of McCarthyism becomes literal in Miller's play, which is constructed to illustrate how fear and hysteria mixed with an atmosphere of persecution may lead to tragically unjust consequences. An Essay On Beauty. Miller presents the play with traditional theatrical devices, relying on the dialogue and situations to illustrate his themes, but finds these somewhat insufficient. In the first act, the play therefore contains a number of historical digressions that reveal the motivations of each character and which cannot be accurately conveyed through a strict stage interpretation. Through these prose passages that interrupt the dialogue and does the term ream come, action of the play, Miller establishes the particular quality of essay etiquette, Salem society that makes it particularly receptive to the repression and panic of the where does ream, witch trials.

The Puritan life in Salem is beowulf an epic hero essay, rigid and the term of paper, somber, allowing little room for people to break from the monotony and strict work ethic that dominated the close-knit society. Furthermore, the Puritan religious ethic informed all aspects of freud research paper, society, promoting safeguards against immorality at any cost to personal privacy or justice. The Puritans of where ream, Massachusetts were a religious faction who, after years of suffering persecution themselves, developed a willful sense of community to guard against infiltration from outside sources. It is beowulf hero, this paradox that Miller finds to be a major theme of The Crucible: in order to where does of paper come keep the community together, members of that community believed that they must in some sense tear it apart. Of Value Education Essays. Miller relates the intense paranoia over the integrity of the Puritan community to their belief that they are in some sense a chosen people, who will forge a new destiny for the world. This relates strongly to where ream from the political climate of the early 1950s in which Miller wrote The Crucible. After the end of World War II, the United States found itself engaged in beowulf an epic a struggle for does ream come from, political supremacy with Communist forces, in particular the an essay on beauty, Soviet Union. Just as the Salem authorities believed that witchcraft threatened their community, many Americans during this time saw Communism as a threat to the American way of life. However, the Salem witch trials as described by Miller have a sexual element that runs concurrent with the where of paper come from, political aspects of the allegory. The community is one that promotes interference in all personal matters and intensely frowns upon any sinful conduct, without allowing for any legitimate expurgation of sin.

The witch trials serve as a means to break from this stifling atmosphere and publicly confess one's sins through accusation. Freud Paper. This simultaneous fear of and fascination with sexuality is a theme throughout The Crucible, as demonstrated by the adulterous relationship between Abigail Williams and John Proctor and the sexual undertones of the dancing that instigates the witchcraft trials. The 1950s were likewise an era of sexual conservatism, and known or suspected homosexuals were at particular risk for being singled out as Communist sympathizers. The first act establishes the primary characters of the play who instigate the Salem witch trials. Each has his particular obsessions and motivations that drive him to push for the term of paper from, the trials. The first and perhaps most reprehensible of these characters is the descriptive my childhood, Reverend Samuel Parris, a man who symbolizes the particular quality of moral repression and paranoia that drive the trials. Miller immediately establishes Parris as a man whose main concern is his reputation and the term ream of paper, status in the community, rather than the beowulf essay, well-being of his daughter. It is Tituba who shows more concern for Betty than her father, but she is kept away from the girl's sick bed. When he discusses finding Abigail and where does ream, Betty dancing in the woods, his concern is paper, not the sin that they committed but rather the where ream come from, possibility that his enemies will use this scandal against him.

Parris is distinctly paranoid, defending himself from all enemies even when they may not exist. The particular quality of essay etiquette, Parris that renders him dangerous is his strong belief in the presence of evil. Even before the witchcraft paranoia, Proctor indicates that Parris showed an obsession with damnation and hell in order to strike fear into where does of paper come, his parishioners. With the seeming presence of witchcraft in Salem, Parris now has a concrete, physical manifestation of the education essays, evil he so fears. Abigail Williams is a less complex character whose motivations are simple; she is a clear villain with straightforward malicious motivation. Miller establishes that Abigail is suspected of adultery with John Proctor, a rumor that is confirmed later in the first act. Abigail demonstrates a great ability for self-preservation: she admits what she must at where, appropriate times, and places the blame for her actions at the most convenient source, Tituba.

She then takes advantage of the situation to accuse Elizabeth Proctor, aiming to place my childhood take her place in John Proctor's life. Abigail's lack of any morality renders her able to does come charge others with witchery no matter the consequences. The third character who serves as a proponent of the witchcraft hysteria is Thomas Putnam. While Parris's motivation is suspicion and essays, paranoia and Abigail's is mere villainy, Thomas Putnam demonstrates that his motivation involves his longstanding grudges against others; the witchcraft trials give Putnam an opportunity to exact revenge against does the term of paper from, others, and, as will later be shown, to write an essay profit economically from others' executions. The final character who sets the witchcraft trials in where does ream of paper come motion is write an essay on beauty of nature, Reverend John Hale. Hale is perhaps the most complex character in where does the term of paper The Crucible, a man who approaches religious matters with the conviction of a scientist and a scientific emphasis on proper procedure. Hale holds the contradictory belief that they cannot rely on superstition to of value education solve the girls' problems but that they may find a supernatural explanation for the events. Since he lacks the malicious motivations and obsessions that plague the other instigators of the trials, Reverend Hale has the ability to change his position, yet at this point he finds himself caught up in the hysteria he has helped to the term of paper from create.

In contrast to these four characters stand the three main opponents of the witchcraft accusations. The Nurses are the most straightforward of these; Miller portrays Rebecca Nurse and her husband as near saints who rely on practical wisdom and experience. Place. In contrast, Giles Corey has none of the noble character of the Nurses, yet he can oppose Parris and where ream, Putnam because of his contentious, combative manner. Giles Corey doesn't care about public opinion and has never allowed his actions to beowulf an epic hero essay be swayed by those around him. He may therefore choose whichever position he finds most suitable, even if it places him in danger. However, Miller places John Proctor as the main protagonist of the story and its moral center. Proctor, as Miller writes, is where the term ream of paper, a man who can easily discern foolishness and has the will to oppose it.

He is a rational man with a brusque manner who, like Giles Corey, has no qualms about expressing his opinion. Miller portrays Proctor as a decidedly modern character, who eschews superstition for on beauty, rationality and does the term come from, expresses skepticism for the trappings of organized religion, particularly Parris's obsession with hellfire and damnation. The particularly modern quality of John Proctor draws the audience sympathy to write of nature him, even if he is a self-professed sinner who had an affair with Abigail Williams. Yet this is the single sin that Proctor manifests and exists more as a plot point than as an organic character trait. The Proctor that Miller portrays throughout The Crucible has succumbed to where come and overcome temptation, like so many of us, making him both flawed and respectable. Several significant themes emerge early in essay etiquette the play.

One of these that Miller develops throughout the first act is the does the term ream come, speed at which gossip can spread in freud research a close-knit society like Salem. Does The Term Ream Of Paper. Miller establishes Salem as a world in which little information is considered private; all information is open to suspicion and essay etiquette, question. This correlates to the McCarthy hearings, which probed into the lives of the suspected communists for evidence of ream come from, their anti-American activity, no matter the actual relevance. A second theme that Miller establishes is the ability of people to choose whichever position suits their self-interest. Descriptive Essay. Abigail Williams shows the does the term from, ability to objectives of value affirm or deny any charge against her based entirely on whether it serves her needs, while Tituba, when charged with witchcraft, denies it only until she realizes that admitting to the crime will save her from further punishment and that accusing others will shift the blame elsewhere. The shift of blame from does the term come, one character to another will be a recurring plot point, as few characters will accept the consequences of their actions or directly confront the charges leveled against them. Perhaps the most important theme that Miller develops in this act is the propensity of accusations to snowball.

The charges against the girls and beowulf, Tituba become perpetually more significant: at first they are accused of merely dancing, then of dancing naked. The charges proceed until Tituba is deemed a witch and accuses others of conspiring with Satan. Where The Term Ream Of Paper Come From. Legitimate charges of dancing and sinful activity increase in magnitude until charges of Satanism arise. The irony of this situation is that the fight against sinfulness in Salem will become more sinful and malicious than any of the actual events that occurred – much like, in descriptive essay place my childhood Miller's opinion, the McCarthy era did more to tear apart America than Communist sympathizers ever did. How To Cite in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Crucible The Crucible Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis Act One Act Two Act Three Act Four Historical Dystopia Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan Mini-Store Arthur Miller Biography. The Crucible Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Crucible is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the where ream of paper from, novel. Ruth's parents are paranoid. That has to rub off on poor Ruth.

Anne is obsessed with birthing dead babies. She sends Ruth to Tituba in order to research conjure spirits of her babied. Thomas thinks that people are taking land from does the term ream of paper come from, him or he is trying to. Do you mean what Betty confesses about Abigail? I always thought John Proctor to have the fortitude and strict sense of shakespeare essay essays, right and wrong, even though he cheated on his wife, to change. The Crucible is a play by Arthur Miller. The Crucible study guide contains a biography of Arthur Miller, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The Crucible essays are academic essays for citation.

These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Crucible by Arthur Miller.

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10 Inspirational Personal Project Ideas. Engaging with a personal project can be an extremely good way to aid your progress as a photographer. Not only where come from, does it force you to take photographs, it allows you to descriptive essay, think creatively and gives you focus as a photographer. Does The Term Ream Come. It allows you to tell a story that you want to tell, to try something you’ve not tried before and to reach new ground with your photography. You may well want to shakespeare influence essay, share your work, and it’s up to you whether you share it as you go or publish it as a complete body of of paper come work once you’ve finished, but either way, let others engage with your work and it will give you the essay essays inspiration to move on and try another project.

This one is fairly self explanatory, and the term ream of paper from, undoubtedly many of you reading will have tried something similar to this before, but the fact remains that if you’re looking for a project that will get you taking photos, then this is a great place to start. It will force you to think creatively about taking photos and challenge you to objectives of value education essays, find new and where the term come from, interesting subject matter each day. It’s also something that you can involve others with by influence, posting the photo online each day for others to come from, engage with and be inspired by! If you want to keep it simple, but also be creatively challenged, then picking a single subject to work with can be a great project to start with. Your subject could be a particular person, a friend or partner, although make sure you ask them first! It could be something as simple as 'trees' or 'weather,' which may not sound too adventurous, but will focus your mind on what you want to achieve as you aim to find new and interesting ways to capture your subject matter. Another option for maintaining some continuity through your project is to essay etiquette, use and ream of paper come from, revisit a specific location. The environments around us develop and objectives education, change over time and the term ream from, it can be an descriptive essay extremely rewarding project to does the term come, capture a specific space as it naturally evolves. You might want to go on a regular basis, maybe once a week, or once a month or maybe just once per season, but however often you visit, try and replication previous shots to place my childhood, demonstrate the change. Exploring a brand new location can be an come extremely beneficial photographic project, as it forces you to an epic essay, keep your eyes open for interesting and engaging subject matter.

This could be a different continent, country, county or maybe even just a local town. As long as it’s new, it’s bound to get those creative juices flowing. You could go with a specific purpose, to capture the does ream come local people or stunning landscapes. Do some research before your visit so you know what to look out for. 5. Emulate A Favourite Photographer. This can be an extremely useful way to advance your photographic eye and hone some skills. Do some research into the images and techniques of your favourite photographers and hero essay, then head out and see if you can put some of what you learned into does of paper from practice. For example, if you wanted to emulate Henri Cartier-Bresson, you might take a 35mm fixed lens camera out onto the city streets and essay etiquette, capture the world around you in black and white.

If you wanted to emulate Martin Parr, you’d probably take a similar camera, but this time try to capture the humorous and funny side of human life. Where The Term Ream Of Paper Come From. We’ve all got stories to tell, places that have particular meaning to us, objects that we treasure, people that we couldn’t live without, adventures we’ve been on and trials that we’ve endured. Try asking a friend or family member if they wouldn’t mind you documenting their life. It could be their life up until the present day, it could just be one day in essay my childhood their life or it could be one day every week for the next few months. This will not only sharpen your photographic skills, but you’ll develop your ability for telling a story, a very valuable asset to have as a photographer.

Now this may sound very basic and not really like a project at all, but capturing the world around you is does come probably one of the beowulf an epic reasons you starting taking photographs in the first place and maybe it’s time you went back to simply engaging with your environment through your camera. The photos you take may not be of interest to where the term come from, you at the moment, but I’m sure that in 10/20/30 years time, you’ll want to look back and essay etiquette, not only where does the term ream, enjoy observing what your surroundings used to be and how they’ve changed, but how you used to essay etiquette, see the does the term ream come world. This can be a daunting prospect, to approach strangers in essay place my childhood the street and where the term ream from, ask if you can take their photograph, but trust me, the confidence that you’ll gain and the photos you take are well worth the embarrassment of being rejected a few times by an essay on beauty, people you’ll never meet again. There are people of the term of paper all sorts of shapes, sizes, and essay etiquette, tones, with crazy hairstyles, boring hairstyles, over the top make up and no make up, out-there fashion sense and no fashion sense at all. As far as I’m concerned, it’s the people around us that shape our lives, and therefore need capturing. This sort of project is ream from great if you want to learn a new skill or type of photography. For example, you could commit to taking a series of macro shots using a new lens or in an abstract style. This will enable you to develop the place skills necessary for of paper come macro photography and allow you to essay etiquette, have it in where the term ream come from your arsenal of shots next time you’re working on beowulf an epic essay a full shoot.

If you’ve never tried experimenting with long exposures then this might be the ideal opportunity. There’s all sorts of subject matter to work with, think about anything that emits or reflects light and anything that moves. A night scape might be a good place to start. Find a good viewpoint and capture the where does the term of paper city with the lights in full view. You could also try working with water. The coast, a lake edge or a fast flowing river or waterfall will give you plenty of chances to practice smoothing out the flow with a long exposure. If there aren’t any projects here that get your mouth watering, then why not organise your own! Think about your environment, the people and places that you know and consider what evokes a response in you? What gets you excited, what makes you think, what scenarios make you feel like you should do something about it?

Whatever it is write an essay that gets you responding, be it sport, community events or social injustice, get out and photograph it! You are your only limitation, so set your aspirations high and see what you can achieve. Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by our community membersyou can be involved too!

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essays about jesus ESSAY ON CHRISTIANITY. THE Being who has influenced in the most memorable manner the opinions and the fortunes of the human species, is Jesus Christ. Does The Term From? At this day, his name is connected with the devotional feelings of two hundred millions of the race of essay etiquette man. The institutions of the most civilized portions of the globe derive their authority from the sanction of his doctrines; he is the hero, the where does, God, of our popular religion. His extraordinary genius, the wide and rapid effect of his unexampled doctrines, his invincible gentleness and benignity, the devoted love borne to him by his adherents, suggested a persuasion to them that he was something divine.

The supernatural events which the historians of this wonderful man subsequently asserted to have been connected with every gradation of his career, established the opinion. His death is said to have been accompanied by an accumulation of tremendous prodigies. Essay Etiquette? Utter darkness fell upon where does ream the earth, blotting the noonday sun; dead bodies, arising from their graves, walked through the public streets, and an earthquake shook the astonished city, rending the rocks of the surrounding mountains. The philosopher may attribute the application of these events to the death of a reformer, or the events themselves to a visitation of that universal Pan who—— The thoughts which the word God suggests to the human mind are susceptible of as many variations as human minds themselves. The Stoic, the Platonist, and the Epicurean, the Polytheist, the Dualist, and the Trinitarian, differ infinitely in their conceptions of its meaning.

They agree only in considering it the most awful and most venerable of names, as a common term devised to express all of mystery, or majesty, or power, which the invisible world contains. And not only has every sect distinct conceptions of the an epic hero, application of this name, but scarcely two individuals of the same sect, who exercise in any degree the freedom of their judgment, or yield themselves with any candour of feeling to the influences of the visible world, find perfect coincidence of opinion to exist between them. It is [interesting] to inquire in what acceptation Jesus Christ employed this term. We may conceive his mind to have been predisposed on this subject to adopt the opinions of where the term of paper his countrymen. Every human being is indebted for a multitude of his sentiments to the religion of his early years. Jesus Christ probably [studied] the historians of his country with the ardour of a spirit seeking after truth. They were undoubtedly the companions of place his childish years, the food and nutriment and materials of his youthful meditations. The Sublime dramatic poem entitled Job had familiarized his imagination with the boldest imagery afforded by the human mind and the material world. Ecclesiastes had diffused a seriousness and solemnity over the frame of his spirit, glowing with youthful hope, and [had] made audible to his listening heart The still, sad music of where does ream of paper humanity, Not harsh or grating, but of ample power. To chasten and subdue.

He had contemplated this name as having been profanely perverted to the sanctioning of the most enormous and abominable crimes. We can distinctly trace, in the tissue of his doctrines, the persuasion that God is shakespeare essay essays some universal Being, differing from man and the mind of man. Does The Term Come? According to Jesus Christ, God is neither the Jupiter, who sends rain upon the earth; nor the essay my childhood, Venus, through whom all living things are produced; nor the Vulcan, who presides over the terrestrial element of fire; nor the Vesta, that preserves the light which is enshrined in the sun and moon and stars. He is neither the Proteus nor the Pan of the material world. But the word God, according to the acceptation of the term of paper Jesus Christ, unites all the attributes which these denominations contain and is the [interpoint] and over-ruling Spirit of shakespeare essay essays all the energy and wisdom included within the the term of paper from, circle of existing things. It is important to an essay observe that the author of the Christian system had a conception widely differing from the gross imaginations of the vulgar relatively to the ruling Power of the universe. He everywhere represents this Power as something mysteriously and illimitably pervading the frame of things. Does The Term Come? Nor do his doctrines practically assume any proposition which they theoretically deny. They do not represent God as a limitless and inconceivable mystery; affirming, at the same time, his existence as a Being subject to passion and capable—— Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.

Blessed are those who have preserved internal sanctity of soul; who are conscious of no secret deceit; who are the same in act as they are in desire; who conceal no thought, no tendencies of thought, from their own conscience; who are faithful and sincere witnesses, before the freud research paper, tribunal of their own judgments, of all that passes within their mind. Such as these shall see God. What! after death, shall their awakened eyes behold the King of Heaven? Shall they stand in awe before the golden throne on which he sits, and gaze upon the venerable countenance of the does the term come, paternal Monarch? Is this the reward of the virtuous and the pure? These are the idle dreams of the freud research paper, visionary, or the pernicious representations of impostors, who have fabricated from the very materials of wisdom a cloak for their own dwarfish or imbecile conceptions. Jesus Christ has said no more than the most excellent philosophers have felt and ream expressed—that virtue is its own reward.

It is true that such an expression as he has used was prompted by the energy of genius, and was the hero, overflowing enthusiasm of a poet; but it is not the less literally true [because] clearly repugnant to the mistaken conceptions of the multitude. God, it has been asserted, was contemplated by where does the term of paper come from, Jesus Christ as every poet and influence essays every philosopher must have contemplated that mysterious principle. The Term Ream Of Paper From? He considered that venerable word to express the overruling Spirit of the collective energy of the moral and material world. He affirms, therefore, no more than that a simple, sincere mind is the indispensable requisite of true science and true happiness. He affirms that a being of pure and gentle habits will not fail, in every thought, in every object of every thought, to be aware of benignant visitings from the invisible energies by which he is descriptive essay surrounded. Whosoever is free from the contamination of luxury and licence, may go forth to the fields and to the woods, inhaling joyous renovation from the breath of Spring, or catching from the odours and sounds of Autumn some diviner mood of sweetest sadness, which improves the softened heart.

Whosoever is no deceiver or destroyer of his fellow men—no liar, no flatterer, no murderer may walk among his species, deriving, from the communion with all which they contain of beautiful or of majestic, some intercourse with the Universal God. Whosoever has maintained with his own heart the strictest correspondence of confidence, who dares to does the term examine and to estimate every imagination which suggests itself to his mind—whosoever is that which he designs to become, and only aspires to that which the divinity of his own nature shall consider and approve—he has already seen God. We live and move and think; but we are not the creators of our own origin and existence. We are not the arbiters of every motion of our own complicated nature; we are not the masters of our own imaginations and moods of mental being. There is a Power by which we are surrounded, like the atmosphere in which some motionless lyre is suspended, which visits with its breath our silent chords at will.

Our most imperial and stupendous qualities—those on which the majesty and the power of an epic hero essay humanity is erected—are, relatively to the inferior portion of its mechanism, active and imperial; but they are the passive slaves of some higher and more omnipotent Power. This Power is God; and those who have seen God have, in the period of their purer and more perfect nature, been harmonized by their own will to so exquisite [a] consentaneity of power as to give forth divinest melody, when the breath of where ream come from universal being sweeps over an epic their frame. Where Does The Term Of Paper From? That those who are pure in heart shall see God, and that virtue is its own reward, may be considered as equivalent assertions. The former of descriptive place my childhood these propositions is a metaphorical repetition of the latter. The advocates of literal interpretation have been the most efficacious enemies of those doctrines whose nature they profess to venerate. Thucydides, in particular, affords a number of instances calculated—— Tacitus says, that the Jews held God to be something eternal and supreme, neither subject to change nor to decay; therefore, they permit no statues in their cities or their temples. The universal Being can only be described or defined by negatives which deny his subjection to the laws of all inferior existences. Where indefiniteness ends, idolatry and where does of paper come from anthropomorphism begin. God is, as Lucan has expressed, Quodcunque vides, quodcunque moveris,

Et coelum et virtus. The doctrine of objectives of value education essays what some fanatics have termed a peculiar Providence—that is, of some power beyond and superior to that which ordinarily guides the operations of the Universe, interfering to punish the vicious and reward the virtuous—is explicitly denied by where does of paper, Jesus Christ. The absurd and execrable doctrine of vengeance, in all its shapes , seems to have been contemplated by this great moralist with the essay etiquette, profoundest disapprobation; nor would he permit the where the term come from, most venerable of names to be perverted into a sanction for the meanest and most contemptible propensities incident to the nature of man. Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, that ye may be the sons of your Heavenly Father, who makes the sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and the rain to fall on the just and unjust. How monstrous a calumny have not impostors dared to advance against the mild and gentle author of this just sentiment, and against the whole tenor of his doctrines and his life, overflowing with benevolence and forbearance and compassion! They have represented him asserting that the Omnipotent God—that merciful and benignant Power who scatters equally upon the beautiful earth all the essay etiquette, elements of security and happiness—whose influences are distributed to all whose natures admit of a participation in them—who sends to the weak and vicious creatures of his will all the benefits which they are capable of sharing—that this God has devised a scheme whereby the body shall live after its apparent dissolution, and be rendered capable of where does ream from indefinite torture. He is said to have compared the agonies which the vicious shall then endure to essay etiquette the excruciations of a living body bound among the flames, and being consumed sinew by sinew, and bone by bone. And this is to be done, not because it is supposed (and the supposition would be sufficiently detestable) that the moral nature of the sufferer would be improved by his tortures—it is done because it is just to the term from be done. My neighbour, or my servant, or my child, has done me an injury, and it is just that he should suffer an injury in return. Such is the doctrine which Jesus Christ summoned his whole resources of persuasion to oppose. Love your enemy, bless those who curse you: such, he says, is the practice of God, and such must ye imitate if ye would be the children of God.

Jesus Christ would hardly have cited, as an example of all that is gentle and beneficent and compassionate, a Being who shall deliberately scheme to inflict on a large portion of the human race tortures indescribably intense and indefinitely protracted; who shall inflict them, too, without any mistake as to the true nature of pain—without any view to future good—merely because it is just. This, and no other, is justice:—to consider, under all the circumstances and consequences of a particular case, how the greatest quantity and research purest quality of happiness will ensue from any action; [this] is to be just, and there is no other justice. The distinction between justice and mercy was first imagined in where, the courts of tyrants. Mankind receive every relaxation of their tyranny as a circumstance of on beauty of nature grace or favour. Such was the clemency of Julius Caesar, who, having achieved by a series of treachery and bloodshed the ruin of the liberties of his country, receives the fame of mercy because, possessing the power to slay the where come from, noblest men of Rome, he restrained his sanguinary soul, arrogating to himself as a merit an essay etiquette abstinence from actions which if he had committed, he would only have added one other atrocity to his deeds. His assassins understood justice better. They saw the where does the term come from, most virtuous and civilized community of mankind under the insolent dominion of one wicked man; and they murdered him. They destroyed the usurper of the liberties of their countrymen, not because they hated him, not because they would revenge the wrongs which they had sustained (Brutus, it is said, was his most familiar friend; most of the on beauty, conspirators were habituated to domestic intercourse with the man whom they destroyed): it was in affection, inextinguishable love for all that is where the term ream from venerable and beowulf essay dear to the human heart, in the names of Country, Liberty, and Virtue; it was in a serious and does ream of paper solemn and reluctant mood, that these holy patriots murdered their father and their friend. Objectives Of Value Essays? They would have spared his violent death, if he could have deposited the rights which he had assumed.

His own selfish and narrow nature necessitated the sacrifices they made. They required that he should change all those habits which debauchery and bloodshed had twined around the fibres of his inmost frame of does the term from thought; that he should participate with them and with his country those privileges which, having corrupted by research, assuming to does ream of paper from himself, he would no longer value. Write An Essay? They would have sacrificed their lives if they could have made him worthy of the sacrifice. Such are the feelings which Jesus Christ asserts to belong to the ruling Power of the world. He desireth not the death of a sinner; he makes the sun to shine upon the just and where the term from unjust. The nature of a narrow and malevolent spirit is education so essentially incompatible with happiness as to render it inaccessible to the influences of the benignant God. Where The Term Ream Of Paper Come? All that his own perverse propensities will permit him to receive, that God abundantly pours forth upon him. If there is the slightest overbalance of happiness, which can be allotted to the most atrocious offender, consistently with the nature of things, that is rigidly made his portion by the ever-watchful Power of God. In every case, the place my childhood, human mind enjoys the utmost pleasure which it is where capable of enjoying. God is paper represented by come, Jesus Christ as the Power from which, and through which, the hero essay, streams of the term ream come all that is excellent and delightful flow; the Power which models, as they pass, all the elements of this mixed universe to the purest and hero most perfect shape which it belongs to their nature to assume. Of Paper? Jesus Christ attributes to this Power the faculty of Will.

How far such a doctrine, in objectives of value essays, its ordinary sense, may be philosophically true, or how far Jesus Christ intentionally availed himself of a metaphor easily understood, is foreign to the subject to consider. This much is where of paper from certain, that Jesus Christ represents God as the fountain of all goodness, the hero essay, eternal enemy of pain and evil, the uniform and unchanging motive of the salutary operations of the material world. The supposition that this cause is excited to action by some principle analogous to the human will, adds weight to does ream the persuasion that it is foreign to its beneficent nature to inflict the beowulf, slightest pain. According to Jesus Christ, and according to the indisputable facts of the case, some evil spirit has dominion in this imperfect world. But there will come a time when the human mind shall be visited exclusively by the influences of the benignant Power. Men shall die, and their bodies shall rot under the ground; all the organs through which their knowledge and their feelings have flowed, or in does the term, which they have originated, shall assume other forms, and become ministrant to purposes the most foreign from their former tendencies. There is a time when we shall neither be heard or be seen by essay etiquette, the multitude of beings like ourselves by whom we have been so long surrounded. They shall go to graves; where then? It appears that we moulder to a heap of senseless dust; to a few worms, that arise and does of paper come perish, like ourselves. Jesus Christ asserts that these appearances are fallacious, and that a gloomy and cold imagination alone suggests the conception that thought can cease to be.

Another and a more extensive state of being, rather than the complete extinction of being will follow from that mysterious change which we call Death. There shall be no misery, no pain, no fear. The empire of evil spirits extends not beyond the freud research, boundaries of the grave. Where The Term Come? The unobscured irradiations from the fountain-fire of all goodness shall reveal all that is mysterious and unintelligible, until the mutual communications of knowledge and of happiness throughout all thinking natures, constitute a harmony of good that ever varies and never ends. This is Heaven, when pain and evil cease, and when the Benignant Principle, untrammelled and uncontrolled, visits in the fulness of its power the universal frame of things.

Human life, with all its unreal ills and essays transitory hopes, is does the term ream of paper as a dream, which departs before the dawn, leaving no trace of its evanescent lines. All that it contains of pure or of divine visits the passive mind in some serenest mood. Most holy are the feelings through which our fellow beings are rendered dear and [venerable] to objectives the heart. The remembrance of their sweetness, and the completion of the hopes which they [excite], constitute, when we awaken from the where the term ream of paper come from, sleep of life, the fulfilment of the prophecies of its most majestic and beautiful visions. We die, says Jesus Christ; and, when we awaken from the languor of disease, the glories and the happiness of freud paper Paradise are around us. All evil and pain have ceased for ever. Our happiness also corresponds with, and is adapted to, the nature of what is most excellent in our being. We see God, and where does of paper from we see that he is good. How delightful a picture, even if it be not true!

How magnificent is the beowulf an epic hero essay, conception which this bold theory suggests to the contemplation, even if it be no more than the imagination of some sublimest and most holy poet, who, impressed with the the term ream of paper from, loveliness and majesty of his own nature, is impatient and discontented with the essay etiquette, narrow limits which this imperfect life and ream come from the dark grave have assigned for essay etiquette ever as his melancholy portion. It is not to be believed that Hell, or punishment, was the conception of this daring mind. It is not to be believed that the most prominent group of this picture, which is framed so heart-moving and lovely—the accomplishment of all human hope, the extinction of all morbid fear and anguish—would consist of millions of sensitive beings enduring, in every variety of where of paper torture which Omniscient vengeance could invent, immortal agony. Jesus Christ opposed with earnest eloquence the panic fears and hateful superstitions which have enslaved mankind for ages. Nations had risen against nations, employing the subtlest devices of mechanism and mind to waste, and excruciate, and overthrow. The great community of mankind had been subdivided into ten thousand communities, each organized for the ruin of the other. Wheel within wheel, the vast machine was instinct with the restless spirit of desolation.

Pain had been inflicted; therefore, pain should be inflicted in return. Retaliation of injuries is the only remedy which can be applied to violence, because it teaches the injurer the true nature of his own conduct, and operates as a warning against its repetition. Nor must the same measure of calamity be returned as was received. If a man borrows a certain sum from me, he is bound to repay that sum. Freud Paper? Shall no more be required of the enemy who destroys my reputation, or ravages my fields? It is just that he should suffer ten times the does the term come from, loss which he has inflicted, that the legitimate consequences of his deed may never be obliterated from his remembrance, and objectives of value essays that others may clearly discern and feel the danger of invading the peace of human society. Such reasonings, and the impetuous feelings arising from the term, them, have armed nation against nation, family against family, man against man. An Athenian soldier, in the Ionian army which had assembled for the purpose of vindicating the liberty of the Asiatic Greeks, accidentally set fire to Sardis. The city, being composed of research paper combustible materials, was burned to the ground. The Persians believed that this circumstance of aggression made it their duty to retaliate on Athens.

They assembled successive expeditions on the most extensive scale. Every nation of the East was united to ruin the Grecian States. Athens was burned to where does the term of paper from the ground, the essay etiquette, whole territory laid waste, and every living thing which it contained [destroyed]. Where Of Paper From? After suffering and inflicting incalculable mischiefs, they desisted from their purpose only when they became impotent to essay etiquette effect it. The desire of revenge for the aggression of Persia outlived, among the Greeks, that love of liberty which bad been their most glorious distinction among the nations of where does the term of paper come from mankind; and Alexander became the instrument of its completion. Shakespeare Essay Essays? The mischiefs attendant on this consummation of fruitless ruin are too manifold and too tremendous to where does of paper from be related. If all the thought which had been expended on the construction of engines of agony and death—the modes of aggression and defence, the raising of armies, and the acquirement of those arts of write an essay of nature tyranny and falsehood without which mixed multitudes could neither be led nor governed—had been employed to promote the true welfare and where the term of paper come extend the real empire of man, how different would have been the present situation of human society! how different the state of knowledge in physical and moral science, upon which the power and happiness of mankind essentially depend! What nation has the example of the desolation of Attica by Mardonius and Xerxes, or the extinction of the place my childhood, Persian empire by Alexander of Macedon, restrained from outrage? Was not the where ream come, pretext of freud research paper this latter system of spoliation derived immediately from the does the term of paper come, former? Had revenge in this instance any other effect than to increase, instead of diminishing, the mass of write of nature malice and evil already existing in the world? The emptiness and folly of retaliation are apparent from the term ream of paper come from, every example which can be brought forward.

Not only Jesus Christ, but the most eminent professors of every sect of education philosophy, have reasoned against this futile superstition. Legislation is, in one point of where does the term from view, to be considered as an attempt to provide against the excesses of research this deplorable mistake. It professes to assign the penalty of the term of paper all private injuries, and denies to individuals the right of vindicating their proper cause. This end is certainly not attained without some accommodation to the propensities which it desires to destroy. Write An Essay? Still, it recognizes no principle but the production of the does the term ream of paper come from, greatest eventual good with the least immediate injury—and regards the torture, or the death, of any human being as unjust, of hero essay whatever mischief be may have been the author, so that the result shall not more than compensate for the immediate pain. Mankind, transmitting from generation to generation the legacy of accumulated vengeances, and pursuing with the feelings of duty the misery of where ream of paper come their fellow-beings, have not failed to attribute to the Universal Cause a character analogous with their own. Education Essays? The image of where does ream from this invisible, mysterious Being is more or less excellent and perfect—resembles more or less its original—in proportion to the perfection of the mind on write an essay, which it is impressed. Thus, that nation which has arrived at come from the highest step in the scale of moral progression will believe most purely in that God, the knowledge of whose real attributes is essay etiquette considered as the firmest basis of the true religion. The reason of the belief of each individual, also, will be so far regulated by his conceptions of does the term ream of paper come from what is good.

Thus, the conceptions which any nation or individual entertains of the freud, God of its popular worship may be inferred from their own actions and opinions, which are the subjects of their approbation among their fellow-men. Jesus Christ instructed his disciples to be perfect, as their Father in Heaven is perfect, declaring at the same time his belief that human perfection requires the refraining from revenge and retribution in any of its various shapes. The perfection of the human and the divine character is thus asserted to be the same. Man, by resembling God, fulfils most accurately the tendencies of his nature; and God comprehends within himself all that constitutes human perfection. Thus, God is a model through which the excellence of man is to be estimated, whilst the abstract perfection of the human character is the type of the actual perfection of the divine.

It is not to be believed that a person of such comprehensive views as Jesus Christ could have fallen into so manifest a contradiction as to assert that men would be tortured after death by that Being whose character is held up as a model to human kind, because he is does of paper from incapable of malevolence and revenge. All the arguments which have been brought forward to justify retribution fail, when retribution is destined neither to operate as an example to other agents, nor to the offender himself. How feeble such reasoning is to be considered, has been already shewn; but it is the character of an evil Demon to consign the beings whom he has endowed with sensation to unprofitable anguish. The peculiar circumstances attendant on objectives of value education, the conception of ream from God casting sinners to burn in Hell for ever, combine to essay etiquette render that conception the most perfect specimen of the greatest imaginable crime. Jesus Christ represented God as the principle of all good, the source of all happiness, the wise and benevolent Creator and does the term come Preserver of all living things. But the interpreters of his doctrines have confounded the good and the evil principle. They observed the emanations of descriptive essay place my childhood their universal natures to be inextricably entangled in the world, and, trembling before the where the term of paper, power of the cause of all things, addressed to it such flattery as is acceptable to the ministers of human tyranny, attributing love and wisdom to those energies which they felt to beowulf hero essay be exerted indifferently for the purposes of benefit and calamity. Jesus Christ expressly asserts that distinction between the good and evil principle which it has been the practice of all theologians to confound. How far his doctrines, or their interpretation, may be true, it would scarcely have been worth while to inquire, if the one did not afford an example and an incentive to the attainment of true virtue, whilst the other holds out a sanction and apology for where does the term ream of paper come every species of mean and cruel vice. It cannot be precisely ascertained in what degree Jesus Christ accommodated his doctrines to the opinions of his auditors; or in shakespeare essays, what degree he really said all that he is related to have said. The Term Of Paper? He has left no written record of himself, and we are compelled to judge from the imperfect and obscure information which his biographers (persons certainly of very undisciplined and undiscriminating minds) have transmitted to posterity.

These writers (our only guides) impute sentiments to shakespeare influence Jesus Christ which flatly contradict each other. They represent him as narrow, superstitious, and exquisitely vindictive and malicious. They insert, in the midst of a strain of impassioned eloquence or sagest exhortation, a sentiment only remarkable for its naked and drivelling folly. But it is not difficult to distinguish the inventions by which these historians have filled up the interstices of tradition, or corrupted the ream from, simplicity of truth, from the real character of their rude amazement. They have left sufficiently clear indications of the genuine character of Jesus Christ to rescue it for ever from the imputations cast upon it by their ignorance and fanaticism. We discover that he is the enemy of oppression and of falsehood; that he is the objectives of value education essays, advocate of equal justice; that he is neither disposed to sanction bloodshed nor deceit, under whatsoever pretences their practice may be vindicated. We discover that he was a man of meek and majestic demeanour, calm in danger; of natural and simple thought and habits; beloved to adoration by his adherents; unmoved, solemn, and severe. It is utterly incredible that this man said, that if you hate your enemy you would find it to your account to return him good for where of paper evil, since, by such a temporary oblivion of vengeance, you would heap coals of fire on his head.

Where such contradictions occur, a favourable construction is warranted by the general innocence of descriptive my childhood manners and where does the term comprehensiveness of views which he is represented to possess. The rule of shakespeare criticism to be adopted in judging of the life, actions, and words of a man who has acted any conspicuous part in the revolutions of the world, should not be narrow. Where Ream Come? We ought to form a general image of his character and of his doctrines, and refer to this whole the distinct portions of action and speech by which they are diversified. Essays? It is not here asserted that no contradictions are to be admitted to have taken place in the system of ream of paper come Jesus Christ, between doctrines promulgated in different states of feeling or information, or even such as are implied in the enunciation of a scheme of thought, various and obscure through its immensity and depth. Descriptive? It is not asserted that no degree of where does of paper come human indignation ever hurried him beyond the limits which his calmer mood had placed to disapprobation against vice and folly. Those deviations from the history of his life are alone to be vindicated which represent his own essential character in contradiction with itself. Every human mind has what Bacon calls its idola specus—peculiar images which reside in the inner cave of write an essay on beauty of nature thought. These constitute the essential and distinctive character of every human being; to which every action and every word have intimate relation; and by where the term of paper come from, which, in depicting a character, the freud research paper, genuineness and meaning of these words and actions are to be determined. Every fanatic or enemy of virtue is not at liberty to misrepresent the greatest geniuses and most heroic defenders of all that is valuable in this mortal world. History, to gain any credit, must contain some truth, and that truth shall thus be made a sufficient indication of prejudice and deceit.

With respect to come from the miracles which these biographers have related, I have already declined to enter into any discussion on their nature or their existence. The supposition of their falsehood or their truth would modify in no degree the hues of the picture which is freud paper attempted to be delineated. To judge truly of the does ream of paper come from, moral and philosophical character of Socrates, it is not necessary to determine the beowulf essay, question of the does ream of paper come, familiar Spirit which [it] is supposed that he believed to attend on him. The power of the human mind, relatively to intercourse with or dominion over essay place the invisible world, is the term ream of paper from doubtless an interesting theme of discussion; but the connexion of the instance of Jesus Christ with the established religion of the objectives education, country in which I write, renders it dangerous to subject oneself to the imputation of introducing new Gods or abolishing old ones; nor is the duty of mutual forbearance sufficiently understood to render it certain that the metaphysician and the moralist, even though he carefully sacrifice a cock to ?sculapius, may not receive something analogous to the bowl of hemlock for the reward of where does the term his labours. Much, however, of what his biographers have asserted is not to essay place be rejected merely because inferences inconsistent with the general spirit of his system are to where does the term ream of paper come be adduced from write an essay of nature, its admission. Jesus Christ did what every other reformer who has produced any considerable effect upon the world has done.

He accommodated his doctrines to the prepossessions of those whom he addressed. He used a language for this view sufficiently familiar to our comprehensions. He said,—However new or strange my doctrines may appear to you, they are in fact only the restoration and re-establishment of those original institutions and ancient customs of your own law and religion. Where The Term? The constitutions of your faith and policy, although perfect in their origin, have become corrupt and altered, and have fallen into decay. I profess to of nature restore them to their pristine authority and splendour. Think not that I am come to destroy the Law and the Prophets.

I am come not to destroy, but to fulfil. Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in nowise pass away from the Law, till all be fulfilled. Where Come? Thus, like a skilful orator (see Cicero, De Oratore ), he secures the prejudices of his auditors, and research induces them, by where the term come from, his professions of sympathy with their feelings, to descriptive enter with a willing mind into the exposition of his own. The art of persuasion differs from that of reasoning; and it is of no small moment, to where does the term ream from the success even of a true cause, that the judges who are to determine on its merits should be free from those national and an essay of nature religious predilections which render the multitude both deaf and blind. Let not this practice be considered as an unworthy artifice. It were best for the cause of reason that mankind should acknowledge no authority but its own; but it is useful, to where ream of paper come from a certain extent, that they should not consider those institutions which they have been habituated to reverence as opposing an obstacle to its admission. All reformers have been compelled to practise this misrepresentation of their own true feelings and influence opinions. It is deeply to be lamented that a word should ever issue from human lips which contains the minutest alloy of dissimulation, or simulation, or hypocrisy, or exaggeration, or anything but the precise and rigid image which is where does the term ream come present to the mind, and which ought to dictate the expression.

But the practice of utter sincerity towards other men would avail to no good end, if they were incapable of practising it towards their own minds. In fact, truth cannot be communicated until it is shakespeare influence perceived. The interests, therefore, of truth require that an orator should, as far as possible, produce in his hearers that state of where does come mind on which alone his exhortations could fairly be contemplated and examined. Having produced this favourable disposition of beowulf hero mind, Jesus Christ proceeds to qualify, and finally to abrogate, the system of the Jewish law. He descants upon its insufficiency as a code of moral conduct, which it professed to be, and absolutely selects the law of retaliation as an instance of the absurdity and where the term of paper come immorality of its institutions. Freud? The conclusion of the speech is in a strain of the most daring and most impassioned speculation.

He seems emboldened by the success of his exculpation to the multitude, to does the term ream come from declare in public the paper, utmost singularity of his faith. He tramples upon all received opinions, on all the does the term ream of paper come, cherished luxuries and superstitions of mankind. He bids them cast aside the objectives of value education, chains of custom and blind faith by which they have been encompassed from the very cradle of their being, and receive the imitator and minister of the Universal God. EQUALITY OF MANKIND. The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath chosen me to preach the gospel to the poor: he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, and to set at liberty them that are bruised. (Luke, Ch. IV. v. 18.) This is an where ream from enunciation of all that Plato and Diogenes have speculated upon the equality of mankind.

They saw that the great majority of the human species were reduced to the situation of squalid ignorance and moral imbecility, for the purpose of purveying for the luxury of a few, and contributing to beowulf an epic hero essay the satisfaction of their thirst for power. Too mean-spirited and too feeble in resolve to attempt the conquest of their own evil passions, and of the difficulties of the material world, men sought dominion over their fellow-men, as an easy method to gain that apparent majesty and power which the instinct of their nature requires. Plato wrote the scheme of a republic, in which law should watch over the equal distribution of the external instruments of unequal power—honours, property, c. Where The Term Ream Of Paper Come From? Diogenes devised a nobler and a more worthy system of opposition to the system of the slave and tyrant. Shakespeare Influence? He said: It is in where does, the power of each individual to level the essay etiquette, inequality which is the topic of the complaint of mankind. Let him be aware of his own worth, and the station which he occupies in the scale of does come moral beings. Diamonds and gold, palaces and research sceptres, derive their value from the opinion of mankind. The only sumptuary law which can be imposed on where, the use and fabrication of these instruments of mischief and deceit, these symbols of successful injustice, is the law of opinion. Every man possesses the power, in this respect, to legislate for himself.

Let him be well aware of his own worth and moral dignity. Let him yield in descriptive my childhood, meek reverence to any wiser or worthier than he, so long as he accords no veneration to the splendour of his apparel, the luxury of his food, the multitude of his flatterers and slaves. The Term Come From? It is because, mankind, ye value and seek the empty pageantry of wealth and social power, that ye are enslaved to its possessions. On Beauty? Decrease your physical wants; learn to live, so far as nourishment arid shelter are concerned, like the beast of the ream, forest and the birds of the air; ye will need not to complain, that other individuals of your species are surrounded by the diseases of luxury and the vices of subserviency and oppression. With all those who are truly wise, there will be an entire community, not only of thoughts and feelings, but also of external possessions. Beowulf Essay? Insomuch, therefore, as ye live [wisely], ye may enjoy the community of whatsoever benefits arise from the inventions of civilized life.—They are of value only for purposes of mental power; they are of does ream of paper come value only as they are capable of being shared and applied to the common advantage of philosophy; and, if there be, no love among men, whatever institutions they may frame must be subservient to the same purpose—to the continuance of inequality. If there be no love among men, it is best that he who sees through the hollowness of their professions should fly from their society, and suffice to his own soul. In wisdom, be will thus lose nothing in power, he will gain everything. In proportion to the love existing among men, so will be the shakespeare essay, community of property and power. Among true and real friends, all is common; and, were ignorance and envy and superstition banished from the world, all mankind would be friends. The only does of paper, perfect and genuine republic is paper that which comprehends every living being.

Those distinctions which have been artificially set up, of nations, societies, families, and religions, are only where does the term ream come, general names, expressing the abhorrence and contempt with which men blindly consider their fellowmen. I love my country; I love the shakespeare, city in which I was born, my parents, my wife, and the children of my care; and to this city, this woman, and this nation, it is incumbent on me to do all the benefit in my power. Where The Term Ream Of Paper From? To what do these distinctions point, but to an evident denial of the duty which humanity imposes on you, of doing every possible good to every individual, under whatever denomination he may be comprehended, to whom you have the power of doing it? You ought to love all mankind; nay, every individual of mankind. You ought not to love the beowulf, individuals of your domestic circles less, but to love those who exist beyond it more.

Once make the where ream come, feelings of confidence and of affection universal, and the distinctions of property and power will vanish; nor are they to be abolished without substituting something equivalent in mischief to them, until all mankind shall acknowledge an freud research paper entire community of where does of paper come rights. But, as the shades of night are dispelled by the faintest glimmerings of dawn, so shall the minutest progress of the benevolent feelings disperse, in shakespeare, some degree, the gloom of tyranny, and [curb the] ministers of mutual suspicion and abhorrence. Your physical wants are few, whilst those of where does from your mind and heart cannot be numbered or described, from their multitude and complication. To secure the essay etiquette, gratification of the former, you have made yourselves the bond-slaves of each other. They have cultivated these meaner wants to of paper come from so great an excess as to judge nothing so valuable or desirable [as] what relates to their gratification. Hence has arisen a system of passions which loses sight of the end they were originally awakened to attain. Fame, power, and gold, are loved for their own sakes—are worshipped with a blind, habitual idolatry. The pageantry of empire, and the fame of irresistible might, are contemplated by the possessor with unmeaning complacency, without a retrospect to the properties which first made him consider them of value. It is from the essay etiquette, cultivation of the most contemptible properties of human nature that discord and torpor and indifference, by which the moral universe is the term of paper from disordered, essentially depend. So long as these are the ties by which human society is connected, let it not be admitted that they are fragile.

Before man can be free, and equal, and truly wise, he must cast aside the chains of habit and superstition; he must strip sensuality of its pomp, and an essay on beauty selfishness of its excuses, and contemplate actions and objects as they really are. He will discover the wisdom of universal love; he will feel the meanness and the injustice of sacrificing the reason and does ream of paper come from the liberty of his fellow-men to the indulgence of his physical appetites, and becoming a party to their degradation by the consummation of his own. Such, with those differences only incidental to the age and state of society in which they were promulgated, appear to have been the doctrines of Jesus Christ. It is not too much to assert that they have been the doctrines of every just and compassionate mind that ever speculated on the social nature of man. The dogma of the equality of essay place mankind has been advocated with various success, in different ages of the world. It was imperfectly understood, but a kind of instinct in its favour influenced considerably the practice of ancient Greece and Rome. Attempts to establish usages founded on this dogma have been made in modern Europe, in where does the term, several instances, since the revival of literature and the arts.

Rousseau has vindicated this opinion with all the eloquence of sincere and beowulf an epic essay earnest faith; and is, perhaps, the where of paper come, philosopher among the moderns who, in the structure of his feelings and understanding resembles most nearly the an epic, mysterious sage of Judea. It is does ream of paper from impossible to paper read those passionate words in which Jesus Christ upbraids the pusillanimity and sensuality of mankind, without being strongly reminded of the more connected and does of paper systematic enthusiasm of Rousseau. No man, says Jesus Christ, can serve two masters. Take, therefore, no thought for to-morrow, for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

If we would profit by the wisdom of a sublime and essay etiquette poetical mind, we must beware of the vulgar error of interpreting literally every expression it employs. Nothing can well be more remote from truth than the literal and strict construction of such expressions as Jesus Christ delivers, or than [to imagine that] it were best for man that he should abandon all his acquirements in where does ream of paper, physical and intellectual science, and depend on essay, the spontaneous productions of nature for his subsistence. Nothing is more obviously false than that the remedy for the inequality among men consists in the term ream come, their return to the condition of savages and beasts. Philosophy will never be understood if we approach the study of its mysteries with so narrow and illiberal conceptions of its universality. Rousseau certainly did not mean to persuade the shakespeare essay essays, immense population of his country to abandon all the arts of life, destroy their habitations and their temples, and become the inhabitants of the woods. Does Of Paper Come From? He addressed the most enlightened of his compatriots, and endeavoured to persuade them to set the example of a pure and simple life, by placing in objectives, the strongest point of view his conceptions of the does the term from, calamitous and diseased aspect which, overgrown as it is freud research with the vices of sensuality and where ream come selfishness, is exhibited by civilized society.

Nor can it be believed that Jesus Christ endeavoured to prevail on objectives of value, the inhabitants of Jerusalem neither to till their fields, nor to frame a shelter against the sky, nor to provide food for the morrow. He simply exposes, with the passionate rhetoric of enthusiastic love towards all human beings, the miseries and mischiefs of that system which makes all things subservient to the subsistence of the material frame of man. He warns them that no man can serve two masters—God and Mammon; that it is impossible at once to be highminded and just and wise, and to comply with the accustomed forms of human society, seek power, wealth, or empire, either from the idolatry of habit, or as the direct instruments of sensual gratification. Does The Term Of Paper From? He instructs them that clothing and descriptive place food and shelter are not, as they suppose, the true end of human life, but only certain means, to be valued in proportion to their subserviency to that end. These means it is the right of every human being to possess, and that in the same degree. In this respect, the fowls of the where ream of paper from, air and the lilies of the field are examples for the imitation of mankind. They are clothed and essay etiquette fed by the Universal God. Permit, therefore, the Spirit of this benignant Principle to visit your intellectual frame, or, in other words, become just and pure. When you understand the degree of attention which the requisitions of your physical nature demand, you will perceive how little labour suffices for their satisfaction.

Your Heavenly Father knoweth you have need of the term ream come from these things. The universal Harmony, or Reason, which makes your passive frame of thought its dwelling, in essay etiquette, proportion to the purity and majesty of where ream of paper come its nature will instruct you, if ye are willing to attain that exalted condition, in what manner to possess all the objects necessary for your material subsistence. All men are [impelled] to become thus pure and happy. All men are called to participate in shakespeare essays, the community of Nature's gifts. Where The Term Of Paper From? The man who has fewest bodily wants approaches nearest to the Divine Nature. Satisfy these wants at the cheapest rate, and expend the remaining energies of your nature in the attainment of virtue and knowledge. The mighty frame of the wonderful and lovely world is the food of your contemplation, and living beings who resemble your own nature, and are bound to you by similarity of sensations, are destined to be the nutriment of essay your affection; united, they are the consummation of the widest hopes your mind can contain. Ye can expend thus no labour on mechanism consecrated to luxury and pride. How abundant will not be your progress in where from, all that truly ennobles and essay place my childhood extends human nature!

By rendering yourselves thus worthy, ye will be as free in your imaginations as the swift and many-coloured fowls of the air, and as beautiful in pure simplicity as the where the term ream of paper, lilies of the field. In proportion as mankind becomes wise—yes, in exact proportion to that wisdom—should be the extinction of the unequal system under which they now subsist. Government is, in fact, the mere badge of their depravity. They are so little aware of the inestimable benefits of mutual love as to indulge, without thought, and almost without motive, in the worst excesses of selfishness and malice. Hence, without graduating human society into a scale of empire and paper subjection, its very existence has become impossible. It is necessary that universal benevolence should supersede the regulations of precedent and prescription, before these regulations can safely be abolished.

Meanwhile, their very subsistence depends on the system of where does ream of paper from injustice and violence, which they have been devised to palliate. They suppose men endowed with the power of deliberating and determining for essay etiquette their equals; whilst these men, as frail and as ignorant as the multitude whom they rule, possess, as a practical consequence of this power, the right which they of necessity exercise to prevent (together with their own) the physical and moral and intellectual nature, of all mankind. It is the object of wisdom to equalize the distinctions on which this power depends, by exhibiting in their proper worthlessness the objects, a contention concerning which renders its existence a necessary evil. The evil, in fact, is virtually abolished wherever justice is practised; and it is abolished in precise proportion to the prevalence of true virtue. The whole frame of human things is infected by the term of paper, an insidious poison. Write On Beauty Of Nature? Hence it is that man is blind in his understanding, corrupt in his moral sense, and the term ream of paper come diseased in his physical functions. The wisest and most sublime of the ancient poets saw this truth, and embodied their conception of its value in retrospect to the earliest ages of mankind. They represented equality as the reign of essay my childhood Saturn, and taught that mankind had gradually degenerated from the does from, virtue which enabled them to shakespeare influence essay essays enjoy or maintain this happy state. Their doctrine was philosophically false. Later and more correct observations have instructed us that uncivilized man is the most pernicious and miserable of beings, and that the violence and injustice, which are the genuine indications of where does ream come real inequality, obtain in the society of these beings without palliation.

Their imaginations of a happier state of human society were referred, in truth, to the Saturnian period; they ministered, indeed, to thoughts of despondency and freud paper sorrow. But they were the children of airy hope—the prophets and parents of man's futurity. Come From? Alan was once as a wild beast; he has become a moralist, a metaphysician, a poet, and an astronomer. Lueretius or Viril might have referred the comparison to themselves and, as a proof of the progress of the nature of man, challenged a comparison with the cannibals of Scythia. The experience of the essay place, ages which have intervened between the present period and that in which Jesus Christ taught, tends to where ream prove his doctrine, and to descriptive essay my childhood illustrate theirs. There is more equality because there is more justice, and there is the term ream come more justice because there is more universal knowledge. To the accomplishment of beowulf an epic hero such mighty hopes were the does ream from, views of Jesus Christ extended; such did he believe to be the tendency of influence essay his doctrines—the abolition of artificial distinctions among mankind, so far as the the term ream of paper come from, love which it becomes all human beings to bear towards each other, and the knowledge of truth from which that love will never fail to be produced, avail to their destruction. A young man came to Jesus Christ, struck by the miraculous dignity and simplicity of his character, and attracted by the words of power which he uttered. He demanded to be considered as one of the followers of his creed. Essay Etiquette? Sell all that thou hast, replied the philosopher; give it to the poor, and where the term of paper come from follow me. But the young man had large possessions, and he went away sorrowing.

The system of equality was attempted, after Jesus Christ's death, to be carried into effect by his followers. They that believed had all things in common; they sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need; and they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to shakespeare house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart. ( Acts , Ch. II.) The practical application of the doctrines of strict justice to a state of society established in its contempt, was such as might have been expected. After the transitory glow of enthusiasm had faded from the minds of men, precedent and does ream come habit resumed their empire; they broke like an universal deluge on one shrinking and beowulf hero essay solitary island. Men to whom birth had allotted ample possession looked with complacency on sumptuous apartments and luxurious food, and where does ream from those ceremonials of delusive majesty which surround the throne of power and the court of wealth. Men, from whom these things were withheld by their condition, began again to gaze with stupid envy on pernicious splendour; and, by desiring the false greatness of objectives of value another's state, to sacrifice the intrinsic dignity of their own. The demagogues of the infant republic of the Christian sect, attaining through eloquence or artifice, to influence amongst its members, first violated (under the pretence of watching over their integrity) the institutions established for the common and equal benefit of all. These demagogues artfully silenced the voice of the moral sense among them by engaging them to attend, not so much to the cultivation of a virtuous and happy life in this mortal scene, as to the attainment of a fortunate condition after death; not so much to the consideration of those means by which the state of man is adorned and improved, as an inquiry into does of paper come from, the secrets of the education essays, connexion between God and the world—things which, they well knew, were not to does be explained, or even to be conceived. The system of equality which they established necessarily fell to the ground, because it is a system that must result from, rather than precede, the moral improvement of human kind.

It was a circumstance of no moment that the first adherents of the system of essay etiquette Jesus Christ cast their property into a common stock. Come? The same degree of real community of property could have subsisted without this formality, which served only to extend a temptation of dishonesty to the treasurers of so considerable a patrimony. Every man, in proportion to paper his virtue, considers himself, with respect to the great community of mankind, as the steward and guardian of their interests in the property which he chances to possess. Every man, in proportion to his wisdom, sees the manner in which it is his duty to employ the resources which the consent of mankind has intrusted to his discretion. Such is the [annihilation] of the unjust inequality of powers and where does the term ream come from conditions. existing in the world; and so gradually and inevitably is the progress of equality accommodated to the progress of wisdom and of virtue among mankind. Meanwhile, some benefit has not failed to flow from the influence essay essays, imperfect attempts which have been made to erect a system of equal rights to property and power upon the basis of arbitrary institutions. Where Does Of Paper From? They have undoubtedly, in every case, from the instability of their foundation, failed.

Still, they constitute a record of those epochs at which a trite sense of justice suggested itself to the understandings of men, so that they consented to forego all the cherished delights of luxury, all the habitual gratifications arising out of the possession or the expectation of power, all the superstitions with which the accumulated authority of ages had made them dear and venerable. They are so many trophies erected in descriptive essay place, the enemy's land, to where does of paper come mark the limits of the victorious progress of truth and justice. No mistake is more to be deplored than the conception that a system of morals and religion should derive any portion of its authority either from the circumstance of its novelty or its antiquity, that it should be judged excellent, not because it is reasonable or true, but because no person has ever thought of it before, or because it has been thought of from the beginning of time. The vulgar mind delights to [abstract?] from the most useful maxims or institutions the trite reasons of their preferableness, and to accommodate to the loose inductions of their own indisciplinable minds. Thus mankind is governed by precedents for actions which were never, or are no longer, useful and deluded by the pretensions of any bold impostor. Such has been, most unfortunately, the process of the human mind relatively to the doctrines of essay etiquette Jesus Christ. Where Does Ream? Their original promulgation was authorized by an appeal to the antiquity of the institutions of Judaea; and in vindication of superstitious professing to be founded on them, it is asserted that nothing analogous to their tenor was ever before produced. The doctrines of Jesus Christ have scarcely the my childhood, smallest resemblance to the Jewish law: nor have wisdom and benevolence and pity failed in whatsoever age of the world to generate such persuasions as those which are the basis of the moral system he announced.

The most eminent philosophers of Greece had long been familiarized to the boldest and most sublime speculations on where does the term ream, God, on the visible world, and on the moral and intellectual Nature of Man. The universality and unity of God, the omnipotence of the mind of man, the equality of human beings and the duty of internal purity, is either asserted by Pythagoras, Plato, Diogenes, Zeno, and their followers, or may be directly inferred from their assertions. Nothing would be gained by the establishment of the beowulf, originality of Jesus Christ's doctrines but the casting a suspicion upon its practicability. Let us beware therefore what we admit lest, as some have made a trade of its imagined mysteries, we lose the the term of paper come, inestimable advantages of its simplicity. Let us beware, if we love liberty and truth, if we loathe tyranny and imposture, if, imperfect ourselves, we still aspire to the freedom of internal purity, and cherish the on beauty, elevated hope that mankind may not be everlastingly condemned to the bondage of their own passions and the passions of their fellow beings, let us beware. An established religion turns to come deathlike apathy the sublimest ebullitions of most exalted genius, and essay etiquette the spirit-stirring truths of a mind inflamed with the desire of where does come from benefiting mankind.

It is the characteristic of a cold and tame spirit to imagine that such doctrines as Jesus Christ promulgated are destined to follow the fortunes and essay etiquette share the extinction of a popular religion. Forman's Editorial Preface: The Essay on Christianity was first given by Lady Shelley, in the Shelley Memorials (1859), where it is accompanied by the following note:—The reader will observe some unfinished sentences in the course of this Essay; but it has been thought advisable to print it exactly as it was found, with the exception of a few conjectural words inserted between brackets. In this and other respects the text of the Memorials is here followed; but I have added from the St. James's Magazine for March, 1876, what appears to come from be a part of a recapitulation and conclusion. It is reasonable to think that this would have been further developed; but the final sentences are peculiarly weighty, and likely to be the conclusion of the whole matter. Descriptive Essay Place My Childhood? Mr. Does The Term Ream Of Paper From? Rossetti assigns this Essay, not very confidently, to the year 1815: if that be not the date, I should incline to place it a little later rather than earlier.—H.B.F.

calculated——: It seems likely that it was a part of the scheme of hero essay this Essay to examine and illustrate the where, Beatitudes seriatim . The passage now printed as the conclusion of the Essay occupies a page and a half of a sheet of objectives of value foolscap paper: on the other leaf of the where of paper from, sheet, and not continuously with the rest are written and cancelled the following passages:— I, the Redeemer of mankind; I who dare to. Lament no more ye meek and of value education gentle beings: bear on against the oppressions of the hard and unfeeling world—with resolute and tranquil mind; for in the calmness of your own spirit shall be your reward, and the. him: See Note on this subject, Vol. III, p. 312.

Scythia: Jesus Christ foresaw what the poets retrospectively imagined. [Shelley's Note.] Jesus Christ did not. It is at this point that the where the term of paper come from, Essay ends in the Shelley Memorials . Essay Etiquette? The rest is from the St. The Term From? James's Magazine . superstitions professing. Cancelled reading, a system professing to be founded on these doctrines . produced: Cancelled reading, Let us proceed to vindicate . law: There is another erasure here, The Philosophers of objectives of value essays Greece, and their imitators, the does come, Romans, bear. The: Cancelled reading, The doctrines were speculations of the education essays, most eminent, c. Plato: In the MS., The Platonists and Stoics is here struck out.

practicability: Cancelled passage, It promises , and again, would persuade man not to be tyrant of man . liberty and truth: In the MS., our fellow men is here struck out in favour of liberty and truth . It is the characteristic. Cancelled reading, It is a cold and palsying tame thought . follow the fortunes: In the MS. the words share the fate originally stood here.

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a. Distinguish between the Utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill. This essay was written by an AS candidate. Grade boundaries for AS are (out of 35 marks) 80% + (28/35), 70% + (25/35), 60% + (21/35), grades A,B,C. It is a much better effort than the previous essay on of paper from, utilitarianism on this site. Paper. Here we have part a. and part b., (part a. The Term. 25 marks, part b. Beowulf Essay. 10 marks). Utilitarianism was developed in the 18th century by Hutchenson, who used the phrase “the greatest good for the greatest number” to describe his theory. The promotion of happiness, however, can be found much earlier in history, in the works of Aristotle, in the Bible, in the teachings of Buddha, in does come, the works of Confucius and elsewhere. Hutchenson’s idea of write of nature, Utilitarianism, however, seeks to find a rational means of where does the term, assessing how best to put this promotion of happiness into practice, and is split into two types; Act Utilitarianism is the earliest form, in which what is deemed right is based on the assessment of results of a particular action, and Rule Utilitarianism, which allows to be taken into account the essay etiquette general benefit to society that occurs when people follow general rules.

A good, clear introduction, giving precise definititions of key terms (see the Glossary on the site!). There is also the preference utilitarianism of Peter Singer. However, if you look back at the question, the first four lines aren’t really relevant, as the question only asks you to where the term of paper come from discuss Bentham and Mill! Bentham and Mill each argued respectively for these types of Utilitarianism, and thus their beliefs differ.Bentham was born in London at objectives a time of where the term of paper from, great scientific and social change. He argued for Act Utilitarianism, and maintained that human beings were motivated by pleasure and by pain. Beowulf Essay. He believed that everyone had an equal right to happiness, irrespective of their situation or status in life and argued that everyone counted equally in the assessment of the benefits of an where does come, action.

He believed that overall, this would also benefit the individual who did so and this would lead to that person’s greatest happiness as well. His theory is democratic as pleasure cannot be for one person and one person alone. You bring out two key points rather well: that utilitarianism is rationalistic (para 1) and that it is democratic (each to count as one, and no-one as more than one), thus providing the basis for radical social reform. Bentham wrote down his beliefs in his major work, ‘The principles of morals and essay etiquette legislation’, written in1789, which is divided into three sections; The motivation of human beings and does come from the concept of good and bad – “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we shall do, as well as to determine what we shall do.” ; The Principle of shakespeare influence, Utility -The greatest good for the greatest number (The most useful course of ream of paper, action if trying to maximise pleasure and minimize pain and in a given situation, one must examine the consequential pain/pleasure resultant for all concerned.) ; and lastly, his Hedonic Calculus – this weighs up the pain and pleasure generated by the available moral actions to find the place my childhood best option.

It asks us to consider ( s ) several factors: c. Certainty or uncertainty. d. Of Paper From. Nearness or remoteness. I would prefer to see the hedonic calculus applied with an example which brings out some of the beowulf hero problems with this sort of idea. If the probable pain of an action outweighs its pleasure then Bentham says that it is morally wrong. He believed that this was the does the term of paper way of shakespeare influence essay, calculating happiness as a result of the course of an action and by this he was making the basis of deciding whether an action should be considered right or wrong.

Also implied in Bentham’s views, Mill argued that not all forms of where the term of paper, happiness or pleasure were of equal value. This isn’t expressed very clearly: you mean, Bentham implied any pleasure is of equal value eg pushpin is equal to poetry, whereas Mill, who had a nervous breakdown at the age of 23, was saved by reading Wordsworth eg Intimations of Immortality and so, from his superior vantage point, saw pleasures as higher and lower. Write An Essay Of Nature. He recognised that it was easy to settle for the more immediate and sensual pleasures rather than the nobler and perhaps more refined ones. Mill criticised Bentham for focussing morality on pleasure alone, which seemed rather base to him. Thus, he decided to introduce a theory of utility for the common person , which replaced pleasure with happiness and moved away from mere quantity to the quality of happiness as well. Although he believed that the wellbeing of the individual was of primary concern, happiness is where the term of paper from, best achieved when it is subject to the rules that protect the common good. For Mill, happiness was defined as something which is cultural and spiritual rather than just physical, and paper he distinguished between lower pleasures and higher pleasures. He famously wrote “It is better to be a human being satisfied than a pig satisfied, better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.” Mill recognised that there were different ways of assessing the value of happiness and was keen to link his theory with Jesus’ teachings. Where Does The Term Ream Come. He did this by claiming that to ‘Love your neighbour as yourself’ constitutes the ideal perfection of utilitarian morality. Mill, unlike Bentham, suggested a positive place for rules within an overall utilitarianist approach, and thus believed in Rule Utilitarianism.

He argued that society needs the basic principles such as truthfulness for without people telling the truth then nobody can be happy. Thus, he argued, general rules should be obeyed as they give overall benefit to society. However, they may be broken in exceptional circumstances and consequently Mill argued there was strong and weak rule utilitarianism; Strong Utilitarianism is one where one should never break a rule that is established, and Weak Utilitarianism is one where there may be situations when the beowulf an epic hero assessment of the rules in a particular case of a particular act may take precedence over the general rule. Why not quote Mill directly? It’s not too difficult to find a few quotes…and learn them. It increases the sense that you know what Mill actually said. This is good stuff, but not very clearly presented as the ideas come thick and fast. If you’re reading these comments, I strongly advise you to read Mill for yourself, available here on the site. Go to the final section of his essay and does ream read the part on Justice and research Utility. I think it’s the best part of the of paper Essay and descriptive essay place presents the case for where ream rule utilitarianism. Write An Essay On Beauty. An outstanding student will want to read all philosophers in where does of paper come, their own words.

Mill and Bentham each believe in their own type of Utilitarianism and have their own theories. Bentham, on the one hand, focuses on pleasure whereas Mill focuses on happiness. Similarly, in shakespeare essays, the search to maximise happiness, Bentham is concerned for the individual alone, but Mill suggests we should protect a common good. Although both theories are atheistic, Bentham suggests a means for quantitive pleasure with his Hedonic Calculus, but Mill suggests qualitative views with higher or lower pleasures. I like the clear style of your writing, and you cover the main points of the two versions very well. 21/25 for part a.

b. Explain the major weaknesses of Utilitarianism as a way of determining right and wrong. Utilitarianism may not necessarily result in where, happiness as happiness is a personal choice. Something that makes one person happy may not make another happy. T his isn’t very clear. Better to of nature argue that happiness is a byproduct of doing or being something rather than a thing you can pursue in its own right. In Utilitarianism it may be that the person who decides whether an act is right or wrong is biased in some way and thus this would result in unhappiness. Where The Term Come. The act of deciding the right- or wrongness of an essay etiquette, act is in where does the term ream of paper come from, itself an an essay on beauty of nature, act and somebody must therefore decide if the decision to where ream of paper make an act right is right and thus a circular argument is essay, created.

However, there are different weaknesses for Bentham and Mill’s separate theories. Bentham’s theory has problems when the the term of paper come number of shakespeare influence essay, offenders outnumbers the victim. For example, if there were a group of rapists planning to attack one woman, then according to Bentham’s Hedonic Calculus the offenders’ pleasure would outweigh the woman’s pain and thus make the attack justifiable. As in Bernard Williams’ famous Jim and the Indians example, see handout on the site. This is known as the Swine Ethic. Also, it is not possible to does the term ream of paper come know when consequences should stop being considered. Consequences are not really measurable as we do not know how far the consequences will reach or when we can stop taking them into account.

Also, in Bentham’s theory there is no protection for minority groups; as with the victim and offender example, if a whole community were fighting to banish a small group of gypsies from land It’s always excellent to objectives education produce your own examples, and the news is full of examples like this (or use clips from films and describe them briefly) that nobody owned and that the gypsies were actually looking after, then by the Hedonic Calculus, the gypsies should be made to go no matter how much they were actually making the come from ground better. Similarly, Mill’s theory has its own weaknesses. Three in fact a lot of people in history have criticised utilitarianism, the most recent philosopher who wrote extensively was Bernard Williams. An extract from his obituary is on the site. people have publicly shown these weaknesses and the first was Sidgwick who suggested that “In practice it is shakespeare essay essays, hard to distinguish between higher and lower pleasures”. This brings to the front the subjectivity of “pleasure”, as what is where the term of paper come, pleasurable for one person is by no means necessarily pleasurable for another. The second weakness was noted by WD Ross who argued that “Single-factor” moral theories don’t work because life is too complex. He suggested that we have “prima facie” duties. For example, if a person had to choose who to save and the choice was their son or a man with the cure to an essay on beauty of nature AIDS, then the answer would be the son because their prima facie duty is to him. Furthermore, as RM Hare noted, you would still have to tell the truth to a mad axe man if a common rule of telling the of paper come truth was to be obeyed, and essay etiquette it would also still be possible to justify slavery as the rights of minority groups are still not protected. Bentham’s Utilitarianism is a type of Act Utilitarianism. It is a teleological, relative and consequential argument that uses the outcomes of an does the term, action to assess whether it is right or wrong and thus there are no necessary moral rules except one; that we should always seek to achieve the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.

For this type of Utilitarianism, it is difficult to beowulf an epic predict the where come from consequences as there is write, a potential to justify any act, defining pleasure itself is subjective to the person who is asked, there is where the term from, no defence for the minorities and it is research, impractical to suggest that we should calculate the morality of each choice that every single person on the world ever makes. On the other hand, Mill’s Utilitarianism is often linked to does the term of paper from Rule Utilitarianism, and the belief that rules should be formed using Utilitarian principles for the benefit of the whole society. This itself has weaknesses. Essay Etiquette. For example, similar to Bentham, it is difficult to does the term of paper predict the consequences of every action that could occur. Also, there is essay, a difficulty in defining what constitutes happiness as this would differ depending on who you asked. Once again, there is ream of paper, no defence for the minorities. Couldn’t you argue for a rule defending minority rights on grounds of general utility, because I can’t be sure I won’t be in a minoriy on hero, some issue some time?

Eg free speech, free association, rights to demonstrate could all be defended (as Mill himself would have done) on grounds of social utility. Although Mill and Kant are often placed at opposite ends of a deontological and teleological spectrum, it’s surprising how close rule utilitarianism comes to where does the term come Kantian ethics, and an epic essay Mill did in fact argue that “do to others as you would have them do to ream come from you” was the classic utilitarian rule. (Recall it is very close to the first formulation of the Categorical Imperative, universalisability…see my handout on Kant). In general, Utilitarianism is weak as it is difficult to predict consequences, as the theory disregards motivation and descriptive essay place my childhood goodwill, as it suggests that the where ream of paper come majority is always right which causes issues when the Nazis are the majority, and it does not protect the minorities. In general the single criterion for morality is far too simplistic to deal with the essay etiquette complexity of life. Not sure I like the conclusion much! It’s a bit limp, and doesn’t explain the enduring appeal of utilitarianism to people as easy to understand and does the term of paper from apply, and so creating a basis for much social legislation (think of the essay etiquette 1967 Abortion Act!). Nonetheless, this is good part b and deserves 8/10, giving you overall 29/35, and an A grade. PMB November 2008. Have you got an essay you’d like me to ream of paper come mark and post? It has to descriptive place my childhood be A grade standard (so I can tell you how to where ream of paper from reach perfection, but also so you have something to compare with when you write your answers).

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