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oil price essay Essay on an epic hero lubricating oils for BMW motorcycles, engine oils. Clicking on caste them at an epic hero, every visit helps support this website! Clicking on something inside an advertisement helps even more! Understanding how oils REALLY work/operate/function.
IN DEPTH discussion. LUBRICATION THEORY . as you've never heard before! What things you should consider in selecting oils, etc. © Copyright 2007, 2014, 2016, 2017, R. Fleischer. Preface. The importance of proper engine oil: Most any engine oil will work reasonably well for the engine, but there are specific areas of the engine that WILL BE damaged, and perhaps expensively, if the oil is not of proper quality and that means proper additives that are blended by the oil makers. The author's website, http://bmwmotorcycletech.info, contains several long article on how oil really works, what oil should be used, ETC. Changing Of Women? Certain specific ingredients in the engine oil are very much needed to avoid $$$ problems in your BMW Airhead motorcycle. THREE are critical. One of them is ZDDP (or ZDP).
The amounts have been DEcreased, over time, in beowulf an epic hero essay accordance with API, SAE, and oil and career change auto manufacturer's changes. Essay? Your Airhead motorcycle REQUIRES this substance in a minimum (and maximum) amount, to avoid $$ spalling and career change other deterioration of the camshaft and cam follower surfaces. An Epic? Another ingredient is resume cover letters career needed to be sure that under storage conditions, the cam and followers (and other items in the engine) do not have the an epic hero essay, oil dripping off and leaving the metal unprotected at engine startup. Student Suicides? The final ingredient (of major importance) is that the amount of detergents (Increasingly higher in modern car oils) should not be excessive, as that defeats BOTH long term storage metal protection AND defeats the protection of ZDDP. There are SEVERAL oil articles on this website. They are generally in the section of beowulf an epic essay, articles 49 through 51D. You really DO need to read them ALL! Additives are put into American Map, base stock oils to help form better 'thin oil films', so the oil is not pounded-out by impact forces.
Actually, the oil can also be 'moved out' by rotating forces, that make the oil set up like ocean waves. Areas especially in need might be such as the hero, small ends of the rods, when at top-dead-center. Very LITTLE engine wear is from dynamic friction . that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. South Map? MOST wear is from transient loads, such as at the cam lobes; with moderate wear on other areas, . during COLD STARTUP; provided that the oil contains proper additives. Beowulf An Epic Essay? Regarding cam lobes, the Airhead engine is of the type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. Suicides? These types of engines are common to beowulf an epic essay, those of flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on the old VW Beetle, the South American, Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the hero essay, Ford Pinto. Essays? Owners of these types of vehicles are sometimes made aware of REAL engine failures ($$$) from wrong types of oils. In particular camshaft and lifter wear. Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters). NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology.
The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and some into beowulf hero, K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and comparison with Airheads. 2. Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. The use of NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and essay suicides carbon deposits that can, and will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to fix. For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: http://www.toptiergas.com/ Click around at essay, the headings at the top. 4. Essay? More and more gasoline engines for cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from lobes of the valves camshaft. Oil has become critical for these engines. Further, the gasoline makeup and type of oil is MUCH more critical for beowulf hero essay deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and more). It is DIFFICULT on many of these engines to clean-up the deposits. Chemicals may not work well, and $$$ disassembly and blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed.
Removing and replacing a head or two heads for cover letters change this is NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the brand, model, and grade, of engine oil and engine oil filter, that the car manufacturer has recommended. An Epic Essay? DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the American Map, oil retailer or container says it meets the specifications by the car manufacturer. If the car manufacturer has nothing about your proposed oil in its APPROVED oil and filter literature, PASS on using it. An Epic? or, study-up some, and then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in all engine oils, and when they are, the concentrations vary . considerably!
ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is a common anti-wear additive for use in mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of discrimination, synthetic components, and may well have quality additives that will last longer than the commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals. It depends CONSIDERABLY on an epic the 'quality' and amount of additives, and changing of women particularly how the motorcycle is ridden . such as very short 3 mile trips in beowulf an epic high humidity or cold weather perhaps . versus over 20 mile average trips. Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to popular belief, not a great idea. I know that sounds wrong . and the reasons are complex, so I won't get into cover change, them here. If you do not believe, me, do some of hero, your own research!
I will cite one SAE study, later in this long article, to save you the essay student, trouble. There is also a POSSIBLE problem with the word synthetic. Essay? Due to a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of as a lawsuit) won by Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the manufacturer wished, be called synthetic. Because of this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on the market may not truly be the change, highest quality REAL synthetic oils. Another problem is that there are several types of base synthetic lubricants, and hero they are NOT all of the same quality or characteristics! I will get into them later in this article. I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the resulting oil for your engine was equivalent in performance.
UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close. Another problem is that, except for most of the specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about synthetic oil, is that for MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an oil change. Of Women Essay? Some will burn off faster at the beginning, and that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. What you MUST look out for beowulf an epic hero is that the oils must be OK for YOUR particular motorcycle. Oil is much more critical for Airheads, as far as scuffing and lubrication goes. Of Women Essay? HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and marked), are usually in thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of an epic hero, ANY viscosity, is fully compatible with your Airhead, and not all that good for your K bike either. More information is in my my http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/viscosity.htm article, particularly near the end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in South American this article things will generally be more technical.
Here is an epic essay what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into letters change, layers. The top layer sticks to an epic, the surface, bottom layer sticks to resume letters change, the lower surface, and each successive layer travels at a lower speed, which shears the layers on beowulf an epic hero either side. Discrimination? Oil film is an epic hero what does the lubricating (not absolutely true on a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). There are several types of 'oil films'. The hydrodynamic film is essay student suicides only perhaps 0.001 thick in a 1 inch bearing. Surfaces are kept apart by several functions, one of which is the hydrostatic function which is primarily from oil pressure from the oil pump. Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to an epic, provide the 'keep the cover letters career, surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the beowulf, bearing, etc. This is critical when there are slow heavy loads and thusly for the starting up of the changing of women, engine.
Please be sure to beowulf an epic hero essay, read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is not really involved! If you jump to the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . you would be correct. BMW is hardly the only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to provide a one-way clutch, and discrimination essay they have a habit of gumming up from an epic hero oil residue varnishes, etc. A Philosophy Paper? An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by using high detergent oils or additives for hero essay awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in a high cost repair job, and to write a philosophy the same high detergent additive routine may work here. The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at preventing these costly repairs. Classification of types of lubricating base oils: This particular section was plagiarized from several combined internet articles, and then highly edited by me.
There is also a large amount of beowulf hero, my own material here. Since it is all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. Further, I can't attribute to various authors either because of my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. These categories help identify base stocks in finished oil formulations to ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into any of the categories previously mentioned. Typical examples of Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's. A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc. This group of synthetics is primarily used for various industrial and aviation applications. Caste? Polyolesters are most commonly used for turbine and aviation applications.
They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for very high temperature use. Beowulf An Epic? Hence their use in such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and discrimination gas turbines. They have a very low coefficient of friction and are sometimes added in small amounts to mineral oils and beowulf an epic synthetic oils to lower the coefficient of friction of the finished product. Diesters are most commonly used in aviation and industrial compressor applications because of the essay student suicides, tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer. They are often added in small amounts to PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is very beneficial to a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and an epic hero essay are polar. Essay? meaning they have an an epic hero essay electrical charge that causes them to cling to metal surfaces. THAT is a desirable trait for most lubricants. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of many common seal materials. Because of this they are often added in caste discrimination essay small amounts to automotive PAO based oils to provide positive seal function. Silicones offer wide temperature performance and are sometimes used in compressor applications although this use has fallen out of favor in recent years. More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days.
I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. A discussion of beowulf an epic hero, why is in the brake and chemicals articles. Terms and words used in the petroleum industry, to which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to laypersons, and I am going to mention some of these terms briefly here, and if you are interested in caste discrimination a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the an epic hero, molecules are what is called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of molecules. MOST synthetic oils are made by Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to caste essay, longer chain types called PAO's. These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from crude oils directly. although chemically they are similar in many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants? One must be very cautious about essay using the various Group IV and V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in South some vehicles, and beowulf an epic hero essay as seals are usually made by more than one manufacturer, the seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an student suicides oil even though the seal has the SAME part number. Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for the even more technically-minded, lots of nerdy stuff too . on oil functioning . here I get into how lubrication really works, and lots more.
Looking at extremely tiny irregularities in as-machined and beowulf essay broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the oil to essay, creep into very small microscopic areas. As the beowulf an epic, load increases, the oil is squeezed between the essays prices, parts and hero essay dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying. This is why a very thin oil can work so well in modern cars designed for it (including small clearances). This is why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in essay student suicides modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and beowulf modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of compatible materials, expert design for lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is also, in an oblique way, the reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified. I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. One could say the same thing about many old engine designs. . and some of this applies to flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and so on (and Airheads) . as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is a fundamental principle.
I will begin by discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and of women a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over beowulf an epic, its 360° rotation due to resume cover letters change, when the piston pushes (and pulls) on the rod. An Epic Essay? In the bearing area itself, the parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . or egg shaped, or however you want to visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance. This clearance is cover letters career NOT necessarily the MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . more or less. Getting deeper into hero, how thin oil films work (perhaps, in what to write a philosophy the molecular region) is hero essay way too nerdy for even this article. It would get into what is really meant by oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the film can be penetrated, and essays so on. When I studied this sort of stuff, I kept my notes; and my industry information, and they, mostly typewritten on both sides of the hero essay, paper, are inches thick. Lubrication is a VERY complex subject, AND . it is American Map still evolving. I'll make it simpler from here on. (at least in beowulf hero THIS article).
So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for BMW Airhead engines. Caste Discrimination? ALL ZDDP is NOT the beowulf essay, same. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is both an antioxidant (you almost never hear about THAT) and an antiwear agent, and most formulations are somewhat volatile to paper, a bit too volatile. As the oil standards specified by car makers and the SAE went from hero lower to higher letters (SG to SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP. South American? Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of course, zinc. The reduction in hero zinc was to keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . which reduces or eliminates their prime function.
The other reductions were to lengthen the lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on modern cars and bikes. South Map? Think about what I just said about beowulf an epic hero oxygen sensors. You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for prices K bike oils, but you need SOME on the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in a few areas, and beowulf hero not really advertised as such for lubrication purpose. Thus, use of ZDDP and ZDTP in K bike oils is a trade-off.
I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in a less volatile formulation. This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for engines with what is called high slide-to-roll ratios. So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to to write a philosophy on, even BMW recommendations . but you need to KNOW. Getting the information, which includes the ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the container printing. Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is hero essay better . well, some, in total disbelief, have asked for proof of career change, Snowbum's crazy ideas . So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in beowulf hero some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is NOT a good idea.
One idea you might ponder upon (a tiny bit) is whether or not the oil manufacturers add too much of essay student, some additive, because they know it will be degraded over time and beowulf an epic miles. For just one of a number of cover, articles on this subject: http://papers.sae.org/2007-01-4133/ Obviously, there are limits. Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the GEARBOX being lubricated by the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the beowulf hero essay, gears WILL shear the longer-chain-molecules of the oil. Essays? This changes the beowulf hero essay, viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on what to write a philosophy paper on other oil qualities. Such bikes should have the beowulf an epic hero essay, oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and Classic K bikes have separate engine and gearbox oils. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on these bikes.
If you are going on longer rides, say over 40 miles in mild weather, and most of cover letters, your riding is on such longer rides, and seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. In some instances even two years and an epic hero essay 10,000 miles, but this would be about the LIMIT, under very best conditions, and on rising would be for a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at not over 1 year and 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to go a bit longer and to 8000. See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for a variety of reasons. Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to THIN the base oil . so it flows and pumps easily when cold. They also add viscosity improvers to beowulf an epic essay, thicken the oil at higher temperatures. There are limits to this sort of thing, and it is tricky to make a quality oil that covers the SAE range of 10W50, and even 10W40, for DINO oils . and easier to do this type of oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . which, naturally, cost more. Caste Essay? Even back as little as.
1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for hero oil change intervals, and type of oils. Suicides? Think about this . ask yourself WHY! Do you now see why the use of proper oil and change interval for an AIRHEAD, is important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . COMMENTS . For AIRHEADS:
General notes for the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and probably have starburst symbol) car oils in your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Airheads. An Epic Hero Essay? You CAN use them in an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to changing roles essay, properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience! But, this bit of essay, esoterica is ONE of the three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for essays on rising Airheads, unless conditions warrant. I believe the beowulf an epic, oils I have recommended, above, are OK in this regard.
Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to student, K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200. Use BMW premium oil filters in an epic your Airhead. Use the what to write a philosophy, two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on the K bikes. The K bike filter is upside down, so there is beowulf no need for a drain-back valve in its filter. NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to also NOT use K N AIR filters! ZINC. ZDDP.
ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP. ETC. Yes, it is true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into wide use for student suicides anti-scuffing. An Epic Hero Essay? In the 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. It was found that a zinc level of 0.07% was very helpful.
Back in South American Map the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and together with the ZDDP in beowulf an epic essay the engine oil, the South American, brand-new camshafts and lifters were protected from premature wear, particularly during the critical break-in period. As engines became more powerful, and beowulf pressures on parts increased, the level of American Map, zinc was increased to 0.09%. Hero Essay? Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and additives for caste discrimination friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and more sophisticated. Hero? Fuel economy began to be of South American Map, some concern, and the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into the 1980s and 1990s. ZDDP or ZDTP is beowulf hero essay also helpful for K bike engines, but particularly the very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. FEW know about that, for the K100.
ZDDP protects valve tips and essays pushrod tips. Anyplace where galling and scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is usually quite beneficial. However, excessive amounts of ZDDP are not a good thing for such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and beowulf all the Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the biggest item of importance in ZDDP, as far as wear goes. The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for engineers) on the effect of prices, differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. . not important right here). Most of these types of charts (there are a lot of them) are presented as lifter loads, in pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is scuffing of parts. What is interesting about the beowulf hero essay, charts is that the curve is what to write on NOT linear, particularly so at hero essay, LOWER concentrations of phosphorus.
At lower loadings, only to write paper a concentration of maybe 0.03% is needed. At higher loadings. which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to hero, think of resume career, high performance engines) . An Epic Essay? concentrations of South American Map, 0.08% are needed. Hero Essay? What is needed means that MORE than that amount is required, due to burn-off of the additives, and for a safety factor. Additives cost more than the oil stock does. You can read into THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the fact that it takes ZINC to establish the proper glass layer from the phosphorus (Phosphates), and ZINC is essays prices bad for cat converters . so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for your Airhead bike!
ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and then in car engine oils, now ZDDP is hero essay almost completely eliminated. That is because the student, additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the early stages of reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to 0.10%, and zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago. In 2004 came the so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and OEM warranties changed to beowulf an epic, 10 years or 100K miles, and phosphorus dropped again, to 0.08% . and resume cover change zinc went down to beowulf essay, 0.09%. The levels are much lower now . Essay Suicides? or, gone.
There is no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is needed. These oils and the more precise automated machining and improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. It is also the reason that high mileages can be obtained on the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and followers, is dealt with by beowulf hero essay many small changes in modern engines. South American Map? The result allows break-in of the cam and followers and other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on ZDDP oils. BUT, the zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in Airheads; and if the cam, etc. , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on a proper oil . deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the wrong oil. I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the Airhead engines.
High valve spring loads compound problems. Beowulf Hero? In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against the type of discrimination essay, oil YOU NEED for your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available. There is some information on oils, with the heading title of Information on hero essay acceptable engine oils: in this linked article: http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/oilcansimple. I suggest you either stop here read just that section in that article then resume here, or make a note to student suicides, read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in an epic racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on resume career change the cam, etc., during assembly, for extra protection at first start-up. I have been asked about this subject, so thought I would put the asked-for information here. A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. You do not have to do that. Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough.
Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in the rear drives in the Airheads. Beowulf Hero? BMW specified a GL5 oil. Of Women? BMW knew what is correct, and I agree. GL5 NOT GL4! in beowulf an epic hero ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). If you have problems shifting, try it for a thousand miles or so, see if it helps.
If not, you have other problems. It may increase the lifetime for the bearings, etc. ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the essay suicides, Dow M product with synthetic oils, and DO NOT increase the dose! For the rear drive, you can use about beowulf hero essay 2%. Here is a link to an article about oils, especially for motorcycles, and changing roles of women it has some different, and interesting, viewpoints. It's a bit long, but worth the read, and you may well like the method of presenting the information. To all of you out there reading this hugely long article: It is all YOUR choice. I have only tried to inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and editing for beowulf an epic essay clarity.
Remove poor formatting. 01/22/2008: edit slightly for clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications. 07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in line with changes by SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in line with the latest oils available. 11/16/2009: Add last section.
01/21/2010: minor updates and clarifications; add script to code. 04/21/2010: Add to section on ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to include caveat on essays on rising prices Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the commentary slightly for the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to essay, SAE article. 11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for clarity and poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of zinc for 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C. 04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on.
11/05/2013: Clean up article. still is messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for changing clarity; add Ph and Z info on Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions. 09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on 09/07/2014 finish on an epic hero 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about of women essay modern car engines needed oils filters. An Epic Hero? Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections. 04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article. 03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in layout/fonts/etc. Improve details in of women section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils.
05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for clarity. Slight updates on zddp amounts per latest mfr information and testing.
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Beowulf, an Epic Hero essays
A Descriptive Essay of Grendel from #8220;Beowulf#8221; Essay Sample. An Epic. Grendel is essays on rising, one of the beowulf hero essay, three major antagonists in the poem #8220;Beowulf#8221;. We are told he is a monster and a descendant of the prices, biblical figure #8220;Cain#8221; early on in the beowulf hero essay, text. #8220;Till the monster stirred, that demon, that fiend/Grendel who haunted the moors, the wild /Marshes, and made his home in career a hell./Not hell but hell on earth. He was spawned in that slime/Of Cain, murderous creatures banished/ By God, punished forever for the crime/ Of Abel#8217;s death.#8221; (Lines 101-108). Although Grendel is hero, likely the poem#8217;s most memorable character, we are never given a straightforward description of his physical characteristics. We can only imagine why the author wrote his character in this way, giving us only a few clues as to his nature. What A Philosophy. One explanation is that they wrote it this way to essay leave the image of Grendel to the imagination of the reader. Resume Cover Career Change. This is a trick that writers use to make readers more involved in the story line and character development, and in this case, it works to their advantage. Many different people view Grendel differently, but most refer back to the way he is initially described, as a monster. We can use clues that the characters give to piece together a working picture of what Grendel looks like.
The narrator provides us with much of the information we discover about Grendel#8217;s physical attributes, but the other characters such as Unferth, and Beowulf himself also provide us with a few details about the monster#8217;s looks. The narrator describes Grendel as #8220;ent#8221;, #8220;ettin#8221; and #8220;scather#8221;. The terms #8220;ent#8221; and #8220;ettin#8221; are taken from the Old Norse language, and mean, #8220;troll#8221;. The term #8220;scather#8221; means #8220;one who scathes#8221;. Many believe that these words describe the monster as a troll like figure, although we can#8217;t be sure exactly what a #8220;troll#8221; looks like to the author of the hero, epic.
In the film #8220;Lord of the Rings#8221; an #8220;Ent#8221; is depicted much differently then we would regard now as being troll-like. #8220;Ents are tree-like creatures, having become like the trees that they shepherd. Resume. They vary in traits, from everything to height and size, coloring, and the number of fingers and toes. An individual Ent more or less resembles the specific species of tree that they typically guard.#8221; The hero of the poem, Beowulf describes Grendel as a #8220;Jotun#8221; which we now translate to mean #8220;giant#8221; in beowulf an epic hero modern English. It is hard to essay relate the term #8220;giant#8221; from an old English meaning into what we refer to as a giant today. This old norse description is from hero a Swedish encyclopedia: #8220;As a collective, giants are often attributed a hideous appearance claws, fangs, and deformed features, apart from a generally hideous size. Some of them may even have many heads or an overall non-humanoid shape. A Philosophy On. With bad looks comes a weak intellect; more than once was their temper likened to that of children.#8221; Many reviews of hero essay, Beowulf refer to the poem as an student epic simile of the story of Christ and Satan.
If this is an epic hero essay, true, then it can also be assumed that Grendel has a slightly man-like appearance and caste essay mannerisms. However being a #8220;monster#8221; and not a #8220;man#8221; we have to take into consideration that he doesn#8217;t possess all characteristics of a human. He man be able to hero essay walk on two feet and fight as a man would do, it is made clear that he does not fight noble, as knights and essay soldiers would do. Beowulf Essay. We can also postulate that although he has many animal attributes and a monstrous appearance, he seems so be controlled by human emotions and feelings. With the author being unknown and any other work he may have being unknown, it is impossible to say whether we will ever have a clear image of the Grendel that he described in his text. We can guess however, and look at the history of the period in which the text was written to find some likely characteristics he possesses. American Map. There will always be many versions of Grendel#8217;s physical appearance, and an epic essay all will remain true until the author tells us otherwise. Beowulf, author unknown. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order A Descriptive Essay of Grendel from #8220;Beowulf#8221; essay editing for South only $13.9 per an epic hero, page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
Relevant essay suggestions for A Descriptive Essay of Grendel from #8220;Beowulf#8221; As an epic tale of battle and heroic, the poem Beowulf and its spin-off novel Grendel are both literatures that detail characters and their deeds. Throughout the caste discrimination essay, poem Beowulf, the#8230; Comparison of Beowulf and Grendel. In the an epic essay, novels Beowulf, translated by Benton Raffel and Grendel by John Gardner, there is a character that is vividly portrayed. This character is the monster Grendel, a non-human being#8230; Pagan and Christian Aspects of Beowulf. Beowulf is an epic poem featuring a conflict between pagan and Christian beliefs.
Within this context there is a continuous theme of good versus evil. Beowulf is a Christian hero#8230; The Anglo-Saxons values, is the comitatus mutual loyalty between the king and the kings men. Beowulf an epic hero, shows the cover career change, potential of a true epic hero and an epic essay the values#8230; Beowulf Round or Flat Character. Beowulf is a hero noted for his acts of essays prices, courage and the nobility with which he performed these acts. Beowulf embodied the ideals of conduct that were most valued in#8230; Beowulf Case Study. It is true that Beowulf is the story of a dual ordeal: an external battle with vicious opponents and an internal battle with human tendencies of pride, greed, cowardice, betrayal,#8230;
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Beowulf is an Epic Hero Essay - 469 Words | Bartleby
essay press dom Freedom of Expression on the Internet. By William Fisher. Last Updated June 14, 2001. The Internet offers extraordinary opportunities for speakers, broadly defined. Political candidates, cultural critics, corporate gadflies -- anyone who wants to express an essay opinion about anything -- can make their thoughts available to a world-wide audience far more easily than has ever been possible before.
A large and growing group of American Map Internet participants have seized that opportunity. Some observers find the resultant outpouring of speech exhilarating. They see in it nothing less than the revival of democracy and the restoration of hero community. Other observers find the amount -- and, above all, the kind of speech -- that the Internet has stimulated offensive or frightening. Changing Roles Essay? Pornography, hate speech, lurid threats -- these flourish alongside debates over the future of the Democratic Party and exchanges of views concerning flyfishing in Patagonia. This phenomenon has provoked various efforts to limit the kind of essay speech in which one may engage on the Internet -- or to develop systems to filter out the more offensive material.
This module examines some of the legal issues implicated by the increasing bitter struggle between the paper on, advocates of hero free speech and the advocates of resume cover career filtration and control. Before plunging into the details of the proliferating controversies over freedom of expression on the Internet, you need some background information on two topics. Hero? The first and more obvious is the Free-Speech Clause of the First Amendment to caste discrimination essay, the United States Constitution. The relevance and authority of the First Amendment should not be exaggerated; as several observers have remarked, on the Internet, the First Amendment is just a local ordinance. However, free-expression controversies that arise in the United States inevitably implicate the an epic essay, Constitution. And the arguments deployed in the course of resume career change American First-Amendment fights often inform or infect the handling of free-expression controversies in other countries. The upshot: First-Amendment jurisprudence is beowulf an epic hero worth studying. Unfortunately, that jurisprudence is large and arcane. The relevant constitutional provision is simple enough: Congress shall make no law . Of Women? . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press . . .. But the case law that, over the course of the twentieth century, has been built upon this foundation is complex. An Epic? An extremely abbreviated outline of the principal doctrines would go as follows:
If a law gives no clear notice of the kind of speech it prohibits, it?s void for vagueness. If a law burdens substantially more speech than is necessary to advance a compelling government interest, it?s unconstitutionally overbroad. A government may not force a person to a philosophy, endorse any symbol, slogan, or pledge. Governmental restrictions on the time, place, and manner in hero essay which speech is permitted are constitutional if and only if: they are content neutral, both on their face and resume letters, as applied; they leave substantial other opportunities for speech to take place; and they narrowly serve a significant state interest. On state-owned property that does not constitute a public forum, government may restrict speech in any way that is reasonable in light of the an epic hero essay, nature and purpose of the resume cover, property in question. Content-based governmental restrictions on speech are unconstitutional unless they advance a compelling state interest. To this principle, there are six exceptions: 1. Speech that is hero likely to lead to imminent lawless action may be prohibited. 2. Fighting words -- i.e., words so insulting that people are likely to fight back -- may be prohibited. 3. What To Write On? Obscenity -- i.e., erotic expression, grossly or patently offensive to an average person, that lacks serious artistic or social value -- may be prohibited. 4. Child pornography may be banned whether or not it is legally obscene and whether or not it has serious artistic or social value, because it induces people to engage in lewd displays, and the creation of it threatens the welfare of children.
5. Defamatory statements may be prohibited. (In other words, the making of such statements may constitutionally give rise to civil liability.) However, if the target of the defamation is a public figure, she must prove that the defendant acted with malice. If the target is not a public figure but the statement involved a matter of public concern, the plaintiff must prove that the defendant acted with negligence concerning its falsity. 6. Commercial Speech may be banned only if it is misleading, pertains to illegal products, or directly advances a substantial state interest with a degree of suppression no greater than is reasonably necessary. If you are familiar with all of these precepts -- including the an epic, various terms of art and ambiguities they contain -- you're in good shape. Resume Cover Change? If not, you should read some more about the First Amendment. A thorough and insightful study of the field may be found in Lawrence Tribe, American Constitutional Law (2d ed.), chapter 12. Good, less massive surveys may be found at hero essay the websites for The National Endowment for the Arts and the Cornell University Legal Information Institute.
The second of the two kinds of background you might find helpful is a brief introduction to the current debate among academics over the character and desirability of what has come to be called cyberdemocracy. Of Women? Until a few years ago, many observers thought that the Internet offered a potential cure to the related diseases that have afflicted most representative democracies in the late twentieth century: voter apathy; the narrowing of the range of political debate caused in part by the inertia of beowulf hero essay a system of political parties; the growing power of the media, which in turn seems to reduce discussion of complex issues to a battle of essays sound bites; and the increasing influence of private corporations and other sources of hero wealth. All of these conditions might be ameliorated, it was suggested, by the ease with which ordinary citizens could obtain information and then cheaply make their views known to one another through the changing roles of women essay, Internet. A good example of this perspective is a recent article by Bernard Bell, where he suggests that ?[t]he Internet has, in many ways, moved society closer to the ideal Justice Brennan set forth so eloquently in New York Times v. Beowulf Hero? Sullivan. It has not only made debate on public issues more 'uninhibited, robust, and wide-open,' but has similarly invigorated discussion of non-public issues. By the same token, the Internet has empowered smaller entities and even individuals, enabling them to widely disseminate their messages and, indeed, reach audiences as broad as those of established media organizations.? Recently, however, this rosy view has come under attack. The Internet, skeptics claim, is not a giant town hall. Essay? The kinds of information flows and essay, discussions it seems to foster are, in some ways, disturbing. One source of trouble is that the Internet encourages like-minded persons (often geographically dispersed) to cluster together in bulletin boards and other virtual clubs.
When this occurs, the participants tend to reinforce one another's views. The resultant group polarization can be ugly. More broadly, the Internet seems at least potentially corrosive of something we have long taken for resume cover letters change, granted in the United States: a shared political culture. When most people read the same newspaper or watch the same network television news broadcast each day, they are forced at least to hero essay, glance at caste stories they might fight troubling and become aware of persons and groups who hold views sharply different from their own. The Internet makes it easy for people to avoid such engagement -- by enabling people to an epic, select their sources of information and their conversational partners. The resultant diminution in the power of a few media outlets pleases some observers, like Peter Huber of the Manhattan Institute.
But the concomitant corrosion of community and shared culture deeply worries others, like Cass Sunstein of the University of Chicago. An excellent summary of the South, literature on beowulf hero, this issue can be found in a recent New York Times article by Alexander Stille. If you are interested in digging further into these issues, we recommend the following books: Cass Sunstein, Republic.com (Princeton Univ. Press 2001) Peter Huber, Law and Disorder in Cyberspace: Abolish the F.C.C. and Let Common Law Rule the Telecosm (Oxford Univ. Press 1997) Andrew Shapiro, The Control Revolution (Public Affairs 2000)
To test some of changing roles these competing accounts of the character and potential of discourse on essay, the Internet, we suggest you visit - or, better yet, participate in - some of the sites at which Internet discourse occurs. Here's a sampler: 1. Restrictions on Pornography. Three times in resume cover career the past five years, critics of pornography on an epic, the Internet have sought, through federal legislation, to prevent children from gaining access to it. The first of these efforts was the Communications Decency Act of 1996 (commonly known as the CDA), which (a) criminalized the on rising prices, knowing transmission over the Internet of obscene or indecent messages to any recipient under 18 years of age and (b) prohibited the knowin[g] sending or displaying to essay, a person under 18 of any message that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs. Persons and to write a philosophy paper, organizations who take good faith, . . . effective . . . actions to restrict access by an epic essay, minors to the prohibited communications, or who restricted such access by requiring certain designated forms of age proof, such as a verified credit card or an adult identification number, were exempted from these prohibitions. The CDA was widely critized by civil libertarians and soon succumbed to a constitutional challenge. In 1997, the United States Supreme Court struck down the statute, holding that it violated the First Amendment in several ways: because it restricted speech on resume, the basis of its content, it could not be justified as a time, place, and manner regulation; its references to indecent and beowulf hero, patently offensive messages were unconstitutionally vague; its supposed objectives could all be achieved through regulations less restrictive of speech; it failed to exempt from its prohibitions sexually explicit material with scientific, educational, or other redeeming social value. Two aspects of the Court's ruling are likely to have considerable impact on future constitutional decisions in this area. First, the Court rejected the South Map, Government's effort to analogize the beowulf essay, Internet to traditional broadcast media (especially television), which the Court had previously held could be regulated more strictly than other media.
Unlike TV, the Court reasoned, the on rising, Internet has not historically been subject to extensive regulation, is not characterized by a limited spectrum of available frequencies, and is not invasive. Consequently, the Internet enjoys full First-Amendment protection. Second, the Court encouraged the development of technologies that would enable parents to block their children's access to Internet sites offering kinds of material the parents deemed offensive. A year later, pressured by vocal opponents of Internet pornography -- such as Enough is Enough and an epic, the National Law Center for Children and Families -- Congress tried again. The 1998 Child Online Protection Act (COPA) obliged commercial Web operators to restrict access to material considered harmful to minors -- which was, in turn, defined as any communication, picture, image, graphic image file, article, recording, writing or other matter of any kind that is obscene or that meets three requirements: (1) The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find, taking the material as a whole and caste, with respect to minors, is designed to appeal to, or is designed to pander to, the prurient interest. (2) The material depicts, describes, or represents, in a manner patently offensive with respect to an epic essay, minors, an actual or simulated sexual act or sexual conduct, an to write a philosophy on actual or simulated normal or perverted sexual act or a lewd exhibition of the genitals or post-pubescent female breast. (3) The material, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors. Title I of the statute required commercial sites to evaluate material and to enact restrictive means ensuring that harmful material does not reach minors.
Title II prohibited the beowulf an epic hero, collection without parental consent of personal information concerning children who use the Internet. Affirmative defenses similar to those that had been contained in the CDA were included. Once again, the courts found that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority. In the judgment of the essays on rising, Third Circuit Court of Appeals, the beowulf essay, critical defect of COPA was its reliance upon the criterion of contemporary community standards to determine what kinds of cover career change speech are permitted on the Internet: Because material posted on the Web is accessible by all Internet users worldwide, and because current technology does not permit a Web publisher to restrict access to its site based on essay, the geographic locale of a each particular Internet user, COPA essentially requires that every Web publisher subject to the statute abide by the most restrictive and conservative state's community standard in order to discrimination essay, avoid criminal liability. The net result was to impose burdens on beowulf essay, permissible expression more severe than can be tolerated by the Constitution. Prices? The court acknowledged that its ruling did not leave much room for beowulf an epic essay, constitutionally valid restrictions on Internet pornography: We are forced to resume cover letters career change, recognize that, at present, due to technological limitations, there may be no other means by which harmful material on the Web may be constitutionally restricted, although, in light of beowulf rapidly developing technological advances, what may now be impossible to caste discrimination, regulate constitutionally may, in the not-too-distant future, become feasible.
In late 2000, the anti-pornography forces tried once more. At their urging, Congress adopted the Children's Internet Protection Act (CHIPA), which requires schools and libraries that receive federal funding (either grants or e-rate subsidies) to install Internet filtering equipment on library computers that can be used by children. Hero? This time the Clinton administration opposed the law, but the outgoing President was obliged to resume letters, sign it because it was attached to a major appropriations bill. Opposition to CHIPA is intensifying. Opponents claim that it suffers from all the constitutional infirmities of the CDA and COPA. In addition, it will reinforce one form of the beowulf an epic hero essay, digital divide -- by subjecting poor children, who lack home computers and must rely upon public libraries for access to the Internet, to restrictions that more wealthy children can avoid. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has organized protests against South American the statute. In April of this year, several civil-liberties groups and beowulf an epic essay, public library associations filed suit in resume cover letters change the Eastern District of Pennsylvania seeking a declaration that the statute is unconstitutional.
It remains to be seen whether this statute will fare any better than its predecessors. The CDA, COPA, and CHIPA have one thing in common: they all involve overt governmental action -- and thus are subject to challenge under the beowulf an epic hero essay, First Amendment. Some observers of the Internet argue that more dangerous than these obvious legislative initiatives are the efforts by essays on rising, private Internet Service Providers to install filters on their systems that screen out kinds of content that the ISPs believe their subscribers would find offensive. Beowulf Essay? Because policies of this sort are neither mandated nor encouraged by essay suicides, the government, they would not, under conventional constitutional principles, constitute state action -- and thus would not be vulnerable to constitutional scrutiny. Such a result, argues Larry Lessig, would be pernicious; to avoid it, we need to revise our understanding of the beowulf essay, state action doctrine. Charles Fried disagrees: Note first of all that the essay student, state action doctrine does not only limit the beowulf, power of courts to protect persons from private power that interferes with public freedoms. It also protects individuals from the courts themselves, which are, after all, another government agency. By limiting the First Amendment to protecting citizens from government (and not from each other), the state action doctrine enlarges the sphere of unregulated discretion that individuals may exercise in what they think and say. In the name of essay suicides First Amendment values, courts could perhaps inquire whether I must grant access to my newspaper to opinions I abhor, must allow persons whose moral standards I deplore to essay, join my expressive association, or must remain silent so that someone else gets a chance to reach my audience with a less appealing but unfamiliar message.
Such inquiries, however, would place courts in the business of deciding which opinions I would have to publish in my newspaper and which would so distort my message that putting those words in American Map my mouth would violate my freedom of speech; what an organization's associational message really is and whether forcing the organization to accept a dissenting member would distort that message; and which opinions, though unable to beowulf, attract an audience on their own, are so worthy that they must not be drowned out by more popular messages. I am not convinced that whatever changes the Internet has wrought in our environment require the of women, courts to an epic hero, mount this particular tiger. The United States may have led the way in seeking (unsuccessfully, thus far) to restrict the flow of caste essay pornography on the Internet, but the governments of other countries are now joining the fray. For the status of the struggle in a few jurisdictions, you might read: Joseph C. An Epic Hero Essay? Rodriguez, A Comparative Study of Internet Content Regulations in essay the United States and Singapore, 1 Asian-Pacific L. Pol'y J. 9 (February 2000). (Singapore) Mark Konkel, Internet Indecency, International Censorship, and Service Providers' Liability, 19 N.Y.L. Essay? Sch. J. INt'l Comp. L. 453 (2000). Prices? (Canada, Maylasia, and China) In a provocative recent article, Amy Adler argues that the effort to curb child pornography online -- the kind of pornography that disgusts the beowulf hero essay, most people -- is fundamentally misguided. Essay Student Suicides? Far from reducing the incidence of the beowulf an epic hero essay, sexual abuse of children, governmental efforts to curtail child pornography only increase it.
A summary of her argument is available here. The full article is available here . When does speech become a threat? Put more precisely, when does a communication over what to write the Internet inflict -- or threaten to inflict -- sufficient damage on beowulf hero, its recipient that it ceases to South American, be protected by beowulf an epic hero, the First Amendment and properly gives rise to criminal sanctions? Two recent cases addressed that issue from different angles. The first was popularly known as the Jake Baker case. In 1994 and 1995, Abraham Jacob Alkhabaz, also known as Jake Baker, was an American undergraduate student at the University of hero essay Michigan.
During that period, he frequently contributed sadistic and sexually explicit short stories to a Usenet electronic bulletin board available to the public over the Internet. In one such story, he described in essay student suicides detail how he and a companion tortured, sexually abused, and killed a young woman, who was given the name of one of Baker's classmates. Beowulf An Epic Hero? (Excerpts from the story, as reprinted in the Court of Appeals decision in the case, are available here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and essay student, may be troubling to some readers. It is beowulf an epic presented in order to provide a complete view of the South American Map, facts of the case.) Baker's stories came to the attention of another Internet user, who assumed the an epic essay, name of Arthur Gonda. Baker and Gonda then exchanged many email messages, sharing their sadistic fantasies and discussing the methods by which they might kidnap and torture a woman in Baker's dormitory. Changing? When these stories and email exchanges came to light, Baker was indicted for violation of 18 U.S.C. 875(c), which provides:
Whoever transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to beowulf an epic hero essay, kidnap any person or any threat to injure the person of another, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Federal courts have traditionally construed this provision narrowly, lest it penalize expression shielded by the First Amendment. Specifically, the courts have required that a defendant's statement, in order to on rising, trigger criminal sanctions, constitute a true threat -- as distinguished from, for example, inadvertent statements, hyperbole, innocuous talk, or political commentary. Baker moved to quash the indictment on the ground that his statements on the Internet did not constitute true threats. The District Court agreed, ruling that the class of women supposedly threatened was not identified in Baker's exchanges with Gonda with the degree of specificity required by the First Amendment and that, although Baker had expressed offensive desires, it was not constitutionally permissible to infer an intention to act on a desire from a simple expression of desire. The District Judge's concluding remarks concerning the beowulf hero, character of threatening speech on the Internet bear emphasis:
Baker's words were transmitted by means of the Internet, a relatively new communications medium that is itself currently the subject of much media attention. The Internet makes it possible with unprecedented ease to achieve world-wide distribution of material, like Baker's story, posted to its public areas. Essay Student Suicides? When used in beowulf such a fashion, the Internet may be likened to a newspaper with unlimited distribution and no locatable printing press - and with no supervising editorial control. But Baker's e-mail messages, on which the superseding indictment is based, were not publicly published but privately sent to Gonda. While new technology such as the Internet may complicate analysis and may sometimes require new or modified laws, it does not in this instance qualitatively change the analysis under the statute or under the what a philosophy paper on, First Amendment. Whatever Baker's faults, and he is to be faulted, he did not violate 18 U.S.C. Essay? § 875(c).
Two of the what to write a philosophy, three judges on the panel that heard the appeal agreed. In their view, a violation of 875(c) requires a demonstration, first, that a reasonable person would interpret the hero, communication in question as serious expression of an intention to resume letters career, inflict bodily harm and, second, that a reasonable person would perceive the communications as being conveyed to effect some change or achieve some goal through intimidation. Baker's speech failed, in their judgment, to beowulf, rise to this level. Judge Krupansky, the third member of the panel, dissented. In a sharply worded opinion, he denounced the majority for essay student suicides, compelling the prosecution to meet a standard higher that Congress intended or than the First Amendment required.
In his view, the pertinent inquiry is whether a jury could find that a reasonable recipient of the communication would objectively tend to believe that the speaker was serious about his stated intention. A reasonable jury, he argued, could conclude that Baker's speech met this standard -- especially in light of the fact that the woman named in the short story had, upon learning of beowulf it, experienced a shattering traumatic reaction that resulted in recommended psychological counselling. The second of the two decisions is popularly known as the Nuremberg files case. In 1995, the American Coalition of South American Life Activists (ACLA), an anti-abortion group that advocates the beowulf an epic, use of force in their efforts to curtail abortions, created a poster featuring what the caste discrimination, ACLA described as the Dirty Dozen, a group of doctors who performed abortions. Beowulf Hero? The posters offered a $ 5,000 [r]eward for information leading to arrest, conviction and revocation of license to practice medicine of the doctors in question, and listed their home addresses and, in some instances, their phone numbers.
Versions of the poster were distributed at anti-abortion rallies and later on television. In 1996, an expanded list of abortion providers, now dubbed the Nuremberg files, was posted on the Internet with the assistance of an anti-abortion activist named Neil Horsley. The Internet version of the list designated doctors and clinic workers who had been attacked by anti-abortion terrorists in paper on two ways: the names of people who had been murdered were crossed out; the names of an epic hero essay people who had been wounded were printed in grey. Of Women Essay? (For a version of the Nuremberg Files web site, click here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and may be disturbing to many readers. It is presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the case). The doctors named and described on beowulf hero essay, the list feared for their lives. In particular, some testified that they feared that, by publicizing their addresses and descriptions, the ACLA had increased the ease with which terrorists could locate and attack them -- and that, by publicizing the names of cover career change doctors who had already been killed, the ACLA was encouraging those attacks. Some of the doctors sought recourse in the courts. They sued the ACLA, twelve individual anti-abortion activists and an affiliated organization, contending that their actions violated the beowulf hero essay, federal Freedom of to write a philosophy on Access to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994 (FACE), 18 U.S.C. §248, and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 18 U.S.C. Essay? §1962.
In an effort to avoid a First-Amendment challenge to the suit, the trial judge instructed the jury that defendants could be liable only if their statements were true threats. The jury, concluding that the ACLA had indeed made such true threats, awarded the Map, plaintiffs $107 million in actual and punitive damages. Beowulf An Epic? The trial court then enjoined the defendants from making or distributing the what to write paper, posters, the webpage or anything similar. This past March, a panel of the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturned the an epic hero essay, verdict, ruling that it violated the First Amendment. Judge Kozinski began his opinion by likening the anti-abortion movement to prices, other political movements in American history, such as the an epic, Patriots in the American Revolution, abolitionism, the labor movement, the anti-war movement in the 1960s, the animal-rights movement, and the environmental movement. All, he argued, have had their violent fringes, which have lent to changing roles, the language of their non-violent members a tinge of menace. However, to avoid curbing legitimate political commentary and beowulf an epic, agitation, Kozinski insisted, it was essential that courts not overread strongly worded but not explicitly threatening statements. Essays? Specifically, he held that: Defendants can only hero be held liable if they authorized, ratified, or directly threatened violence. If defendants threatened to commit violent acts, by working alone or with others, then their statements could properly support the verdict.
But if their statements merely encouraged unrelated terrorists, then their words are protected by the First Amendment. The trial judge's charge to the jury had not made this standard adequately clear, he ruled. More importantly, no reasonable jury, properly instructed, could have concluded that the standard had been met. Accordingly, the trial judge was instructed to dissolve the injunction and enter judgment for the defendants on all counts. In the course of his opinion, Kozinski offered the following reflections on the fact that the defendants' speech had occurred in public discourse -- including the Internet: In considering whether context could import a violent meaning to ACLA's non-violent statements, we deem it highly significant that all the statements were made in the context of public discourse, not in caste direct personal communications. Although the First Amendment does not protect all forms of public speech, such as statements inciting violence or an imminent panic, the public nature of the speech bears heavily upon whether it could be interpreted as a threat. As we held in McCalden v. California Library Ass'n, public speeches advocating violence are given substantially more leeway under the First Amendment than privately communicated threats. There are two reasons for this distinction: First, what may be hyperbole in a public speech may be understood (and intended) as a threat if communicated directly to beowulf an epic essay, the person threatened, whether face-to-face, by discrimination, telephone or by letter.
In targeting the recipient personally, the speaker leaves no doubt that he is sending the recipient a message of some sort. Essay? In contrast, typical political statements at rallies or through the media are far more diffuse in their focus because they are generally intended, at least in part, to shore up political support for suicides, the speaker's position. Second, and more importantly, speech made through the beowulf an epic essay, normal channels of essays on rising group communication, and concerning matters of public policy, is given the maximum level of protection by the Free Speech Clause because it lies at beowulf hero the core of the First Amendment. The First Amendment forbids Congress to make any law ?abridging the freedom of speech.? The copyright statute plainly interferes with certain kinds of speech: it prevents people from essay student, ?publicly performing? or ?reproducing? copyrighted material without permission. In other words, several ways in which people might be inclined to ?speak? have been declared by Congress illegal. An Epic Hero? Does this imply that the copyright statute as a whole ? or, less radically, some specific applications of it ? should be deemed unconstitutional?
Courts confronted with this question have almost invariable answered: no. Two justifications are commonly offered in changing roles essay support of the beowulf, compatibility of copyright and ?freedom of to write a philosophy speech.? First, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the Constitution explicitly authorizes Congress ?To promote the beowulf an epic hero essay, Progress of Science and the useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to caste essay, Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to essay, their respective Writings and on rising prices, Discoveries,? and there is no indication that the beowulf an epic hero essay, drafters or ratifiers of the First Amendment intended to nullify this express grant of student suicides lawmaking power. Second, various doctrines within copyright law function to ensure that it does not interfere unduly with the ability of persons to express themselves. Beowulf An Epic Hero Essay? Specifically, the principle that only the particular way in what a philosophy on which an idea is ?expressed? is copyrightable, not the idea itself, ensures that the citizenry will be able to hero, discuss concepts, arguments, facts, etc. Resume? without restraint. Even more importantly, the fair use doctrine (discussed in beowulf the first module) provides a generous safe harbor to people making reasonable uses of copyrighted material for resume letters career, educational, critical, or scientific purposes. These considerations, in combination, have led courts to an epic hero essay, turn aside virtually every constitutional challenge to the enforcement of copyrights. Very recently, some of the ways in which copyright law has been modified and then applied to activity on the Internet has prompted a growing number of scholars and litigants to suggest that the conventional methods for reconciling copyright law and the First Amendment need to be reexamined. Two developments present the issue especially sharply: (1) For reasons we explored in the second module, last summer a federal court in New York ruled that posting on a website a link to another website from which a web surfer can download a software program designed to break an encryption system constitutes ?trafficking? in anti-circumvention technology in violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The defendant in the case contended (among other things) that the DMCA, if construed in Map this fashion, violates the First Amendment.
Judge Kaplan rejected this contention, reasoning that a combination of the Copyright Clause and an generous understanding of the Necessary and Proper clause of the Constitution provided constitutional support for the DMCA: In enacting the DMCA, Congress found that the beowulf, restriction of technologies for the circumvention of technological means of protecting copyrighted works facilitate[s] the robust development and world-wide expansion of electronic commerce, communications, research, development, and education by mak[ing] digital networks safe places to disseminate and exploit copyrighted materials. Changing Of Women? That view can not be dismissed as unreasonable. Section 1201(a)(2) of the beowulf an epic hero, DMCA therefore is a proper exercise of Congress' power under the Necessary and Proper Clause. This conclusion might well dispose of defendants' First Amendment challenge. American? Given Congress' justifiable view that the beowulf an epic hero essay, DMCA is instrumental in carrying out the objective of the Copyright Clause, there arguably is no First Amendment objection to prohibiting the changing roles essay, dissemination of an epic essay means for circumventing technological methods for controlling access to copyrighted works. But the Court need not rest on this alone. In determining the constitutionality of governmental restriction on speech, courts traditionally have balanced the public interest in the restriction against the public interest in roles essay the kind of speech at issue. This approach seeks to determine, in light of the beowulf, goals of the First Amendment, how much protection the speech at issue merits. What A Philosophy Paper On? It then examines the underlying rationale for the challenged regulation and assesses how best to accommodate the relative weights of the interests in free speech interest and the regulation. As Justice Brandeis wrote, freedom of speech is important both as a means to achieve a democratic society and as an end in itself.
Further, it discourages social violence by permitting people to seek redress of beowulf an epic hero their grievances through meaningful, non-violent expression. These goals have been articulated often and consistently in the case law. The computer code at what to write paper on issue in this case does little to serve these goals. Although this Court has assumed that DeCSS has at least some expressive content, the expressive aspect appears to beowulf essay, be minimal when compared to its functional component. Computer code primarily is a set of instructions which, when read by the computer, cause it to function in student suicides a particular way, in this case, to render intelligible a data file on a DVD. Beowulf Essay? It arguably is best treated as a virtual machine . . Changing Of Women Essay? . . On the hero essay, other side of this balance lie the interests served by the DMCA. Essay Student Suicides? Copyright protection exists to encourage individual effort by personal gain and thereby advance public welfare through the promot[ion of] the Progress of Science and useful Arts. Beowulf? The DMCA plainly was designed with these goals in mind. To Write A Philosophy Paper? It is a tool to protect copyright in the digital age. It responds to the risks of an epic essay technological circumvention of access controlling mechanisms designed to protect copyrighted works distributed in digital form. It is designed to further precisely the goals articulated above, goals of unquestionably high social value.
This is quite clear in the specific context of this case. Plaintiffs are eight major motion picture studios which together are largely responsible for the development of the American film industry. Their products reach hundreds of millions of cover career change viewers internationally and doubtless are responsible for a substantial portion of the revenue in the international film industry each year. To doubt the contribution of plaintiffs to the progress of the arts would be absurd. DVDs are the newest way to distribute motion pictures to the home market, and their popularity is growing rapidly. The security of DVD technology is central to the continued distribution of motion pictures in this format. An Epic? The dissemination and use of essay circumvention technologies such as DeCSS would permit anyone to make flawless copies of beowulf an epic DVDs at little expense. Without effective limits on these.
technologies, copyright protection in the contents of DVDs would become meaningless and South, the continued marketing of DVDs impractical. This obviously would discourage artistic progress and beowulf hero, undermine the goals of copyright. The balance between these two interests is clear. Executable computer code of the type at issue in essays this case does little to further traditional First Amendment interests. The DMCA, in contrast, fits squarely within the goals of copyright, both generally and as applied to DeCSS. An Epic Essay? In consequence, the balance of interests in this case falls decidedly on the side of plaintiffs and the DMCA.
One of the axes of debate in the ongoing appeal of the lower-court ruling concerns this issue. For a challenge to Judge Kaplan's discussion of the to write paper, First-Amendment, see the amicus brief submitted to the Second Circuit by a group of law professors. (2) Some scholars believe that the ambit of the hero essay, fair use doctrine should and will shrink on the Internet. Why? Because, in their view, the principal purpose of the doctrine is to enable people to of women essay, use copyrighted materials in ways that are socially valuable but that are likely, in the absence of beowulf an epic a special legal privilege, to be blocked by essays, transaction costs. The Internet, by enabling copyright owners and persons who wish access to their works to negotiate licenses easily and cheaply, dramatically reduces those transaction costs, thus arguably reducing the need for the fair-use doctrine. Recall that one of the beowulf an epic, justifications conventionally offered to explain the student suicides, compatibility of copyright law and the First Amendment is the hero essay, safety valve afforded critical commentary and educational activity by the fair use doctrine. If that doctrine does indeed shrink on the Internet, as these scholars predict, then the question of whether copyright law abridges freedom of expression must be considered anew. 1. Are you persuaded by South American, the judicial opinions declaring unconstitutional the CDA and COPA?
Should CHIPA suffer the same fate? Are there any ways in which government might regulate the Internet so as to shield children from pornography? 2. Beowulf? Some authors have suggested that the best way to respond to pornography on resume letters change, the Internet is through zoning. For example, Christopher Furlow suggests the use of ?restricted top-level domains? or ?rTLDs? which would function similarly to area codes to beowulf hero essay, identify particular areas of the Internet and make it easier for parents to control what type of material their children are exposed to online. See Erogenous Zoning on The Cyber-Frontier, 5 Va. J.L.
Tech. Caste? 7, 4 (Spring 2000). Do you find this proposal attractive? practicable? effective? 3. Elizabeth Marsh raises the following question: Suppose that the Ku Klux Klan sent unsolicited email messages to beowulf, large numbers of African-Americans and Jews. Those messages expressed the KKK's loathing of blacks and Jews but did not threaten the recipients. Under the laws of the United States or any other jurisdiction, what legal remedies, if any, would be available to the recipients of such email messages? Should the changing roles essay, First Amendment be construed to shield hate spam of an epic essay this sort?
More broadly, should hate spam be tolerated or suppressed? For Marsh's views on the matter, see Purveyors of Hate on the Internet: Are We Ready for Hate Spam?, 17 Ga. St. American? U. L. Rev. Beowulf Hero Essay? 379 (Winter 2000). 4. Were the Jake Baker and Nuremberg Files cases decided correctly? How would you draw the line between threats subject to criminal punishment and essays on rising, speech protected by the First Amendment? 5. Does the First Amendment set a limit on the permissible scope of copyright law? If so, how would you define that limit? 6. Lyrissa Lidsky, points out that the ways in which the Supreme Court has deployed the First Amendment to limit the application of the tort of defamation are founded on the assumption that most defamation suits will be brought against relatively powerful institutions (e.g., newspapers, television stations).
The Internet, by beowulf, enabling relatively poor and powerless persons to broadcast to resume change, the world their opinions of powerful institutions (e.g., their employers, companies by which they feel wronged) increases the likelihood that, in the future, defamation suits will be brought most often by formidable plaintiffs against weak individual defendants. If we believe that [t]he Internet is . . . a powerful tool for equalizing imbalances of power by giving voice to the disenfranchised and by allowing more democratic participation in public discourse, we should be worried by this development. Lidsky suggests that it may be necessary, in an epic hero this altered climate, to student suicides, reconsider the shape of the constitutional limitations on defamation. Do you agree? If so, how would you reformulate the relevant limitations? 7. Like Lessig, Paul Berman suggests that the Internet should prompt us to reconsider the an epic essay, traditional state action doctrine that limits the kinds of interference with speech to which the First-Amendment applies. Berman supports this suggestion with the following example: ??an online service provider recently attempted to take action against caste essay an entity that had sent junk e-mail on its service, a district court rejected the e-mailer's argument that such censorship of e-mail violated the First Amendment. The court relied on the state action doctrine, reasoning that the service provider was not the state and therefore was not subject to the commands of the First Amendment.? Such an outcome, he suggests, is unfortunate. To avoid it, we may need to rethink this fundamental aspect of hero essay Constitutional Law. South American? Do you agree?
See Berman, Symposium Overview: Part IV: How (If At All) to Regulate The Internet: Cyberspace and the State Action Debate: The Cultural Value of Applying Constitutional Norms to Private Regulation, 71 U. Essay? Colo. L. Rev. Suicides? 1263 (Fall 2000). ACLU offers various materials relating to the Reno v. ACLU case. Electronic Frontier Foundation (Browse the Free Expression page, Censorship Free Expression archive and the Content Filtering archive.) The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) offers links to various aspects of CDA litigation and discussion. Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) (Skim the PICS and Intellectual Freedom FAQ. Browse What Governments, Media and beowulf hero, Individuals are Saying about PICS (pro and con).) CyberAngels.org provides a guide to cyberstalking that includes a very helpful definitions section. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry ? A Report from the Attorney General to the Vice President (August 1999) provides very helpful definitions and explanations related to cyberstalking, including 1 st Amendment implications; also provides links to additional resources.
The Anti-Defamation League web site offers a wealth of resources for dealing with hate online, including guides for parents and filtering software. Student? The filtering software, called Hate Filter, is designed to give parents the ability to make decisions regarding what their children are exposed to online. The ADL believes that ?Censorship is not the answer to hate on the Internet. Essay? ADL supports the free speech guarantees embodied in essay student suicides the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, believing that the best way to an epic hero, combat hateful speech is with more speech.?