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Warren Christopher s In the Stream of History: A Review Essay - jstor
The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. There are a lot of ways to get your resume in front of the right people, and your best chance for success is to christopher warren essay do everything you can to get yourself out there. One of the dissertation members easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on several sites and increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an warren, interest in your background and Reasons why relationships, then do the work for warren essay you. Buddhism And Hinduism! After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to warren distribute your resume because you can get in front of a lot of dissertation members, people without investing too much of christopher, your valuable time. It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to go to letter dissertation committee every job site. We’ve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and services to post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. We’ve included some options that are industry-specific, but only if the sites cater to a wide variety of applicants.
We also took into consideration the number of real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25. Try it now! Dice - The place to christopher warren go for tech jobs.
Indeed.com - The biggest job search engine. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of jobs, including part-time. Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network.
Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Compared to the other places to post your resume, ResumeRobin.com is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to visit. That’s because it’s a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the work. The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to essay etiquette post your resume on every single website. You’ll have the option to post within your metro area for $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for christopher essay $55 (includes up to 250-plus recruiters and job sites), or nationwide for $65.
To get started, you just have to letter dissertation committee members upload your resume to the system. Christopher Warren Essay! From there, ResumeRobin creates an HTML and plain text version. They enter your resume into literary essay middle, the daily feed file, which is uploaded to a network of partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and send the resumes to recruiters via email. Additionally, once your resume is christopher warren essay uploaded to the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of keyword searches used by employers. That’s worth the cost alone if you ask us. Essay Etiquette! When it comes down to essay it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to post your resume online. And Hinduism! It might cost you a little in the process, but don’t forget about the value of your time as well as the visibility boost you’ll receive. Many people are raving about christopher warren, their experiences with ResumeRobin online. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to essay etiquette get ramped up, but received an inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service. While the website looks very basic and generic, don’t judge the book by its cover.
The company is apparently worth close to $800 million. Christopher! If you have a background in tech or you’re looking for an IT job, Dice is the research paper writing place to go. It’s probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to warren essay hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is fail a great way to warren get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice. The quality of job seekers on Dice is pretty high, which is more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent. Dissertation Committee Members! Of the registered users on Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and 75% have a bachelor's degree. Christopher! To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume. The next step would be to make your resume searchable.
Go back to your account, click on the MyResume button, and Buddhism and Hinduism, select the resume you want recruiters or employers to find. You can upload up to five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the right one and then click on Make Searchable. Keep in mind, you only want to be searchable if you’re actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. If you want to post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and christopher essay, click the button next to Confidential. Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at Reasons the top of christopher warren, our list for and Hinduism places to post your resume online (and search for jobs). Warren Essay! Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the number one external method of hiring for small businesses in essay rubric the world. Christopher! In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the paper writing help most comprehensive database of any job site. Christopher Warren Essay! There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month.
Posting your resume on Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. All you have to do is create a free account and then either create your resume from research paper scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in many countries. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isn’t worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we don’t advise that. LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated.
The reason why posting your resume on christopher warren essay, LinkedIn doesn’t make a lot of sense is because a resume is often an literary essay rubric, adapting document depending on the type of christopher warren essay, employment you’re seeking. LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and committee members, accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Warren! Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is help optimized with the titles or words you want to christopher warren essay be found for. Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and just be sure both are always synced up. The last thing you need is inconsistencies in Reasons your story. Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedIn’s resume import feature. If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to warren find your file, and letter dissertation committee members, upload it.
Again, we’d recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. It’s one of the less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in essay the industry. Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in middle school a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by warren creating a free account as well as a job alert. From there, you’ll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and you’ll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is and Hinduism easily searchable for recruiters and employers. Warren Essay! All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to letter committee what you’d like to be searched for so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers.
One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in christopher essay addition to other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if you’re using ZipRecruiter on the go. Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on than the literary essay rubric other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for employers. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in the past year for job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. All you have to do to get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume.
From there, you’ll have the option to display your resume and contact info or hide it. Warren Essay! Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to display your resume and essay etiquette, contact info (and you’ll get the warren essay benefit of the insights into who is members looking at your resume). Beyond the essay ability to post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of useful career resources. There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and the right ones. Beauty Lies In Simplicity Essay! It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to stand out above the rest. Monster is no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the christopher essay first job search site online and also had the letter dissertation members first resume database in the world. To post your resume, create an warren essay, account and sign up manually or use one of the Reasons why relationships fail social account sign in options. As part of creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and then choose a file to christopher warren upload your resume. From there, you have the option to choose if you want to be searchable or not. Buddhism! If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to be found by a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the searchable option. You can always hide it after if you want to.
Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by warren essay a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to get you to pay for a service. Literary Middle! Lastly, just be sure to spend the time to fill out your profile so you that it’s visible and christopher warren essay, you’ll match with the right search terms to increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and dissertation members, employers are turning to other methods to find candidates. One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking. A lot of christopher essay, that happens on social media.
Let’s look at Facebook first and then Twitter next. Reasons Why Relationships Fail! While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to christopher warren essay recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. You don’t have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person. Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to include all of your work and education information. You can also include links to your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant).
We’d suggest staying clear of expressing religious and political views. Essay Etiquette! There’s something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in 140 characters or less. While it’s not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the limitations, it’s impossible to christopher warren post your resume on Twitter, but this is more about leveraging Twitter by Reasons fail linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in a Tweet.
Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the company you want work for by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and get in front of more people is christopher a no-brainer for someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to utilize the career center from paper your college to post your resume online. To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and essay, current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of universities. As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for literary rubric analyst positions from warren one university.
It’s hard to imagine other companies don’t do the same thing. Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. At the end of the day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of your university and research paper, the type of employers coming to the university career center website to christopher warren find candidates. If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. CareerCloud is at the forefront of essay rubric school, social and christopher warren, mobile in the job search and recruitment process.
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Secretary of State Warren Christopher s Papers Open at Archives
Great myths of christopher essay, ITIL #1: You can#039;t manage what you can#039;t measure. You can't manage what you can't measure. Who on earth came up with that one? One of Buddhism and Hinduism, my big concerns about the application of ITIL is christopher essay, it's emphasis on KPIs. Useful but dangerous. Management is about the operation of a function or process. Essay. Even though I bet somewhere we have sanitary disposal managers these days, back in the real world manager means someone who manages people. They build processes around people and they make them follow those processes but at the end of the day managers manage people. And you can't measure people. Oh, we try. But you can't.
Einstein got unimpressive grades. Christopher. So many modern corporate ills stem from managers trying to manage people by numbers. First, I have seen brilliant people (read: valuable corporate resources) laid off because the numbers fingered them. Bad managers applying bad numbers. Second, to slightly twist Mr Heisenberg's Principle: every measurement distorts that which it measures, every KPI distorts human behaviour. Reasons Why Relationships Fail. No KPI perfectly reflects the desired outcome - it always leads the measured subjects off the desired path. Management by measurement leads to some weird results (every civil service is awash with them). Third, the christopher warren, KPI hasn't been invented that measures good. I used to have to rank my staff, 1 to 12, no equals. What a nonsense. Buddhism And Hinduism. The ranking would shift from day to day depending on the challenges the warren essay, team faced.
It would change from hour to hour depending on who had pissed me off last. Management by measurement is only a substitute for inept management. Put another way, it is an organisation's compensation for its inability to attract, create and retain good managers. Any decent manager can make correct assessment of in simplicity essay, staff based on instinct and subjective observation. Numbers help, and essay they particularly help fire someone, but you can manage what you can't measure. Good managers do it every day.
Now, governance - that's another matter. Perhaps you can't govern what you can't measure. Published in The Skeptical Informer, November 2007, Volume 1, No. 10. It's close to Peter Drucker: You can only manage what you can measure. I'd recommend Phil Verghis' recent work on Metrics, Methods and Madness. which warns strongly about putting goals on activities. It's harder to literary school put goals on outcomes, but that's really the better way to go, isn't it? So many measure activities (call/contact volume, for essay, example) because they are easy. Good management is not easy. Yes it's all Drucker's fault. (Is that sacrilege?)
Verghis' book sounds interesting. driving with your face in the dashboard. Majid Iqbal on Twitter said: Managing solely by process performance is like driving with your face in the dashboard. Isn't that what pilots do in rain, fog etc. I worked a short time in an organisation where every operation was declared a huge success. Very simple KPI's would have stopped the nonsense.
No, they don't. Pilots who do that are the ones who are found dead in smoking holes surrounded by essay etiquette wreckage. The mantra is - aviate, navigate, communicate - in that order. The flight deck is designed to enable these activities and compensate for christopher essay, the lack of research paper writing help, visual references. The system is built to enable this type of activity.
Under instrument flight rules, you can even lose the essay, third and still have a successful outcome. This is something we train and build procedures for. I think the original comment though was meant to convey the danger of looking at dials that aren't central to literary middle the key tasks, whatever they are - and christopher I was focusing on the aviate bit. Interesting to consider what the research writing, IT ..ates should be: operate, co-operate, innovate? No, not happy with that. I think I got the intent of the warren essay, original post. Research Writing Help. Being fixated on only one view (when there's obviously much more going on), can have disastrous results.
I was actually elaborating on Aale's post. You do raise an interesting question about warren, what the IT correlates to aviate, navigate, communicate would be. Essay Etiquette. I would propose that communicate stay in place. We need more communication, not less. So operate, co-operate, communicate then? So operate, co-operate, communicate then? I would propose the 3 ates of IT follow the standard IT management ates lest the christopher warren essay, lesser IT resources be downtrodden further: lie-ate, kiss-ass-ate, claim-the-kudos-ate. Having slept on it perhaps the original three with operate instead of aviate would do? Incidentally the beauty essay, aviating bit does not have to christopher warren mean looking out the window, it can be more reliable to and Hinduism use the key instruments that provide situational awareness, which on modern aircraft are located in the same T arrangment so you know where to christopher warren find them. What about ISO/IEC 38500 as the top level view?
What measures would you use to Reasons why relationships measure ISO/IEC 38500 performance? There is an christopher, issue that has been worrying me about ITSM maturity assessments for essay middle, sometime, essentially are we looking at the right dimensions? Reading The Halo Effect is also making me wonder what we can predict from christopher warren essay a maturity assessment. I did some work on a risk based approach assessment a few years ago that tried to home in on key predictors of rubric school, both current and future performance, but I haven't re-visited it post v3. I'm no pilot but in Helsinki during winter most planes land in dark and snow fall is common. Staring at the snow cannot help much. In my local market I have been studying the christopher essay, phenomena that according to surveys a majority of IT-units have implemented ITIL processes but do not have any measurements at all. Beauty Lies. Usually this means that these people are aware of the process and have been discussing it but are not really doing anything. It is quite possible that the christopher warren, managers who answer the lies in simplicity essay, surveys think that they have a process but usually the fact is that there is no process in place. I have been trying to send the christopher warren, message that there must be some measurement that at least show that the essay etiquette, process is alive and kicking. In that sense I do not think this is a myth.
Unfortunately it is quite possible to christopher warren essay run a service with no measurement. Many years ago I was working for a Finnish governement IT department. My job did not have any measurement so I did what I thought was useful. It worked ok, some users gave positive feedback to my boss and that was enough for him. After I left the and Hinduism, job I heard that my successor complained that I had created too much work for christopher essay, him as the users were accustomed to ask for help. He wanted to concentrate on his PhD thesis and Buddhism ignore the warren, users which he did.
That was also ok by the management, actually academic credentials were a big thing in Governement salaries so he got better paid than I did. I do not think that anybody was actually managing that IT service. The clearness of measures is one the best things of running a small business. You know what you are achieving. In a big corporation it is far more difficult. PS. The Halo Effect is beauty lies essay, a good book, it shows how difficult it is to measure the outcomes of things like ITIL.
Succes or failure always colors things and there are a lot of things going on at the same time. I have done a study which shows that those development projects that have proper goals measured in service quality fare better that those projects that only aim in implementing ITIL. The succes was measured by ISO 20000 maturity. I'm pretty sure that the goal-maturity correlation is probably just a halo effect. Christopher Warren. Setting proper goals is part of dissertation, generally better management practices and they tend to christopher warren essay succeed better in all things they do. Re flying by instruments, I think the truth is somewhere in the middle as usual. there's a reason pilots have all those instruments and Reasons fail there is a reason they still have cockpit windows as i think James mentioned recently. They also have a LOT of instruments and computers, not just a speedo and fuel gauge. Warren. No instuments is as bad as relying solely on lies essay, instruments. And if we must rely on instruments then lets have enough of them that we can sanity-check them against each other. i think pilots are forced to fly blind a lot mkore often than IT Operations :) We interact with other humans constantly. We form deep and meaningful data through our own instincts that we can use to check metrics - we get far more other info than Helsinki pilots do. Wholeheartedly agree with earlier point about warren essay, measuring with somethign other than ITIL - it is a favourite point of paper, mine.
I think even ISO20000 or risk are too close to christopher warren essay home. Letter Committee. In my book Owning ITIL I propose measuring a service culture audit. if the purpose of christopher warren, doing ITIL is to Buddhism and Hinduism change the culture to a service-oriented one, which it often is, then let's measure the culture. Essay. And if it is to reduce costs them let's measure costs. Stand back and neasure the big picture. Reasons Why Relationships. THEN drill in. When you're in christopher, a cloud, a window isn't of much use to you.
Flight by research writing help reference to instruments allow you to keep your orientation without having visual reference to the ground, understand where you are relative to where you want to essay be, and be in dissertation, communication with others who are participating in christopher, the system (both ATC and other pilots/aircraft). While we may interact with people, I'd assert that IT flies blind a lot more than any pilot. If aviation had a safety record equivalent to beauty lies essay successful IT change/process projects, no one would be willing to fly! First rule of flying, particularly when things are going wrong, is christopher warren, fly the plane Don't get distracted by peripheral data. Model, Measure, Manage - Definitions needed. Skeptic: W. Edwards Deming (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming) is often incorrectly quoted as saying, You can't manage what you can't measure. In fact, he stated that one of the seven deadly diseases of management is running a company on visible figures alone. I also suggest you look at letter committee, the root definitions of management and administration.
I use the following definitions. Administer: To establish and warren enforce policy and procedure. Manage: To change disorder into order. You administer the order established by managing, to reduce the inevitable disintegration into disorder/chaos/creativity/variance/error over time. Reasons. (Chaos = infinitely complex order. Managing = finding simplified, and thus usable, patterns of order within chaos.) Managing requires one to model to some cost-worthy level the current or past disorder, model to some cost-worthy level the christopher warren, intended order to be administered, and model to in simplicity essay some cost-worthy level the plan to transition from the current disorder to the intended order, updating all as time passes. Meaurement tells us about the quantitative aspects/attributes of the modeled disorder, order, and transition. You can neither measure, administer, nor manage until you model. Modeling the dynamics of warren essay, carbon-based life forms. Life and existence is chaotic and infinitely complex - period, but that does not mean random. Chaos is the primary production mechanism of our self-organizing, implicate-order universe within its larger environment.
Read about David Bohm, Ilya Progogine, and Bernard Haisch, e.g., on Wikipedia.com, for essay etiquette, more detail. But life can still be modeled (as a representation or architecture of the reality, not an absolute replica - the map is not the territory) without getting into the quantification of operations research, management science, simulations, business intelligence, and decision support. As a physicist and management analyst I've used all of these methods - and they are very limited, giving a constrained, closed-world view, without more modeling at the beginning of their use, and continuing during their use. Modeling starts with a life-form's language and their vocabulary's significant nouns and the verb phrases that relate them. To see a model of a life-form's viewpoint, look at their writing.
Sentences contain subjects (nouns), predicates (verbs), and predicate objects (other nouns). Writing anything is intended to record and share a viewpoint. Warren. The first level of modeling is to create lists of words used, identifying terms of Reasons fail, single and compound words, defining the terms from individual/local/group/organization/global contexts, grouping the terms into warren broader and narrower meanings (as a taxonomy), and lies building a concept map of the nouns and their relationships. Build a concept map of a resume, a balanced scorecard, a process, or a business case to see their power. Warren. Concept maps are used in most modeling efforts without ever getting to quantitative values. More detailed variants of essay etiquette, concept maps are entity-relationship models, object-role-models, process models, ontologies (knowledge models), knowledge-bases, value-chains, economic models, project network/CPM diagrams, etc.
The term that broadly names the above viewpoint is terminology, encompassing the essay, various stages of organized semantics. Terminology is also described quite well in Wikipedia.com. Buddhism. My own approach to building a terminology, so that governance methods (i.e., modeled, measured, managed) like ITIL and essay ITSM can be their most effective, efficient, and responsive to change, is documented at http://gem-ema.one-world-is.org. Agreed we can map humans - what they are saying. We can build a picture of their ideas. Not the and Hinduism, same as measuring them though. We can measure the christopher warren essay, recorded and observed aspects of beauty in simplicity essay, humans and life in general (that's social and biological science). See, comment, and vote on my ideas for essay, Recovery.gov at http://tinyurl.com/ctgr6d. Deadline is end of 3 May. My theme is terminology.
Great thread, this response goes madly off in all directions but. Its always been about the people; KPIs, metrics etc are about transfoming data into information. Information forms knowledge of Buddhism, your environment; this in turn gives management an insight into whats going on so that they can exercise sound judgement. In other words, metrics help leaders determine if their perceived task environment matches the actual task environment. They are one tool in the arsenal, and part of an overall holistic view of whats going on. Christopher Essay. An analogy, when driving a car, do you rely on members, your dashboard alone, or is it one part of your overall view when driving the car? The seven steps to improvement start with What should we measure. But here's the tricky bit., people leave off the second part of the sentence. Its With respect to the defined goals (strategic, tactical, operational) what should we measure.
That shapes your context for the KPI's, data etc to christopher essay gather. A simple exercise to create KPI's, drawn from the Balanced Scorecard Institute. Step 1) What is the goal / mission / vision of the organization. (you can do this for yor team, department, unit or whole organization) Step 2) What three (or four) Objectives can we do to Reasons fail help achieve this goal? Step 3) List three key targets per objective that we need to prove we are or are not doing our objectives? Step 4) Identify where you are going to gather the data to prove the warren, targets are being met. Take a look at Cobit for some of the targets, metrics to essay school use, but and christopher warren here's the hard part, you need to do the lies in simplicity essay, heavy mental lifting yourself. It takes effort to build an appropriate measurment framework.
And in the end, the warren, best leaders I have worked for use metrics to validate their intuition. Side bar, take a look at Deming in the CSI book, his 14 steps are there. Ah you have clarified what i am saying with a key point here: metrics are for letter dissertation committee, managing the task environment. That environment is empirical and rational and yes it can be effectively managed numerically. On the other hand the term KPI is usually (not always) applied to measuring the performance of people. This is what I object to, when it becomes slavish.
Only humans can evaluate humans, and they can't do it with numbers, other than as one of many inputs to the assessment. Managers manage both the task environment and the people in warren essay, it. The tools and Buddhism and Hinduism techniques of one don't work for the other. Thanks for crystalising that. As buraddo said above Its a mixture of data, experience and leadership (along with other things) that makes good management . then Deming is regularly misquoted by the ITSM community. I agree entirely about management as a term being more properly used for organisational change agents. Christopher. however in the modern world the word is utterly debased to the point where we have front-of-office managers greet us and beauty lies essay sanitation managers filling the dumpster. I understand what you are trying to do, to hold the line on christopher warren essay, the meaning of the word. Good luck with that. ideally yes a manager enacts change and an administrator makes it so. the other layer of course is the governor who defines the policy and goals of the manager. I wish management could be so clinical as to drive from models to numbers to actions. There is unfortunately the small matter of carbon-based life forms.
I'm enjoying reading Managing Humans by Michael Lopp, who opened the book with the chapter Don't be a prick. The message is if you want to build teams and research paper writing lead people, you can't be an automaton. You must see and relate to and react to the people reporting to you, and you must fulfil their needs. Christopher Warren. None of that comes out of policy driven models and the numbers don't tell us any of it. In Simplicity. No matter how high you are on the slippery tree you must do this, else you will be a prick. Christopher Warren Essay. You may well deliver numbers to the company but you will never build a team. If everyone was Einstein, or even Bill Gates.
You can measure, and doing so improves both our ability to manage, and our performance, especially when the people doing the work measure themseleves, manage themselves, and fail improve their own performance. Without proof, any argument for christopher, or against something in our profession can stand as a factoid. That's what this so called myth-buster is, just another myth. Letter Dissertation Committee. Without evidence, arguments are won by the persuasive, not necessarily those that are right. Until we can learn to use mesurement and data we will always be slaves to the latest, most popular myth about how to do our work as told by the most persuasive. If this is christopher essay, how you want it, consider a career in polictics, the fashion industry, or entertainment. If you want a career in essay etiquette, IT or in business, science, or engineering, learn to ignore those that bust myths with more myths.
You think Einstein and Heisenberg make your point? What would they have accomplished if they didn't value measurement, the scientific method, and proof? The problem with Science is it is an industry designed to christopher warren disprove itself.. An atom is an atom until a sub-atomic particle exists. The data in which alot of scientific proofs are based is often tainted by Buddhism and Hinduism the data collect paradigm, or even mathematical assumptions (it doesn't quite fit, so lets fit a really interesting constant in there and see if that works)..
While I agree, that measurement is christopher warren, a valuable tool for writing help, management, it is by no means an christopher warren essay, absolute (the same way science is Buddhism and Hinduism, not). It is as much a persuasive tool for justification as say qualitative experience or even leadership/instinct.. Newton's theories on gravity are powerful because of the maths and warren essay data, but even more so, because an apple hits you on the head if you sit under an apple tree. Management decision making should not be crippled by data, but management should always strive for appropriate and literary school effective measurement of business as a quality discipline. Its a mixture of christopher essay, data, experience and leadership (along with other things) that makes good management, disregard any of these things at your peril, focus on 1, to the detriment of others and essay rubric failure is assured. Jim, I reckon yours is one of the warren essay, best posts on this blog, even if I'm on the receiving end of it. I would dearly love to see more science around IT. I think the slowly growing understanding that IT is a superstitious art is one of the Buddhism, first signs of some real maturity. If they built buildings the christopher warren, way they build IT. So, touché! You are right: I'm as guilty of shovelling the same crap (I was a vendor remember).
But in the absense of objective data, the least I can do is essay etiquette, undermine certainty and present alternate views. I don't know about you, but in principle I'm uncertain about Heisenberg. Sorry,couldn't resist it. Interesting read is Julian Havil's Nonplussed! I like the Anon quote in it 'This is warren essay, a one line proof. Research Writing Help. if we start sufficently far to the left.' Management without Measurement = Moving Target. First of all, managing relates to people and christopher budgets. In both cases, you set goals and measure progress toward those goals. The author states, “You can’t measure people.” However, you certainly can measure whether they do what is expected of them, you certainly can measure their performance against standards, and you also can measure their relative performance against their co-workers.
For the last measure, in high-performance cultures the dissertation committee members, bar is christopher warren, high, and for low-performance cultures the bar is low. In either case, you benchmark (measure) performance standards to see if you need to raise the essay etiquette, bar for you team or not. If this author’s twelve workers really are subject to his whims about warren essay, who is “good” or “bad” which changes as he states, “from hour to hour depending on writing help, who had pissed me off last,” then I really feel sorry they have to deal with this incompetent of a manager. In a anonymous survey, I am confident his people feel like their performance expectations are a moving target and christopher essay they never know what he will find “good” or “bad” because he doesn’t know how to define good and bad himself. It is likely to be a function of the external pressures he is facing rather than any concrete objectives he has laid out for his team like a competent manager would. This article was obviously written by one of the masses of inept managers out there that don’t know what to do, don’t like to be held to goals themselves, and literary essay school don’t like their poor performance against christopher warren essay objectives measured at essay etiquette, all. These are the essay, same desires of essay rubric middle school, people in ghettos and trailer parks all over this country; they don’t want to be held to others’ ideas about performance standards either, and with good reason – they don’t measure up.
There are ways to measure people’s performance in objective ways. There are ways of christopher warren, capturing the inherent variability in a measurement system and determining how much variability the Buddhism, measurement system itself contributes to warren essay the measurement and how much is the actual process performance itself. Thanks for replying Joe. I always welcome reasoned debate. Actually your reply is too much of an ad hominum personal attack for the standards of this site, but since it's me you're having a go at, I'll let it pass and we can examine your arguments. “You can’t measure people.” However, you certainly can measure whether they do what is expected of Buddhism and Hinduism, them, you certainly can measure their performance against warren essay standards, and letter dissertation committee members you also can measure their relative performance against their co-workers. You can't measure people but you can measure people? You'll need stronger reasoning than that Joe. My whole arguement is that measures exist, and are used excessively by inept managers who can't deal with real live peopel without putting numbers in christopher warren essay, the way (not that I'm for a moment suggesting you're an inept manager Joe), but that in and of themselves numbers don't measure people. No metric or dozen metrics adequately reflects the performance of individuals in a role of any complexity. Letter Dissertation Committee. That sort of time-and-motion thinking might work for essay, unskilled workers in an old-world industrial task, but in essay etiquette, modern service industries all but the most basic of roles such as call-centre operator or data entry clerk have too many aspects and subtleties for numbers to fairly and truly reflect an employee's contribution.
You can't measure any of those things you listed Joe: you can't measure whether they do what is expected of them, you can't measure their performance against standards, and you can't measure their relative performance against their co-workers. My staff worked as pre-sales technical experts in the software industry, supporting sales people. They had no regular output product of their own; they engaged in entirely different transactions every time; they added value in warren essay, complex, subtle and often unnoticed ways; and they functioned as part of a complex team with no individual accountability for the outcome. I relied on their professionalism, honesty, enthusiasm and competitiveness to do a good job. How do you measure those Joe? And how do you measure them in such a way that the metric doesn't over-simplify the situation and therefore distort the behaviour?
All metrics do. And how do you compare staff in rubric middle school, such a way that you can say that overall this person is better than this one? How do you objectively rank staff without using those same distortive, over-simplifying metrics? Nobody is better or worse than anyone else on paper. When the call comes from above to lay off one of them because it is warren, time for the corporation to demonstrate its loyalty to essay etiquette its most valued resources once again, the decision ought to essay be made looking forward based on essay etiquette, an infintely complex web of anticipated requirements from the business and estimated future potentials of the staff, not on some arbitrary numbers that reflect one sad little side of the warren, past story. I feel sorry for employees who have to deal with inhuman functionaries who can only engage via a spreadsheet. I'm proud that I dealt with my staff as people not resources. Oh, I had spreadsheets and metrics, and I used them as I should have: as one more source of information to use when deciding the fate of Reasons fail, friends and colleagues who deserve better than being treated as cogs in christopher, the machine. And of essay rubric school, course you can begin to question how good a manager is if their staff consistently under perform, or if their churn rate is above average.
Personally I hate the tyranny of the annual appraisal. I was talking to an enlightened CEO recently who described it as a dehumanising process designed to christopher reward the dysfunctional. who#039;s fault is literary, it if that potential isn#039;t realised? I have done a lot of work on professional development of christopher, staff. Essay Etiquette. I firmly believe that a person underperforming is at warren, least as much a reflection on their manager as it is on Buddhism, the individual.
With IT professionals, very often it is obvious the potential is there - who's fault is christopher essay, it if that potential isn't realised? It is the manager's job to letter dissertation members bring it out. Christopher Essay. If the metrics are bad, the boss also has some explaining to do. I agree that churn is actually a good indicator of a manager. People join jobs.
They leave managers. You are quite right. Literary Middle School. If you train your staff to hit the numbers without looking at them holistically, then they'll learn to make you happy (get the christopher warren essay, annual salary increase) by ensuring the metrics are good, most likely at the cost of working as a team and retaining any interpersonal [why are they called soft?] skills. etc. To give an example; I used to have a team leader who, on night shift, would call the incoming Helpdesk number from one phone, pick it up at the adjacent desk and then immediately drop both handsets back into the cradles. Doing this ten or-so times a night ensured our dropped call and letter dissertation answer-time metrics remained good enough that we weren't roasted for being lazy fops, but effectively rendered the management information collected during our shift, meaningless.
I'm not convinced this made him a good leader. If a business wants to make money, shouldn't they measure how much they're making to ensure their sustainability and viability? In turn, doesn't each person in christopher warren, the organisation needs to demonstrate a contributory value to essay etiquette that end? Aren't metrics the bit that you base arguments for a new venture on, through a cost-benefit analysis? Aren't we supposed somehow to demonstrate a return on investment, not just for tin, string and vapour, but for the bodies too? I think that numbers are a valid part of the christopher, story, not just for measuring the provision of service; Did your parcel get to research writing where it needed to be, undamaged and in time?, but also for measuring the christopher warren, performance of an individual; As a driver, why is it that nearly 25% of your parcels are returned because they're damaged, yet for the same category of Buddhism and Hinduism, parcel, vehicle and terrain, the nearest of your colleagues rates is 7%? The answer may have many components and factors, but the metric has prompted the christopher warren essay, question what's wrong and in managing people that can sometimes be a very helpful way of writing help, beginning to help someone realise their potential. numbers are a valid part of the christopher warren essay, story. Agreed. As you say numbers are a valid part of the story, and the valid part they play is the one you highlight: asking why.
A good manager says why is paper help, it that nearly 25% of your parcels are returned because they're damaged?. A bad manager says I'm laying you off because you came last on the spreadsheet, mostly because nearly 25% of your parcels are returned because they're damaged. The good one manages using numbers. The bad one manages by numbers. Well. just as you wouldn#039;t shoot the messenger. I always love a good controversial point of view, makes everybody think. In any case, I beg to disagree with your PoV, seems to me you are blaming the christopher warren essay, messenger. You state the KPI hasn't been invented yet that measures 'good'. Well, actually there is no universal 'good' (or 'bad' for that matter), it depends on what you produce, what your customer expects, etc. So the first question one should ask is What is good in my context? Indeed, a lot of Reasons, bad managers misuse metrics and KPIs.
In my experience this is mostly the result of. (a) the christopher warren, manager simply not understanding what he/she is managing (it is more than just people btw) Making it hard for the manager to know what he/she needs to measure exactly (and what not). So he/she takes the research paper writing help, easy route, buys a few books (e.g. ITIL v3) and just blindly copies what is in there. Christopher Essay. End result: a lot of numbers are being collected and crunched everyday, but there is little or no effect on committee members, what actually counts: the christopher essay, quality of what is letter dissertation, being produced. (b) mixing up metrics and goals. Metrics are there to christopher warren help you understand what is going on. Essay Etiquette. They are not 'goals' or 'objectives', and christopher warren essay should not be confused with those either. Maybe do a google on Deming's 14 Points Good managers don#039;t manage by numbers.
I think we agree on all that :) Good managers don't manage by Buddhism numbers, and bad managers misuse numbers. My point is that good managers manage just as well when they can't measure. [And many things that matter - like people - can't be measured]. Therefore the christopher warren, statement you can't manage what you can't measure is dissertation committee, B.S. P.S. to paraphrase a quote in an earlier comment: If you can measure it [well], you probably don't need to manage it any more - you can get someone to administer it. You seem to reduce the You can't manage what you can't measure down to a statement of Management = Measurement.
I do believe that you can not manage things well if you can not measure them. You need to get some feedback on how well you are manageing and not only by your peers or from your employees (as both might be to warren good), but also from a more absolute standpoint. If you manage by targets you will have to see if you meet your targets and if your targets are valid. A good manager has a gut feeling about all of this as well, enabling him/her to research help look where trouble may be and to improve on more intangable things, but really sound management is only valid if you can measure something. Your ciritique on K PI is (to my humble opinion) more valid. Christopher Warren. Any KPI that is around for too long will be a potential for research writing, cheaters and may be worked around. Good management will find this out and warren adapt. Even better manegement will lead their employees in a way that they do not even think about working around a measurement (binding bonuses to KPI targets is Reasons fail, OK, but it should not be the only criteria).
And for your last sentence: If you do not believe that, please provide an example of christopher, governance without empirical measurement. If you have a hammer everything is a nail. There was a white paper doing the rounds not long ago that said that a 'fool with a tool is still a fool'. I was never quite sure if this wasn't a secret comment about men, but the sentiment makes sense. Metrics are a powerful tool and, as you say, in the wrong hands they can be dangerous.
Dangerous tools should only be used by people who are well trained in beauty in simplicity, their use and use care and craftsmanship in their deployment. Maybe there should be a warning question - 'Have you a license to wield that metric?'. I think that this is a possible additional value in christopher essay, using metrics. They do force you not only to and Hinduism consider what can be measured, but also to think about what exactly you intend to discover from using them and what behaviour change you hope them to produce. Careful thought about christopher warren essay, that, along with a consideration of the Law of Unintended Consequences, can help managers learn to be better managers. I remember well the point made regarding what must be one of the beauty lies, worst metrics ever. 'We have found that you have a bad attitude'. How is 'attitude' measured? What factors determine if it is 'bad'? It is the perfect example of bad management - the manager can't be bothered, or hasn't the ability, to say exactly this, or exactly that in your behaviour is a problem. Nobody can fix a 'bad attitude' because it is an opinion, not a measure. Yes, of course, we all have met people with 'bad attitudes' and, to christopher some people at least, all of us must, at some time, had a 'bad attitude' (turning up eagerly to work when the cultural norm was to slack off would be a 'bad attitude' to some).
An honest and diligent person, as a manager, must be precise in order to effect improvement. It reminds me of the poem by Robert Frost, 'Building a wall'. To paraphrase, good metrics make good workers'. And good managers. Now that Peter was most certainly hitting the nail on the head. Very valid points indeed. Bad managers always find a way to Buddhism and Hinduism manage badly. One of the things I enjoy about reading Deming’s books is the elaborate dance he executes in endorsing measurement and cautioning against the abuse of measurement. Although I agree with everyone who says good management cannot be reduced to a single number index or a Red-Amber-Green report, I still think KPIs are valuable and even essential to good service management. Whenever I need an example KPI, I go to the impressive array of KPIs in essay, COBIT, not the ITIL literature. That is not surprising because COBIT is about the outside auditor's view of IT, unlike ITIL which is about doing IT.
As desirable as it may be, an outside auditor does not have the time to form a reasoned opinion. Help. An auditor has to make a few quick observations and move on. Warren. Those observations have to be well-chosen, but in the end, the observations must be completed in time to sign off on Buddhism, the audit. IT managers face the same problem, on christopher warren essay, a different scale. They may have more time than auditors for insight, but those concise KPIs give a good manager more time for more insight.
For managers so harried that even with KPIs, they still don't have time for insight, they are better off with the KPIs than without. Of course, that still leaves the Buddhism, question of KPI quality. From the christopher warren essay, viewpoint of an application vendor, (I've been developing service management applications for and Hinduism, CA for christopher warren essay, quite a few years) KPIs present several problems: what are the research paper writing, right KPIs? How do you gather them? How do you present them? Who do you present them to? COBIT has helped with these problems. A few years ago, developers did not have much practical guidance for KPIs. We could go to our best and most forward thinking customers, we could glean ideas from ITIL, a few luminaries and some of the services folks in the field could all help, but you were still pretty much on warren essay, your own. COBIT is not the essay rubric middle, only place to go now, there are a number of useful publications now, and service management has become much more sophisticated.
As a result, I believe we may be seeing new and better service management metrics coming from all vendors. Regarding misinterpretation, cheaters and manipulation, I have to say that I don't think that is very important. Bad managers will always find a way to essay manage badly; but that is not a reason to deny good managers good tools. Marv http://community.ca.com/blogs/itservice. If you can measure it, you can administer it. Today I got a lovely quote from an ISACA training day: If you can measure it, you don't need to manage it: you can administer it. The idea came originally from Ross Anderson I think, developed by literary rubric school Alistair MacKenzie of our local ISACA chapter. Your argument confuses *what* to measure with *how* to measure.
The real obstacles to measurement are conceptual, not the christopher essay, methods. It is better to think of measurements as a keyhole through which some secret aspect of the world can be observed. Dissertation Members. Scientific instruments were once called philosophical engines as they were devices for answering the deep questions of the time. Measurement are simply a set of observations that reduce uncertainty where the warren essay, result is expressed as a quantity. The uncertainty reduction is what is critical to managers. A manager asked to make decisions under a state of uncertainty and risk can improve his performance, often financially, by using measurements. The bigger, riskier and essay etiquette more uncertain the decisions, then the greater the warren, importance of measurements for competent managers. [Myth Buster: Einstein did not get unimpressive grades.
He was in essay etiquette, fact a gifted student. After graduating 2nd in his class at Aarau school in Germany he was admitted to Zurich Polytechnic at warren, age 17 where he remained at and Hinduism, the top of his class until his research thesis. His professor, greatly annoyed by the insouciant young lad, awarded Albert's thesis the lowest possible grade stating that Einstein had not written it on proper regulation paper. Thus explaining how Einstein graduated near the bottom of his class.] Measurement are simply a set of observations that reduce uncertainty where the result is expressed as a quantity. I've read that book too, and it's really interesting! ;-) G2, Gobierno y Gestion de TI. I found the topic an christopher warren essay, interesting one, Especially from the skeptics perspective. I personally feel that KPI's are crucial in letter dissertation members, service delivery. Although the challenge for KPI's is the defining of christopher warren essay, them, we still need to measure against something.
How will we draw up a strong SLA if we do not have KPI's. And if KPI's do not exist then the whole point to continual service improvement is Reasons why relationships, lost. Warren. CSI is based purely on metrics. And CSI is crucial for keeping a company versitile and adaptive to change. Reasons Fail. I think the statement you cant manage what you cant measure is an extremely improtant statement in this context as it is making us aware that KPI's can be ambiguous.
It is up to an experienced manager to warren know what truly valuable KPI's are. KPI's are only paper writing help ambiguous if you do not understand what you are measuring or you are not entirely sure how to measure it. If this is the case DONT MEASURE IT. I've spoken a lot in warren, public about the value of KPIs. But has anyone experience of KPIs that have actually altered the way a service is delivered for the better? Spent alot of time in SixSigma projects (good ones surprisingly) which have delivered service level improvements, higher service quality, cost reduction, the whole nine yards.. Bad execution of SixSigma can cause all the problems that Skep outlines regarding inappropriate application of KPI's..
In the last 10ish years of being a consultant in this field I've had many discussions on beauty lies, metrics, measurements and KPI's. In many cases it is all a matter of semantics. What do you mean when you say KPI? And what is warren essay, measurement according to you? One of the beauty lies in simplicity essay, discussions was between the Markteting Manager and the Operations Manager of an Internet Service Provider. The Marketing Manager wanted the IT department to measure the essay, systems from his customers perspective: can they access the Internet, the Portal or their mail? While the Operations Manager wanted to measure the essay rubric middle school, availability of the individual systems: is the specific mail server running and is the link to the Internet Exchange still active?
We've chosen to christopher warren essay install two systems: Spike pretending to be an essay etiquette, user following a script and testing the end-to-end services. And Track monitoring the individual systems performance. And it turned out that in some cases Spike noticed some issues that Track didn't call on. And sometimes Track was saying that something was wrong while Spike didn't encounter any issues. Christopher Essay. In most cases though they would confirm each other. Sometimes the performance of the infrastructure will be less than what the users will experience. Sometimes it will be the other way around.
Well, in most cases it seems that users are experiencing less performance than the systems will show. Measuring the performance without asking the customers and users their perception is therefor not a very smart thing to do. And that is where I think the 7 step improvement process of CSI goes wrong. Yes, you'll need to measure your performance based on the KPI's you've set. These KPI's should be derived from the letter dissertation members, IT Strategy. And then you should ask your customers how they have perceived the delivered service and link this perception to the measured performance. Then, and essay only then, do you have sufficient information (knowledge, wisdom) to take action.
In the Microsoft Operations Framework cycle this is better understood. Lies Essay. There are two monthly reviews: the internal Operations Review looking at the performance of the services and the external Service Level Review looking at the perception of the essay, customers. Essay Etiquette. The second Review together with representatives of the warren, customers. Both Reviews lead to possible improvements. I would add that it is worth finding out what aspects of the service most affect the customer and user perception of service before setting up the metrics. A lot of the time we fail to measure and report on the things that cause most concern to our stakeholders. Don't think ITIL can claim #1.. Its been around in the process improvement, quality assurance disciplines since the beauty lies in simplicity, beginning of time..
About Management = People, I think you are drawing a pretty narrow conclusion. Although the warren, management of anything includes people, it is not exclusively for beauty lies, that purpose. Our relatives in Project Management might have a definition that is broader, or perhaps anything who is involved in Systems Management market. Management is christopher warren essay, about getting the best out of Buddhism, anything, or more specifically getting the essay, appropriate performance (assuming excellence is not always required). Your other statements about Mis-management of people are obviously true, because management of anything is in simplicity essay, 1 part science and many parts art. KPI's try and essay apply science to appropriate performance which is a necessary evil.
Of course, poor application of research paper help, science is dangerous. To not measure is equally dangerous from warren essay a personal and corporate perspective. At some point, someone is measuring the paper help, performance of your company, either in share price, budget, market share or whatever.. To not try and align people, process, services with the company through KPI's is negligence.. Just don't live and die by the sword.. #1 ITIL Implementation Project #2 ITIL Certification #3 IT Services Management = ITIL.
#4 ITIL V3 (you telling me its a product = as if service management best practice is evolving to warren essay a release schedule) $0.02 (and no reference to my blog this time :) A non-profit organization serving some altruistic purpose, or a cartel driving revenue for the bosses ? darn it Brad, how am I going to top those five? Management, governance and measurement. You're right that measurement is no substitute for management. Reasons. Good management is not easy and, consequently, not often found. There are many ways in which people given the job of 'manager' try to duck out of their responsibilities and relying on measurement as substitute for judgement and understanding what is going on is just one of them. It is christopher essay, also true that metrics, rightly, alter what they measure. If they are poorly chosen they distort what is measured. A famous case being the UK Health Service where the Reasons why relationships fail, measure was the length of christopher essay, waiting lists - the research paper writing help, measure was achieved. Congratulations all round.
Sadly it was done by creating a second invisible waiting list from which people were added to the official waiting list only when their procedure was scheduled within the target time. In 'Metrics for IT Service Management', I argue for using balancing metrics to try to detect and minimise this distortion - if they'd measured the length of christopher warren, waiting lists and the user satisfaction with the time they waited, then they'd have seen a magical improvement in one stat with none in the other, giving the game away. I'm a bit wary of the beauty lies, term KPI too. Christopher Warren. You only really know what your Key Indicators are after you've been measuring them for a while - it took some time for the car dashboard to and Hinduism settle down to speed, distance and fuel levels as the ubiquitous standard minimum indicators. You might know what you think you want your key results to warren be, but the KPI you set may not show you that. Since human behavior is Reasons why relationships, complex and people are not stupid, particularly when dealing with their own performance measures, setting good metrics is a subtle management task, not a suitable job for simplistic command and control freaks! If you want to prove that you've improved something, though, you need to show how, and christopher warren essay metrics are good for that - to tell you whether you've succeeded; if you choose them wisely. I can agree with you, but it is very obvious, isn't it. Neither Manage, nor Govern would be successfull if the person has no clue what or why they should do that in the first place. Research. Setting measurements already implies that you want to manage or govern something that makes sense.
In current business environments that might be a contradiction in terms. I am on my way to christopher warren essay the HP OV Universe in Barcelona and most properly I will hear that statement once every half hour and most probably by literary essay middle individuals who can not stay within the christopher essay, 30 or 45 minutes of research paper writing help, their allocated time. Christopher Warren. Looking forward to a great event in Barcelona where ITILV3 will be explained in relation to the SW acquisitiions recently done. What is HP announcing in essay etiquette, Barcelona. That they've finally figured out christopher what they're going to Buddhism and Hinduism to with OV Service Desk and (Peregrine) Service Center. Or that have have regained focus on christopher warren essay, their ITSM approach. or perhaps admit that all they really want to essay rubric sell is tin. The impression they left with most of the people I spoke to is one of uncertainty. Lets first look at what is new on the block. The Service Manager launch with new features compared to Service Center of which most were already available in christopher warren essay, Service Desk, supported by a (very necessary) migration factory that (ones finished) will be available to partners to why relationships help their customers to migrate.
Unfortunatly no pricing on licensing or migration. Christopher Warren Essay. The new Network Manager was not ready for rubric middle, a proper launch and left some dissappointments. Best of the show was the newish Opsware launch that really looks promising. The ITILv3 had its own booths with much emphasis on the HP coverage through their BTO, BSM, SOA and other related offerings. Most uncertain was the overarching message and essay value proposition of their bundled groupings like the ones mentioned. I almmost had the feeling that they lost the plot on their software offering spree. A lot of measurement statements for compliancy, performance and governance but no reasons why one would bother. The focus on business delivery and value seems to essay etiquette be copy pasted across all offerings without a clear central console or structure that could make sense out of the whirlpool of warren essay, solutions. The sentiments of the essay etiquette, old building blocks got a new positive impulse. The partners gave it their best shot and really showed that the current HP offerings packages need more before they can be sold as a usefull business solution that makes sense.
Maybe that is what we can expect from HP. They offer the broad message and grouping of solutions and christopher warren the partners create the practical connections in and Hinduism, between and to the business side. Anyway, a lot of gadgets, a great hotel and a well organised event made up for the lack of warren essay, clarity. This is a personal impression, based on discussions with partners, visitors, old clients, ex-HP colleagues and the bar lady. I can expect that others might not agree with the above and appreciate their opinion. I have implemented and trained OV Service Desk up to v4.5 when it was rock solid and straight forward. Sadly OVSD no longer holds the ground as my recommended ITSM tool; there are now players that have included Business Process Analysis modules to configure their software.
Basically the latest (and better) SM tools have forked away from HP. Being a Gaudi fan, Barcelona is high on my list of dream destinations, but not this time :-D. Attending AgileNZ, in Wellington on November 6-7. Speaking at DevOps Enterprise Summit USA (#DOES17) in San Francisco on November 13-15. Speaking at Pink Elephant ITSM Conference (#PINK18) in Orlando, Florida on February 18-21. All Day DevOps, online conference, October 24, 2017. DevOps for literary essay rubric school, Everyone with Rob England. Talking about my presentation at DOES UK.
The IT Skeptic on DevOpsTV at DOES16 San Francisco with the awesome Damon Edwards. A white paper on my Standard+Case model. Recently, Gene Kim and I interviewed each other about DevOps. I have been producing lately: - Kamu: improvements to ITSM, DevOps and Agile that come from learning from each other. - The IT Renaissance , the movement that generates DevOps, BYOD, Shadow IT, and warren other phenomena . this year's Big Idea. I don't get paid to say nice things and I don't get paid to review anything. You may have noticed Google and Amazon ads on the site, as well as ads for my books and merchandise. I make money off them, but sod all.
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USA vs Christopher Warren by Robin Medecke
2017-18 Common Application Essay Prompts: A Guide. Warren. Looking for essay etiquette help with the 2017-18 Common Application Essay? Below CEA’s Founder, Stacey Brook, breaks down all you need to warren essay, know about this year’s prompts. Stacey Brook, Founder and writing help, Chief Advisor. Warren. Hello, students and parents of the future class of 2022!
The time has come. The Common App essay prompts for 2017-18 have just been released and—spoiler alert—they’re pretty much the same as last year’s, with a few small but notable changes. Of the five prompts we have come to know and love so well, two remain exactly the dissertation committee members same, and three have undergone minor makeovers to christopher essay, expand the reach of dissertation committee members each question and the breadth of a student’s potential responses. The Common App has also added two new prompts to christopher essay, the pot, one of which is a return to the much-coveted “topic of your choice.” (Cue the confetti!) So 2017-18 college applicants will now have seven (that’s right, seven ) essay prompts to choose from. All of essay etiquette these changes are good news for applicants, who are freer than ever to explore essay topics of all tones, styles, and subjects, and who now have a few extra cues at their fingertips to help ignite their creativity. These personal stories and feats of christopher insight will again be relegated to 650 words, which equates to a little more than a single-spaced page. Middle School. We happen to believe this is the perfect amount of space in warren, which to Reasons, make a quick and powerful impression with admissions (or write a comprehensive fan letter to Beyonce), so as far as we’re concerned, you’re golden. Because we are committed to getting you the christopher essay most timely and comprehensive essay advice on the interweb, we have made a guide to help you navigate the ins and outs of all seven prompts. For those who have been using last year’s prompts as a reference up until now, we have noted which selections have been adjusted for the 2017-18 application cycle, and which prompts are new altogether.
Before you dive (or cannonball!) into our pool of essay advice, we’d like to leave you with one last little secret: the prompts are not actually as important as you think they are. In fact, in essay etiquette, our instructional video series and private advising, we encourage applicants to warren essay, root around for their most meaningful stories first and consider the prompts later. This is a process we call the Backwards Brainstorm, and you can learn more about it here. Fail. For now, the main point we want you to take away is this: The prompts don#8217;t really matter . What matters is the story you want to tell. (And that you floss at least every other day—trust us, it will pay off in the long run.) We are as sure as ever that every single one of you has a valuable story (or two or twelve!) to communicate to christopher warren, admissions. All it takes is ample time for reflection and lies in simplicity essay, a little writerly elbow grease to find it. So take a peek at what the 2017-18 application has in store for you, absorb what these prompts are really asking, and christopher, then forget about them (really!) as you explore the endless possibilities. PROMPT #1: Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it.
If this sounds like you, then please share your story. [No change] The Common App’s Prompt #1 is the Old Faithful of essay etiquette essay questions. It’s been around for years and offers all the warren flexibility an applicant could ask for from a prompt, with just enough direction to get those creative fountains flowing. Focus on the key words “background,” “identity,” “interest,” and Reasons fail, “talent” and use them as launch points for your brainstorming. What about your history, personality, hobbies, or accomplishments might be worth highlighting for an admissions officer? It can be something as small as seeing an episode of a television show (are you living life in the Upside Down?) or as large as the struggle of moving to a foreign country (especially if you had to leave behind grandma’s cooking). The most important thing to consider for this prompt is that your subject and/or perspective is dynamic and specific to you and who you are and no one else. Christopher Warren. Some questions to ask yourself as you brainstorm: What about rubric school, my history or background sets me apart from christopher, my peers? How do I define myself? How do the people who are closest to letter dissertation members, me define me? What have I achieved that has been integral in christopher, molding my character and ambitions?
What, in my seventeen years on this earth, has helped shape the person I am today? And some examples to consider: Has your family’s love of food and your resultant adventurous tastes and culinary curiosity allowed you to connect with cultures from beauty lies essay, around the world? Does your crazy, dyed-blue hair define you? Did going to a Picasso exhibit inspire you to start an art collection that has since expanded beyond the borders of your bedroom? Have your yearly trips to see your extended family in China revealed something to you about your parents’ ability to overcome challenges and the work ethic you have absorbed as a result? What are the challenges and rewards of having same-sex parents? Or of being raised by essay, your siblings? Or of being part of essay etiquette a family made up of warren stepsisters and research paper writing help, stepbrothers?
Overall, this prompt is what we at College Essay Advisors call a “choose-your-own-adventure” prompt. It has historically served as a fabulous catch-all for subjects that don’t fit within the confines of the other prompt options. A recent addition to the Common App’s prompt selection now offers even more freedom to applicants (more on that later), but students should still think of Prompt #1 as a topic of immense choice, reeled in essay, by a few helpful guidelines. PROMPT #2: The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to literary rubric school, later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure . How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? [Revisions in italics] We have always believed that essays about overcoming obstacles are most effective when they focus more on christopher warren essay solutions than problems. Accordingly, students’ responses to Prompt #2 should be directed at a student’s response, outlook, and demeanor when presented with one of Reasons fail life’s many hurdles, and applicants should aim to showcase qualities like resilience, determination, and humility. The obstacles you choose to christopher warren, explore can vary widely in nature, especially with the recent additions that allow students to Buddhism, explore challenges and setbacks in addition to failures. They can be as serious as being tormented by bullies, as ingrained as the financial issues that have plagued your family for years, or as seemingly pedestrian as a mistake that costs you a tip while waiting tables. While the possibilities are almost endless, students should be careful not to choose challenges that may seem trite (the inability to achieve an A on an exam and/or secure tickets to that Drake concert) or that illustrate a lapse in good judgment (that time you crashed your car or ate 15 bags of Cheetos in essay, one sitting). Reasons. Still, if you can isolate an incident of trial in your life and essay, how you learned from it, this can be a rewarding prompt to members, explore. Some key questions to consider: How do you deal with hardship?
What qualifies as a challenge or setback in your life and world? Are you the kind of person who can rebound—who turns every experience, good or bad, into christopher warren one from which you can learn something? What experiences might illustrate this quality? What have been some of the essay etiquette major challenges you’ve encountered in your life, and was there a silver lining? And a few examples to think about: Has a lifelong battle with stuttering ultimately increased your overall confidence and warren essay, allowed you to participate in lies essay, social activities and public forums without self-judgment?
Did a parent’s fragile health situation challenge you to christopher essay, take on more responsibilities than the average teenager? Did a series of research writing setbacks on your road to becoming a child actor introduce you to screenwriting, your professional goal and biggest passion? Did your failure to follow directions lead you to a botched home science experiment (root beer explosion!) and essay, an appreciation for a balance of creativity and planned procedure? Overall, try to keep these stories as positive as possible. Remember, these essays are not just contemplative musings on your toughest times or reflections on essay etiquette the hiccups that populate everyday life (though these things can certainly be touched upon); they are also about overcoming obstacles and refusing to submit to life’s greatest challenges. PROMPT #3: Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea.
What prompted your thinking ? What was the outcome ? [Revisions in italics] This remains one of the most challenging prompts of the Common App’s selection, even though it has become slightly friendlier with the addition of the option to discuss a time you questioned an idea instead of challenging it. This prompt requires a student to essay, speak passionately about beliefs and Reasons, ideology, which are often onerous subjects that can be difficult to mold into compact stories. It can be one of the hardest questions to steer in a positive, productive direction without traveling into preachy, overly didactic territory. This is also a more precarious prompt than most in that students need to carefully assess the risks of espousing beliefs that might be polarizing for the readers of their applications. That said, a response to this prompt can be incisive and christopher warren essay, deeply personal, as it was for a student who stood up to Reasons why relationships fail, her parents’ old-fashioned outlook on feminism. Applicants who can articulate their thoughts and feelings while showcasing malleability and willingness to christopher warren essay, thoughtfully consider the dissertation ideas of others will likely stand out as valuable additions to any campus. If this prompt jumps out at you because you have a very specific story to tell or opinion to warren essay, voice, run with it! Consider these questions as you brainstorm: When has your opinion been unpopular?
Why are you the essay kind of person who is willing to stand up for what you believe in? What is important to you on a fundamental level of morals and values? How passionate are you about the things you believe in? And here are a few examples for you to ponder: Are you openly gay in a strict Catholic school environment, and what has that meant for your self-esteem and personal relationships? Did you work as an warren essay intern on a political campaign caught at the center of a scandal? How did you react? Did you challenge the beauty lies essay idea of horror as a throwaway genre by executing an extensive research paper on christopher essay the subject, launching a horror movie club at school, and arranging the most elaborate, best-received haunted house your neighborhood has ever seen?
Your essay does not have to essay, be focused around a fundamentally serious or groundbreaking issue (see the horror genre example above). What matters most when responding to this prompt is that you have strong convictions about the belief or idea you are trying to convey, and christopher essay, that you examine the essay etiquette personal effects of this ethos on your life and world. For this reason, Prompt #3 can be a great vehicle for christopher essay showcasing your consideration, persuasive skills, and passions to admissions. PROMPT #4: Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma-anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. Beauty Lies. [No change] We love Prompt #4, which asks students to talk about a problem and how they solved or are planning to essay, solve it. This question is similar to research paper help, Prompt #2 in that it is christopher, meant to tease out a student’s problem-solving skills and Reasons fail, provide a glimpse into an applicant’s frame of mind when dealing with challenges. It also provides a few bonus opportunities for creative expression, leaving both the scale and the time frame for setting up a problem/solution wide open. Students should think about everything from more traditional obstacles they have had to warren, overcome to the small predicaments that have inspired them to dissertation members, think about what they really value.
Applicants should also keep in mind that this prompt can be approached from an aspirational perspective. In other words: you don’t simply have to choose from problems you’ve already solved. Warren Essay. Think about beauty in simplicity, what challenges the future might bring, both personally and on a global scale. How might you be part of meaningful progress and problem-solving moving forward? Some other questions to ponder: When have you been proactive in christopher essay, attempting to rubric middle, effect change? What inspires you to action? What kind of mark would you like to warren, leave on the world? How do you think you can positively contribute to beauty lies, a cause that is important to you? If you had the power to make a lasting impact in any area at all, what would it be? And examples to christopher essay, use as food for beauty in simplicity essay thought: Has your love of nature inspired you to start a charity to help save local endangered species?
Did your desire to make a stronger, non-tearable hockey lace launch you on an entrepreneurial adventure you never fully anticipated? Has your commitment to christopher essay, pursuing medical research inspired you to contact your favorite professors and researchers looking for summer lab positions, and to read every scientific paper you can get your hands on? It is Reasons, important that the problem you choose is linked to your life and world in a meaningful way. The whole purpose of this essay-writing exercise is to reveal something valuable about yourself to admissions, so be sure to link the problem you highlight to your passions, actions, or aspirations. And don’t forget to detail at least a few steps you would/could take to solve your chosen quandary.
While the prompts don’t really matter in christopher essay, the initial conception phases of an why relationships fail essay (as you now know), once you’ve backed into your prompt of choice, following instructions to the fullest and answering all parts of each question are critical. PROMPT #5: Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others . Christopher Warren Essay. [Revisions in italics] This is the literary essay rubric middle school most heavily revised of last year’s prompts, which used to christopher, ask students to describe a transition from childhood to adulthood. Essay Etiquette. The purview of the inquiry has been expanded to ask about christopher, personal growth in research paper writing, general, leaving the warren lessons and essay etiquette, timing of an applicant’s transformation more open-ended. Students are also now free to reflect on a “realization” in addition to an “event” or “occurrence.” While a realization that changes your understanding of the world will likely be sparked by a concrete marker (i.e., an event or accomplishment), we are happy to take the added flexibility from christopher, you, Common App. Thank you very much. There are a few things to note when unpacking this prompt. Keep in mind that the words “accomplishment” and “event” leave themselves open to research, interpretation; thus, an essay inspired by this question can tackle anything from a formal event to a very small occurrence. A formal event or accomplishment might include anything from obvious landmarks like birthdays or weddings, to achievements like earning an award or receiving a promotion. More informal examples might include something as simple as meeting a special person in your life, taking a car ride, or eating a particularly meaningful meal. We have often found that smaller, less formal events make for more surprising and christopher essay, memorable essays, but as with any of the other prompts, as long as you can answer with originality and put a unique twist on your subject matter, all ideas, formal or informal, big or small, are fair game. Your reflection on what you learned and how you grew will be a source of great insight for Buddhism admissions, and warren, you want to make sure your essay highlights the intangible qualities that don’t show up anywhere else on an application.
Some other things to consider: How do you react to periods of lies in simplicity transition? What inspires a change in your perspective? When have you had a “eureka” moment, and how has it impacted the way you lived your life thereafter? What were the moments in warren, life that fundamentally changed you as a person? When did you learn something that made you feel more adult, more capable, more grown up? Did your expansion of a handmade stationery hobby into a full-fledged business give you the letter members motivation and wherewithal to combat the effects of a debilitating illness? Have you learned to christopher warren, love the football team playback sessions that force you to routinely examine your mistakes but also to literary essay rubric middle, welcome constructive criticism and christopher warren, point yourself toward self-improvement? Did a summer-long role as the U.S.
President in a mock government and diplomacy exercise bring out leadership skills you never knew you had? What did playing bridge at a senior citizens’ home each week show you about the essay etiquette value of enjoyment over competition? How did this change the way you interact and connect with others? The most important thing to keep in mind when searching for these moments is the element of growth, understanding, and transformation. The event, accomplishment, or realization you discuss should be something that helped you understand the world around you through a different, more mature lens.
And, as with Prompt #4, be sure to christopher essay, answer all parts of the question. PROMPT #6: Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? [New!!] This is one of the Common App’s brand new additions for committee members the 2017-18 application cycle, and we cannot contain our nerdy excitement, especially since this prompt was built to highlight a student’s inner nerd. Christopher Warren. College, one could argue, is largely about the pursuit of knowledge, so you can imagine it would be quite appealing for an admissions officer to have a meter for dissertation your level of self-motivated learning, along with a better understanding of how and warren, why you choose to pay attention to the things that intrigue you. This is essay etiquette, a full-on peek into your brain: how you process information, how you seek out christopher essay new sources of content and inspiration. How resourceful are you when your curiosity is letter dissertation committee members, piqued to the fullest? The answer to this prompt should also reveal something to admissions about the breadth or depth of your interests. For example, if you’re interested in studying astrophysics, you might choose to discuss a concept that shows how far your exploration of the christopher warren essay sciences truly reaches. Literary Essay School. How consumed are you by this passion you are choosing to pursue academically? Some key questions to consider: What floats your boat?
Do you have an appetite for knowledge about something specific? Or as we’ve asked in the breakdown for christopher essay Prompt #1: What do you love, and essay etiquette, why do you love it? What lengths have you gone to in order to christopher warren essay, acquire new information about or experiences related to a topic of interest? How do you typically seek to enrich your knowledge when something appeals to you? Do you have a favorite corner or the Reasons library (or internet)? A mentor who is open to answering your burning questions? What about the essay process of learning, especially about fail, subjects that call out to you, is satisfying? And a few examples to get those wheels turning: Did the christopher warren essay idea of open source code inspire you to create a tech startup with a few of your friends? What projects do you work on, and why is the idea of sharing information still so revolutionary? Did getting an internship at an accounting firm inspire you to start each day by essay etiquette, checking the markets?
Do you participate in a mock trading club that allows you to use the expertise you gather from culling through economic news and analysis online and beyond? On any given Sunday morning, will we find you lost in the literature of Kurt Vonnegut or immersed in a collection of stories by Isaac Asimov? Have you taught yourself to master the warren essay compositions of Mozart and Beethoven and break down the songs of Bruno Mars by ear in your spare time? Do you have an obsession with pizza so intense it led you to study bread-making and keep a pizza journal that documents the 700+ slices you’ve consumed thus far? (We know someone who did this—really.) How is paper, pizza-making more scientific and/or artistic than the average person realizes? Whatever you’re into, embrace it. Show your feathers. Let your freak flag fly (within reason, obvs). This prompt is about the christopher warren pursuit of knowledge and your desire to proactively challenge yourself.
Whether you are devouring the classics on your Kindle or nerding out over research paper help the perfect cheese for calzone-making, your attachment to a subject may inspire admissions to want to learn more about it…and you. PROMPT #7: Share an essay on any topic of your choice. Christopher Warren. It can be one you’ve already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of why relationships your own design. [New!!] IT FINALLY HAPPENED. The return, not of the warren king, not of the Jedi, not even of the Mack, but of the Reasons topic of your choice. Warren Essay. Feared by Buddhism, some, coveted by others, and legendary in its existence, regardless of where you stand on the issue, this is a newsworthy edition to the 2017-18 Common App prompt choices. For years, students have been treating Prompt #1 (which asks about your background, etc.) as Topic of Your Choice Light—it wasn’t exactly the christopher delicious, full-freedom version students were looking for, but they were able to make it work in Buddhism, a pinch. Christopher Essay. Perhaps it was the Coalition Application’s inclusion of a topic of Buddhism and Hinduism your choice in their first-ever round of essay topic options (which will remain the same this year) that pressured the Common App to bring back the warren any-flavor-you-wish option to their application.
Regardless of the reason, applicants around the world likely let out a big exhale when they saw they could serve up a big scoop of Prompt #7 to admissions this year. While we won’t know for letter sure until the Common App’s full release (which usually happens in August), we are guessing that students might be required to christopher essay, fill in dissertation members, a custom prompt to match their essay response for christopher warren essay this true choose-your-own-adventure style query. For this reason, we recommend having a question of your own making at the ready if you choose to take advantage of Prompt #7. It will be good to committee members, have it on christopher warren hand, just in case, and it’s also a fun exercise in Reasons fail, wrapping your head around what exactly you are trying to accomplish with the subject you’ve chosen and the essay you have created. Christopher. Some questions to consider as you brainstorm, in addition to all of the ones we’ve posed thus far: What do you want admissions to know about you that they wouldn’t be able to glean from your transcript, test scores, or teacher recommendations? What are the stories that come up over and over again, at the dinner table or in the cafeteria with your friends, that might give admissions some insight into who you are and what is important to you? If you had ten minutes alone in a room with an admissions officer, what would you want to talk about or tell him or her about yourself? What would you bring to a college campus that no one else would or could? And a few examples of letter potential subjects and their related (custom!) prompts: Were you born with a congenital eye defect that literally (and metaphorically) affects how you see the world? ( Q: How is your perspective on the world unique?) Do you spend 40 minutes each Friday night tutoring a class of christopher warren essay elementary school students in Cambodia? How has that impacted the way you mete out your time and assess your commitments? ( Q: What is the value of 40 minutes?) Did your parents let your older brother choose your name?
What was his inspiration? (Please tell us your name is research paper writing, Gaston.) What does your name represent for you? How has it impacted your interactions in the world? ( Q: What’s in a name?) While being able to write about whatever you wish sounds great in christopher warren essay, theory, some students find—especially at the beginning of the brainstorming process—that they are debilitated by the “topic of your choice” option because it offers too much choice. If that is the case, fear not! Use some of the essay other prompts as starting points for your brainstorming and essay, freewriting journeys. Begin keeping a diary (now!) and jot down subjects, events, and memories as they float to the surface. Now that you have read our handy-dandy prompt guide and understand what admissions is looking for from these prompts, you could very well have a notebook filled with ideas that are ripe for expansion by Reasons fail, the time you sit down to write. So don’t worry about having too many ideas, or not having enough ideas, especially at the beginning of the topic selection process. Christopher Warren Essay. Once you figure out paper writing what you’d like to say (and maybe even after you draft the crux of the essay itself), see if your concept fits one of the christopher first six prompts.
Trying to Buddhism, back into a more specific prompt option may inspire an interesting spin on the story you are trying to tell—one you may not have thought of otherwise. If, after careful consideration, your magic essay topic does not work within the confines of Prompts 1-6, you are in luck. The glorious, all-encompassing Prompt #7 will be here to christopher warren essay, catch you. Buddhism. With some brainstorming and hard work, every student can uncover a story worth telling in warren essay, response to essay etiquette, one of these prompts. Remember, admissions wants a glimpse of your personality, your values, your interests and warren essay, your passions. They want to get an idea of what kind of attitude and energy you will bring to rubric, the classroom and campus life. So take a few minutes to probe your memories, collect your stories and strike up that creative core. Every student has a fabulous essay inside of them – these prompts can help you find yours. Contact us for information on rates and christopher essay, more!
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USA vs Christopher Warren by Robin Medecke
Free Information Technology essays. The experienced growth in christopher warren the use of Buddhism, digital networks has led to the need for the design of new communication networks with higher capacity. The telecom industry is expected to continue to christopher essay, grow as demand increases for cable and high-speed internet in previously un-serviced locations and as local telephone companies upgrade their lines in response to increasing competitions. Broadband wireless sits at the confluence of two of the most remarkable growth stories of the telecommunications industry in recent years. Both wireless and broadband have on their own enjoyed rapid mass-market adoption. Wireless mobile services grew from 11 million subscribers worldwide in 1990 to more than 200 billion in 2014.
During the same period, the Internet grew from being a curious academic tool to having about a billion users. This staggering growth of the Internet is essay etiquette driving demand for higher-speed Internet-access services, leading to a parallel growth in broadband adoption. Warren Essay. In less than a decade, broadband subscription worldwide has grown from virtually zero to over 200 million. Will combining the fail, convenience of wireless with the rich performance of broadband be the next frontier for growth in christopher essay the industry? Can such a combination be technically and commercially viable? Can wireless deliver broadband applications and services that are of interest to the end users? Many industry observers believe so. Before we delve into essay etiquette, broadband wireless, let us review the state of broadband access today. Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, which delivers broadband over warren essay, twisted-pair telephone wires, and cable modem technology, which delivers over coaxial cable TV plant, are the predominant mass-market broadband access technologies today.
Both of these technologies typically provide up to a few megabits per second of data to each user, and continuing advances are making several tens of megabits per second possible. Reasons Why Relationships Fail. Since their initial deployment in the late 1990s, these services have enjoyed considerable growth. Worldwide, this number is more than 200 million today and is projected to grow to more than 400 million by 2020. The availability of a wireless solution for broadband could potentially accelerate this growth. What are the applications that drive this growth?
Broadband users worldwide are finding that it dramatically changes how we share information, conduct business, and christopher warren, seek entertainment. Broadband access not only provides faster Web surfing and quicker file downloads but also enables several multimedia applications, such as real-time audio and paper, video streaming, multimedia conferencing, and interactive gaming. Warren Essay. Broadband connections are also being used for voice telephony using voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology. More advanced broadband access systems, such as fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and very high data rate digital subscriber loop (VDSL), enable such applications as entertainment-quality video, including high-definition TV (HDTV) and Buddhism, video on christopher warren, demand (VoD). As the broadband market continues to research paper writing help, grow, several new applications are likely to emerge, and it is difficult to predict which ones will succeed in the future. So what is broadband wireless? Broadband wireless is christopher warren about bringing the broadband experience to a wireless context, which offers users certain unique benefits and help, convenience. Christopher Warren Essay. There are two fundamentally different types of broadband wireless services. The first type attempts to provide a set of services similar to that of the traditional fixed-line broadband but using wireless as the medium of transmission. This type, called fixed wireless broadband, can be thought of as a competitive alternative to essay etiquette, DSL or cable modem. The second type of broadband wireless, called mobile broadband, offers the additional functionality of warren, portability, nomadicity, and mobility.
Mobile broadband attempts to bring broadband applications to new user experience scenarios and hence can offer the end user a very different value proposition. WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) technology is designed to Reasons why relationships, accommodate both fixed and mobile broadband applications. In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of broadband wireless. The objective is to present the background and context necessary for essay, understanding WiMAX. 1.2 Evolution of Broadband Wireless. The history of Buddhism and Hinduism, broadband wireless as it relates to WiMAX can be traced back to the desire to find a competitive alternative to traditional wire line-access technologies.
Spurred by the deregulation of the telecom industry and the rapid growth of the Internet, several competitive carriers were motivated to find a wireless solution to bypass incumbent service providers. During the past decade or so, a number of wireless access systems have been developed, mostly by start-up companies motivated by the disruptive potential of wireless. These systems varied widely in their performance capabilities, protocols, frequency spectrum used, applications supported, and warren, a host of other parameters. Some systems were commercially deployed only to be decommissioned later. Successful deployments have so far been limited to a few niche applications and beauty lies, markets.
Clearly, broadband wireless has until now had a checkered record, in part because of the fragmentation of the industry due to the lack of a common standard. The emergence of WiMAX as an industry standard is expected to change this situation. Given the wide variety of solutions developed and christopher essay, deployed for broadband wireless in the past, a full historical survey of these is beyond the scope of this section. Instead, we provide a brief review of some of the essay etiquette, broader patterns in this development. WiMAX technology has evolved through four stages, albeit not fully distinct or clearly sequential: 1. Narrowband wireless local-loop systems, 2. First-generation line-of-sight (LOS) broadband systems, 3. Essay. Second-generation non-line-of-sight (NLOS) broadband systems, and.
4. Standards-based broadband wireless systems. 1.2.1 Narrowband Wireless Local-Loop Systems. Naturally, the first application for which a wireless alternative was developed and literary middle school, deployed was voice telephony. These systems, called wireless local-loop (WLL), were quite successful in developing countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, and Russia, whose high demand for basic telephone services could not be served using existing infrastructure. In fact, WLL systems based on the digital-enhanced cordless telephony (DECT) and code division multiple access (CDMA) standards continue to be deployed in christopher essay these markets. In markets in which a robust local-loop infrastructure already existed for Buddhism and Hinduism, voice telephony, WLL systems had to offer additional value to be competitive.
Following the commercialization of the Internet in 1993, the demand for Internet-access services began to surge, and many saw providing high-speed Internet-access as a way for christopher, wireless systems to differentiate them. For example, in February 1997, ATT announced that it had developed a wireless access system for the 1,900MHz PCS (personal communications services) band that could deliver two voice lines and a 128kbps data connection to subscribers. This system, developed under the code name ‘Project Angel,’ also had the distinction of being one of the beauty lies in simplicity essay, first commercial wireless systems to use adaptive antenna technology. After field trials for a few years and a brief commercial offering, ATT discontinued the service in December 2001, citing cost run-ups and poor take-rate as reasons. During the christopher warren essay, same time, several small start-up companies focused solely on providing Internet-access services using wireless. These wireless Internet service provider (WISP) companies typically deployed systems in the license-exempt 900MHz and 2.4GHz bands. Most of paper writing help, these systems required antennas to be installed at the customer premises, either on rooftops or under the christopher essay, eaves of their buildings. Deployments were limited mostly to select neighborhoods and small towns. These early systems typically offered speeds up to literary middle, a few hundred kilobits per second. Later evolutions of license-exempt systems were able to provide higher speeds. 1.2.2 First-Generation Broadband Systems.
As DSL and cable modems began to christopher, be deployed, wireless systems had to evolve to essay etiquette, support much higher speeds to be competitive. Systems began to be developed for higher frequencies, such as the 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz bands. Very high speed systems, called local multipoint distribution systems (LMDS), supporting up to several hundreds of essay, megabits per second, were also developed in millimeter wave frequency bands, such as the letter dissertation, 24GHz and 39GHz bands. Christopher Essay. LMDS based services were targeted at business users and in the late 1990s enjoyed rapid but short-lived success. Problems obtaining access to rooftops for installing antennas, coupled with its shorter range capabilities, squashed its growth. In the late 1990s, one of the more important deployments of wireless broadband happened in the so-called multichannel multipoint distribution services (MMDS) band at 2.5GHz. The MMDS band was historically used to provide wireless cable broadcast video services, especially in rural areas where cable TV services were not available. The advent of satellite TV ruined the wireless cable business, and operators were looking for alternative ways to use this spectrum. A few operators began to offer one-way wireless Internet-access service, using telephone line as the return path.
In September 1998, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) relaxed the rules of the MMDS band in the United States to allow two-way communication services, sparking greater industry interest in the MMDS band. MCI WorldCom and Sprint each paid approximately $1 billion to essay etiquette, purchase licenses to warren, use the MMDS spectrum, and essay etiquette, several companies started developing high-speed fixed wireless solutions for this band. The first generation of these fixed broadband wireless solutions was deployed using the same towers that served wireless cable subscribers. Christopher Essay. These towers were typically several hundred feet tall and enabled LOS coverage to distances up to 35 miles, using high-power transmitters. First-generation MMDS systems required that subscribers install at their premises outdoor antennas high enough and pointed toward the tower for a clear LOS transmission path. Sprint and MCI launched two-way wireless broadband services using first-generation MMDS systems in letter a few markets in christopher early 2000. The outdoor antenna and LOS requirements proved to letter dissertation committee members, be significant impediments. Besides, since a fairly large area was being served by a single tower, the christopher essay, capacity of these systems was fairly limited.
Similar first-generation LOS systems were deployed internationally in the 3.5GHz band. 1.2.3 Second-Generation Broadband Systems. Second-generation broadband wireless systems were able to overcome the LOS issue and to provide more capacity. This was done through the use of a cellular architecture and essay etiquette, implementation of advanced-signal processing techniques to improve the link and system performance under multipath conditions. Several start-up companies developed advanced proprietary solutions that provided significant performance gains over christopher, first-generation systems. Most of these new systems could perform well under non-line-of-sight conditions, with customer-premise antennas typically mounted under the eaves or lower. Many solved the NLOS problem by letter members, using such techniques as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), code division multiple access (CDMA), and multiantenna processing. Some systems, such as those developed by SOMA Networks and Navini Networks, demonstrated satisfactory link performance over a few miles to desktop subscriber terminals without the need for an antenna mounted outside. A few megabits per second throughput over cell ranges of a few miles had become possible with second generation fixed wireless broadband systems. 1.2.4 Emergence of Standards-Based Technology. In 1998, the warren essay, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a group called 802.16 to develop a standard for what was called a wireless metropolitan area network, or wireless MAN.
Originally, this group focused on developing solutions in the 10GHz to 66GHz band, with the primary application being delivering high-speed connections to businesses that could not obtain fiber. These systems, like LMDS, were conceived as being able to tap into fiber rings and to distribute that bandwidth through a point-to-multipoint configuration to LOS businesses. The IEEE 802.16 group produced a standard that was approved in December 2001. This standard, Wireless MAN-SC, specified a physical layer that used single-carrier modulation techniques and a media access control (MAC) layer with a burst time division multiplexing (TDM) structure that supported both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and paper help, time division duplexing (TDD). After completing this standard, the essay, group started work on extending and modifying it to work in both licensed and license-exempt frequencies in the 2GHz to 11GHz range, which would enable NLOS deployments. This amendment, IEEE 802.16a, was completed in 2003, with OFDM schemes added as part of the physical layer for supporting deployment in multipath environments. Dissertation Committee. By this time, OFDM had established itself as a method of warren essay, choice for dealing with multipath for broadband and was already part of the revised IEEE 802.11 standards. Reasons. Besides the OFDM physical layers, 802.16a also specified additional MAC-layer options, including support for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).
Further revisions to 802.16a were made and completed in 2004. This revised standard, IEEE 802.16-2004, replaces 802.16, 802.16a, and 802.16c with a single standard, which has also been adopted as the basis for essay, HIPERMAN (high-performance metropolitan area network) by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). In 2003, the 802.16 group began work on enhancements to the specifications to allow vehicular mobility applications. Research Paper Writing. That revision, 802.16e, was completed in December 2005 and was published formally as IEEE 802.16e-2005. It specifies scalable OFDM for the physical layer and makes further modifications to the MAC layer to accommodate high-speed mobility. As it turns out, the IEEE 802.16 specifications are a collection of standards with a very broad scope. Christopher Warren. In order to accommodate the Buddhism and Hinduism, diverse needs of the industry, the standard incorporated a wide variety of options.
In order to develop interoperable solutions using the 802.16 family of standards, the christopher, scope of the standard had to essay etiquette, be reduced by establishing consensus on christopher essay, what options of the standard to letter, implement and test for interoperability. The IEEE developed the specifications but left to the industry the task of converting them into christopher warren essay, an interoperable standard that can be certified. The WiMAX Forum was formed to solve this problem and to dissertation committee members, promote solutions based on christopher warren essay, the IEEE 802.16 standards. Why Relationships. The WiMAX Forum was modeled along the lines of the christopher warren, Wi-Fi Alliance, which has had remarkable success in promoting and providing interoperability testing for products based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards. The WiMAX Forum enjoys broad participation from the Buddhism and Hinduism, entire cross-section of the industry, including semiconductor companies, equipment manufacturers, system integrators, and service providers. The forum has begun interoperability testing and announced its first certified product based on IEEE 802.16-2004 for warren, fixed applications in January 2006. Products based on IEEE 802.18e-2005 are expected to be certified in early 2007. Many of the vendors that previously developed proprietary solutions have announced plans to lies, migrate to christopher warren essay, fixed and/or mobile WiMAX. The arrival of WiMAX-certified products is a significant milestone in the history of essay, broadband wireless. 1.3 WiMAX versus 3G and Wi-Fi.
How does WiMAX compare with the existing and emerging capabilities of 3G and christopher warren essay, Wi-Fi? The throughput capabilities of WiMAX depend on the channel bandwidth used. Unlike 3G systems, which have a fixed channel bandwidth, WiMAX defines a selectable channel bandwidth from 1.25MHz to 20MHz, which allows for a very flexible deployment. When deployed using the more likely 10MHz TDD (time division duplexing) channel, assuming a 3:1 downlink-to-uplink split and Reasons, 2 ” 2 MIMO, WiMAX offers 46Mbps peak downlink throughput and 7Mbps uplink. The reliance of Wi-Fi and WiMAX on OFDM modulation, as opposed to CDMA as in 3G, allows them to support very high peak rates. The need for spreading makes very high data rates more difficult in CDMA systems.
More important than peak data rate offered over an individual link is the average throughput and overall system capacity when deployed in a multicellular environment. From a capacity standpoint, the more pertinent measure of system performance is spectral efficiency. The fact that WiMAX specifications accommodated multiple antennas right from the start gives it a boost in spectral efficiency. In 3G systems, on the other hand, multiple-antenna support is being added in the form of revisions. Further, the OFDM physical layer used by WiMAX is more amenable to MIMO implementations than are CDMA systems from the standpoint of the christopher warren, required complexity for comparable gain. OFDM also makes it easier to exploit frequency diversity and multiuser diversity to improve capacity. Therefore, when compared to 3G, WiMAX offers higher peak data rates, greater flexibility, and higher average throughput and system capacity. Another advantage of research paper writing, WiMAX is its ability to efficiently support more symmetric links’useful for fixed applications, such as T1 replacement’and support for flexible and dynamic adjustment of the downlink-to-uplink data rate ratios. Typically, 3G systems have a fixed asymmetric data rate ratio between downlink and christopher warren, uplink. What about in terms of supporting advanced IP applications, such as voice, video, and multimedia?
How do the technologies compare in terms of prioritizing traffic and controlling quality? The WiMAX media access control layer is built from the ground up to support a variety of traffic mixes, including real-time and non-real-time constant bit rate and variable bit rate traffic, prioritized data, and best-effort data. Such 3G solutions as HSDPA and 1x EV-DO were also designed for a variety of QoS levels. Perhaps the most important advantage for WiMAX may be the Buddhism, potential for lower cost owing to its lightweight IP architecture. Using an IP architecture simplifies the christopher essay, core network’3G has a complex and separate core network for voice and data’and reduces the capital and paper writing help, operating expenses. IP also puts WiMAX on a performance/price curve that is christopher warren essay more in line with general-purpose processors (Moore’s Law), thereby providing greater capital and why relationships, operational efficiencies. IP also allows for easier integration with third-party application developers and makes convergence with other networks and applications easier. In terms of supporting roaming and high-speed vehicular mobility, WiMAX capabilities are somewhat unproven when compared to those of 3G. In 3G, mobility was an integral part of the christopher essay, design; WiMAX was designed as a fixed system, with mobility capabilities developed as an add-on feature. In summary, WiMAX occupies a somewhat middle ground between Wi-Fi and 3G technologies when compared in the key dimensions of data rate, coverage, QoS, mobility, and price. Nowadays, life does not seem feasible without wireless networks in and Hinduism one or the other form.
Wireless is becoming the leader in communication choices among users. In the current era life is converging towards the cable less environment where the last mile connectivity can be easily achievable without the need of physical connections. So the field of wireless communication is christopher continuously emerging one which is the demand for the transfer of data with high speed and research paper help, with long coverage range. The claim for broadband mobile services continues to grow. Usually, high-speed broadband solutions are based on wired-access technologies such as digital subscriber line (DSL). This type of solution is warren not easy to beauty, deploy in remote rural areas, and furthermore it lacks support for terminal mobility.] Also the essay, gradual development in the use of wireless networks has led to Buddhism, the requirement for the design of new modern communication networks with higher capacity and christopher essay, lower error rate. Literary Essay Rubric. The telecommunication industry is also upgrading, with a requirement for a greater range of christopher warren essay, services, such as video conferences, or applications with multimedia contents. The increased dependence on members, computer networking and the internetwork has resulted in a larger demand for connections to be allotted any time, any place, leading to a increase in the requirements for greater capacity and ultimate reliable broadband wireless communication systems.
For this issue, new technologies with high throughput with less requirement of bandwidth have been designed. As a matter of fact the requirements on bandwidth and spectrum availability are endless. Christopher Warren Essay. As a result, the dissertation committee members, designers working in christopher the domain of Reasons fail, wireless communication has to face the lots of difficulties to fulfill the christopher essay, requirement of bandwidth for the efficient and accurate transmission and reception. Moreover the problems of time varying nature of channel such as fading and multipath put the limitation on the performance of high data rate with good quality of service. The demands for greater capacity, high reliability as well as accuracy are the prime requisites for the forth coming generations of the wireless networking systems such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX, etc. 1.5 Objective of Thesis. How to deal with fading and with interference is central aim to the design of wireless communication systems, and by taking the advantage of multi-path fading and essay school, improving the system capacity and bit rate of 4G modern wireless system will be the fundamental objective of this research work. The research work includes the performance analysis of following points: ‘ To study and to analysis the performance of forthcoming future generation wireless networking technique i.e. WiMAX as the upcoming 4G standard for meeting the requirements of last mile end to end wireless network with greater system capacity with improved bit error rate. ‘ To analyze the features of antenna diversity techniques in wireless communication for nullifying the limitations due to multipath fading by simulating the system in terms of system throughput and bit error rate under MATLAB based environment.
‘ To simulate the complete WiMAX system by implementing antenna diversity techniques and Alamouti coding in it to christopher, fulfill the current demands of the letter members, modern wireless networks with the anticipation of improvement in warren essay bit error rate thereby increment in beauty in simplicity essay system reliability. 1.6 Organization of Thesis. This research work examines the essay, modeling, simulation and comparative analysis of WiMAX system along with the implementation of various antenna diversity techniques in why relationships fail it built with MATLAB. The whole thesis is organized in 6 chapters. Chapter 1 deals the introduction of the broadband technology used in the WiMAX system. Chapter 2 deals the all related work by the previous researchers.
In this chapter we discuss the paper based on christopher warren essay, the previous work associated with the WiMAX system and Buddhism and Hinduism, found problem in the WiMAX system. Chapter 3 deals the fundamentals of the WiMAX system. This chapter discusses the basics of the WiMAX system for modeling purpose. Chapter 4 deals the christopher warren essay, technology used in the WiMAX system. In these chapter diversity techniques is conceptually discussed. Also discuss the antenna diversity too. Chapter 5 is based on letter dissertation members, the chapter 3 to 4. In this chapter a simulink model is generated with the result to christopher warren, analyzed the literary essay middle, WiMAX physical layer for antenna diversity. Chapter 6 is the conclusion and future work of the thesis. In this section, a brief review of literature on Performance of Antenna Diversity Techniques, Alamouti Coding Scheme, WiMAX Broadband Wireless Access Technology, Mobile WiMAX Technology, IEEE 802.16 Standards, Efficient Wireless Channels and warren essay, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Technique are reported and discussed. 2.2 Related work.
Abdulrahman Yarali, Saifur Rahman  describes the overview of the literary essay middle, forthcoming most promising wireless system WiMAX-Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. In this research paper the christopher warren, basic WiMAX introduction, comparison with the existing wireless systems, types of IEEE standards as well as layered structure has been included. This paper presented a brief description of some of the major functions of a WiMAX network architecture currently being designed and specified in the network group. This paper is useful to analyze the basic architecture and paper help, supporting features of christopher warren, WiMAX for this research work. Mai Tran, George Zaggoulos, Andrew Nix and essay etiquette, Angela Doufexi  describes the current demand of wireless communication system is to christopher, achieve highest capacity with lowest requirement of bandwidth and improved error rate. The mobile WiMAX is the wonderful invention which is fulfilling the latest demand.
This research paper presents the theoretical aspect of the mobile WiMAX system whose remarkable features are scalable OFDM and Advanced antenna techniques such as MIMO. Each and every parameter which are required to build and to model the beauty lies in simplicity, WiMAX system such as channel coding, sampling frequency, sampling period, symbol duration of OFDM, modulation scheme, etc. have been discussed in this paper which are the useful matters to develop a simulation model of this research work. Liangshan Ma, Dongyan Jia  analyses both the competitive and christopher warren, cooperative relationships between WiMAX, WLAN and 3G from various aspects such as technical standards, current status and future trends, etc. WiMAX and Buddhism, WLAN are two most emerging IEEE standards for providing efficient wireless networking whereas 3G is the most important mobile communication standard for providing highest speed along with maximum accuracy. This paper represents the SWOT analysis with respect to market trend between these three technologies. This paper will be helpful to understand the role of christopher warren, one technique to cope up with other technologies. Abdulrahman Yarali Bwanga Mbula Ajay Tumula  identifies the cost effective, flexible 4th generation standard of IEEE i.e.
WiMAX system which is help becoming the warren essay, perfect solution to meet the current demands of the future wireless networks thereby providing the tough competition to the existing 3G standards. This paper includes the beauty lies, modeling of WiMAX layer by considering its physical layer as well as various parameters related to it which is the christopher, main utilization in this research work. The two variants of WiMAX system i.e. fixed WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) and mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) have been included in the paper which helps to essay etiquette, derive the characteristics of WiMAX system. From the aspect of WiMAX modeling, this paper is very useful in this research work. Sassan Ahmadi, Intel Corporation presents the thorough analysis of IEEE 802.16 architecture which is becoming the most popular 4G standard for the different mobile communication applications. The growing demand for mobile Internet and wireless multimedia applications has motivated the christopher, development of research, broadband wireless access technologies in christopher recent years.
Mobile WiMAX has enabled convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks through a common wide-area radio-access technology and flexible network architecture. The theoretical aspect of WiMAX architecture and parameters of this paper at very minute level helps in this research work to understand the paper writing help, whole WiMAX system. Hicham Yehia and Hany Kamal  discusses the warren essay, effect of interference in the WiMAX network thereby analyzing the effect of the same on the capacity of the network. Literary Rubric Middle School. Due to imperfections at both the ends of the system i.e. at transmitter and at the receiver, the interference can occur which limits the system performance. Essay. At the transmitter due to inefficient filter response, spurious transmission can be encountered and at the receiver, due to insufficient selectivity, the why relationships fail, interference will occur. Christopher Warren Essay. The paper checks the effects of essay etiquette, this kind of interference in warren essay the WiMAX system which is the and Hinduism, main reason behind the degradation in essay the network capacity. Raj Jain, Chakchai So-In, And Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi  basically deals with the analysis of one to literary middle, one layer of the WiMAX network which is the very important issue from the view point of service providers and network developers. The paper includes the warren, system level modeling at and Hinduism various levels such as physical layer modeling, MAC layer modeling, interference level modeling, frequency level modeling, etc so as to analyze many system level parameters. The readings and observations generated at the abstract level are the very useful outcomes for this research work. Nedeljko Cvejic and Seppanen, Tapio  illustrate that for the efficient and fruitful wireless communication, the christopher warren, virtual channel i.e. Research Paper. radio channel of propagation should be modeled properly.
This paper estimates the efficiency of AWGN channel and Rayleigh channel under different scenarios. Warren Essay. As per the nature of application, the type of channel modeling should get selected. In this paper, the concentration is on the modern digital video compression technique i.e. mp3 system where during watermarking, the Buddhism and Hinduism, impairment due to noise in the transmission would be analyzed by modeling the channel as Rayleigh channel which is frequency selective channel not by AWGN channel. This paper justifies the warren essay, utility and use of channel modeling in this research. Daniele Lo Iacono, Marco Ronchi, Luigi Della Torre, and Fabio Osnato discuss that in today’s world, the main goal of any system is to achieve highest system capacity with lowest error rate which is not possible with single transmitter and single receiving antenna because it can’t overcome the effects of fading. For this particular reason, the current wireless communication trend is tilting towards the essay etiquette, multiple transmitter and multiple receiver antenna systems i.e. MIMO technology in which the effect of multipath fading can be strongly eliminated. This research paper is based on the same fundamental by considering the effect and application of MIMO technique with the implementation of OFDM in wireless communication system. The methodology and results derived from the experiment of MIMO and OFDM are very useful deductions for christopher warren, this research work. Onsy Abdel Alim, Hiba S. Beauty Lies Essay. Abdallah and Azza M. Elaskary  discusses two main issues.
The first one presents models for simulating OFDM WiMAX system in Simulink including channel estimation and equalization subsystems in MATLAB functions. Christopher Warren. Next, the essay rubric middle school, effect of channel estimation error on the performance of christopher warren, MIMO VBLAST receivers in uncorrelated Rayleigh flat fading channels is investigated. In the first part, WiMAX top level Simulink with all system details have been implemented for simulation purpose. In the second part, the performance of MIMO VBLAST ZF receivers over uncorrelated Rayleigh flat fading channels in the presence of channel estimation error is investigated. This IEEE transaction is very much useful to essay etiquette, derive the christopher warren, simulation model of the WiMAX system along with the reference BER reading with MIMO implementation. Mohab Shalash, Tallal El Shabrawy and Waleed Diab  covers a thorough study of wideband frequency selective channels from the perspective of multi-carrier modulation system. Wideband communications systems suffer from frequency selective channels. Accordingly, 3G/4G systems have endorsed the concept of multi-carrier modulation such as OFDM and MC-CDMA, where the wideband channel is sub-divided into numerous subcarriers.
This research paper is useful to analyze the behavior of various wireless channels such as Rayleigh and Rician channel along with the essay etiquette, basic parameters of it for modeling purpose. For 3G and 4G systems how the different channels and their parameters are affecting the christopher, behavior of the whole system while modeling was the true strength of this paper for this research work point of view. Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Sabir Ghauri  discusses the model building of the WiMAX Physical layer using Simulink in MATLAB. This model is a useful tool for performance evaluation of the research paper, WiMAX standards 802.16e under the various parameters like carrier frequency, frequency bands, bandwidth, radio technology etc which have been mentioned. For this research work, this IEEE transaction will be the mile stone. This paper is christopher essay useful to find the most valuable information regarding the modeling of the Reasons why relationships, WiMAX physical layer with the warren essay, various aspects of OFDM and MIMO.
For WIMAX System modeling, this research paper may come across the very minute detailing of each and every blocks of the WiMAX modeling along with the most precise readings. Vahid Tarokh, Nambi Seshadr and A. R. Calderbank  basically includes the characterization of wide band wireless channel for essay etiquette, the future wireless technologies along with the feature of antenna diversity. In this paper the most practical approach of increasing the capacity of the channel has been presented for modern wireless communication systems with the christopher essay, introduction of in simplicity essay, antenna diversity and space time codes i.e. Alamouti coding. This paper provides the base for christopher warren, this research work regarding the different antenna diversity techniques such as SIMO, MISO, MIMO along with the space time coding. Tao Jiang and research paper writing, Weidong Xiang  describes Multimedia Multicast and Broadcast service (MBS) over wireless links, such as mobile TV and IP radio broadcasting. As one of the most promising enabling technologies, mobile WiMAX can offer scalability in both radio access and network architecture, thus providing important flexibility in terms of network services and christopher, deployment options.
This paper presents the overview of network architecture of OFDM based WiMAX system. Also the essay school, enhanced features such as antenna diversity, multiple modulation schemes, etc which can be a part of WiMAX system for improved network performance are the helpful contents for this research work. Kamran Etemad  discusses the brief of Mobile WiMAX technology with the christopher warren essay, layered architecture and evolution. Mobile WiMAX combines OFDMA and paper help, advanced MIMO schemes along with flexible bandwidth and fast link adaptation, creating a highly efficient air interface that exceeds the capacity of existing and christopher essay, evolving 3G radio access networks. This research paper is useful for the implementation of essay, advanced antenna techniques and christopher essay, OFDMA in the physical layer of help, WiMAX to improve Quality of Service. Chengshan Xiao, Jingxian Wu, Sang-Yick Leong and Yahong Rosa Zheng  presents a new discrete-time channel model for MIMO systems over space-selective (or spatially correlated), time-selective (or time-varying), and christopher, frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels, which are referred to as triply selective Rayleigh fading channels.
MIMO is the essay middle, current trends in the modern cellular system towards achieving high data rate with low error rate. This paper is helpful in deriving the performance analysis of MIMO system with Rayleigh channel for the research work. Here in this the discrete time channel model has been developed which evaluates the christopher essay, statistical properties of the system. Zakhia Abichar, Yanlin Peng and J. Morris Chang  includes the brief of WiMAX and middle school, its layered architecture i.e. physical layer and MAC layer. The theoretical aspects presented in this chapter define the christopher warren essay, functioning as well features of Reasons, MAC layer and christopher essay, Physical layer. The MAC layer of the WiMAX technology decides the quality of service and the algorithms related to error control while physical layer is responsible for data transfer with high capacity and low error rate. This paper is purely helpful for the theoretical survey of WiMAX system in the research work. H. Farhat, G. Grunfelder, A. Carcelen and research paper help, G. Christopher Essay. El Zein  Illustrate that to improve data rates and to enhance the quality of the system for the future generation wireless systems, the essay etiquette, most prominent solution is antenna diversity techniques i.e. MIMO. The referred reference paper gives the design of MIMO channel sounder utilized for the WiMAX technology.
The basic illustrations given in this paper related to MIMO system design along with channel characteristic analysis are the christopher warren, useful estimates for Buddhism, this research work. Onsy Abdel Alim, Nemat Elboghdadly, Mahmoud M. Ashour, Azza M. Elaskary  has the objective of christopher essay, building a System level model for a WiMAX Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing based transceiver. And Hinduism. OFDM technique theoretically saves the bandwidth about 50%. Modeling irradiation noise as an external effect added to the Additive White Gaussian noise (AWGN). This paper represents the basic simulation model of WiMAX OFDM system which is the most important helpful aspect of the paper in this research work. Mikko Majanen, Pekka H. J. Perala and Thomas Casey  describes that the demand for mobile internet access is essay continuing its growth at increasing speed. New wireless access technologies compete with each other at the global market and essay etiquette, it is warren still unsure which one will be the winner. One of the most promising ones is essay etiquette WiMAX which is based on IEEE 802.16 air interface standard.
This paper includes the WiMAX simulation model along with the handover process. The paper is useful to analyze the three types of handover process i.e. hard handover, fast base station switching and macro diversity handover and their comparative analysis. Ibrahim A.Z. Qatawneh  represents the bit error rate performance comparison of AWGN channel and Rician fading channels by considering their application in multi carrier DE-APSK and single carrier DE-APSK system. Frequency flat Rayleigh fading is essay a typical channel model found in land mobile radio situations. This model is suitable for beauty essay, modeling urban areas that are characterized by many obstructions where a line of christopher warren essay, sight path does not exist between the transmitter and receiver. In suburban areas a line of sight path may exist between the lies essay, transmitter and receiver and christopher, this will give rise to Rician fading. The analysis of the channel comparison is the helpful conclusion for this research work. Alireza Seyedi, Vasanth Gaddam, and Dagnachew Birru  represent performance analysis of OFDM UWB system with two antennas at the receiver side. Different antenna selection and combining methods, such as simple antenna selection, antenna selection per sub-carrier, equal gain combining and maximal ratio combining are considered.
This paper discusses the simulation model, different antenna selection and combining techniques which are the important conclusions for this research work. Shigenobu Sasaki Hisakazu Kikuchi Jinkang ZHU  discussed the performance of system over essay, the type of frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading scenario. Fading and warren essay, interferences are the Buddhism and Hinduism, two phenomenons that make the problem domain of modern wireless communication system most challenging and interesting. Essay. This paper illustrates the implementation of the diversity techniques for the significant reduction in Buddhism Bit Error Rate performance over fading channel. The degradation of performance is over christopher warren, come by introducing the essay etiquette, selection diversity and time diversity techniques.
This research paper is useful to introduce the time diversity technique i.e. Reed-Solomon coding in physical layer modeling of WiMAX system for the remarkable reduction in warren essay system BER. Koon Hoo Teo, Zhifeng Tao, and Jinyun Zhang  discussed the IEEE 802.16e Standards for Mobile WiMAX. This paper illustrates the implementation of frequency diversity technique for the high speech mobile service perspective. Also the comparison of WiMAX standards with WLANs and cellular is mentioned. More specifically this paper focused on the exploitation of technology in Mobile WiMAX standards. This paper is useful for the modeling of WiMAX System using IEEE 802.16e standards. Rick S. Blum, Senior, Jack H. Winters and Nelson R. Sollenberger  discussed the benefits of transmitting the literary essay rubric school, information through the multiple antennas over the fading channels.
It also describes that the mutual information of a single, isolated, multiple transmit and receive antenna array link is exploited by transmitting the maximum number of independent data streams for christopher warren essay, a flat fading channel with independent fading coefficients for each path. This paper is paper help useful in this research works as it purely focused on christopher essay, great potential achieved by transmit and receive antenna arrays used in Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna system. FUNDAMENTAL OF WIMAX SYSTEM MODELING. FUNDAMENTAL OF WIMAX SYSTEM MODELING. WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for paper, Microwave Access is the highly anticipated technology that aims to provide business and consumer wireless broadband services in form of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The technology has a target range of up to 31 miles and a target transmission rate exceeding 100 Mbps and is expected to challenge DSL and T1 lines (both expensive technologies to deploy and warren essay, maintain) especially in emerging markets. The mobile WiMAX is the wonderful invention which is fulfilling the letter committee members, latest demand.
Through its high coverage and data rate characteristics, it fulfills the idea of complete network architecture thereby providing a flexible and christopher essay, cheap solution for the last-mile. The interoperability is a very critical issue, on which equipment cost and volume of essay etiquette, sales will be based. Operators will not be bound to a sole equipment supplier, as the radio base stations will be able to christopher, interact with terminals produced by different suppliers. From the point of view of cost and accuracy, the customer’s must get the benefit of supplier’s competition. WiMAX may be seen as the fourth generation (4G) of essay etiquette, mobile systems as the essay, convergence of cellular telephony, computing, Internet access, and potentially many multimedia applications become a real fact. WiMAX’s attributes open the technology to a wide variety of applications. With its large range and high transmission rate, WiMAX can serve as a backbone for 802.11 hotspots for connecting to the Internet. Alternatively, users can connect mobile devices such as laptops and handsets directly to WiMAX base stations without using 802.11 which can be very well observed from Figure 3.1. Reasons. Developers project this configuration for the WiMAX mobile version, which will provide users broadband connectivity over christopher, large coverage areas compared with 802.11 hotspots’ moderate coverage. Mobile devices connected directly to WiMAX base stations likely will achieve a range of 5 to 6 miles, because mobility makes links vulnerable. Figure 3.1 WiMAX Senario.
The technology can also provide fast and cheap broadband access to essay etiquette, markets that lack infrastructure (fiber optics or copper wire), such as rural areas and unwired countries. Currently, several companies offer proprietary solutions for wireless broadband access, many of christopher, which are expensive because they use chipsets from adjacent technologies, such as 802.11. Manufacturers of these solutions use the physical layer and bypass the medium access control layer by designing a new one. Unlike these proprietary solutions, WiMAX’s standardized approach offers economies of beauty lies essay, scale to vendors of wireless broadband products, significantly reducing costs and making the technology more accessible. Many companies that were offering proprietary solutions, however, have participated in the WiMAX forum and now offer WiMAX based solutions. WiMAX can be used in disaster recovery scenes where the wired networks have broken down. Similarly, WiMAX can be used as backup links for broken wired links. Additionally, WiMAX will represent a serious competitor to 3G cellular systems as high speed mobile data applications will be achieved with the 802.16e specification. The main operators have concentrated their interests and efforts on the future applications of this new technology. The WiMAX forum created in April 2002, is a no-profit organization that groups companies promoting the broadband access based on the wireless communication standard, point to christopher warren, multipoint IEEE 802.16 for Metropolitan Area Network. WiMAX forum activities aim to: ‘ support the standardization process of middle, IEEE 802.16 for MAN.
‘ select and promote some of the WiMAX profiles defined in the 802.16. ‘ certificate the interoperability between WiMAX equipment of christopher warren, different suppliers. ‘ make WiMAX a universally accepted technology. 3.2 Relationship with other Wireless Technology. Wireless access to data networks is expected to be an area of rapid growth for mobile communication systems. The huge uptake rate of mobile phone technologies, WLANs and essay etiquette, the exponential growth that is experiencing the use of the internet have resulted in an increased demand for new methods to obtain high capacity wireless networks. WiMAX is expected to christopher warren essay, have an explosive growth, as well as the Wi-Fi, but compared with the Wi-Fi, WiMAX provides broadband connections in greater areas, measured in square kilometers, even with links not in line of paper, sight. For these reasons WiMAX is a MAN, highlighting that ‘metropolitan’ is christopher referred to the extension of the areas and not to the density of population.
But Wi-Fi and WiMAX are not competing technologies. While WiMAX can provide high capacity internet access to Buddhism and Hinduism, residences and business seats, Wi-Fi allows the extension of such connections inside the corporate sites buildings. Christopher Warren Essay. Figure-3.2 lay down the comparative platform among three modern wireless technologies i.e. WiMAX, WiFi and Buddhism and Hinduism, 3G cellular telephony. In any case, both WLAN and cellular mobile applications are being widely expanded to offer the essay, demanded wireless access. However, they experience several difficulties for lies in simplicity essay, reaching a complete mobile broadband access, bounded by factors such as bandwidth, coverage area, and infrastructure costs. As shown in following Figure-3.2, Wi-Fi provides a high data rate, but only on a short range of distances and with a slow movement of the user. On the other hand, cellular offers larger ranges and warren essay, vehicular mobility, but instead, it provides lower data rates, and requires high investments for its deployment. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on letter, hand, waiting to help you.
Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and christopher, you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Broadband/the WiMAX system . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/information-technology/broadbandthe-wimax-system/ [05-10-17]. If you are the literary essay rubric middle school, original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on warren, our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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