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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Essay For Successful? This allows to easy write essays and essay for successful student, research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for business literature essays, certain requirements related to essay student paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Scholarships? Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in student all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the strategic brand paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the essay for successful page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title).
Abstract . Easy No Essays? Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. Essay? An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and managing human assignment, mention the essay methodology used to christopher warren essay achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and for successful student, spacing. In-text references . Strategic Brand? The format of references in for successful student APA format is the foremost subject of eng 120 essays student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the for successful idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of easy scholarships no essays quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks.
If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Essay? Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to bell murders present the full information about the essay student sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in no essays a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. Essay Student? You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the eng 120 business literature essays margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in essay for successful student rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page.
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Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of strategic thesis your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to essay for successful student your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to managing capital assignment students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from essay for successful, our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in managing capital assignment us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. For Successful Student? You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. Strategic Brand Management? References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format.
The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the essay student standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Scholarships No Essays? But there may be variations: 1. Student? If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Easy? Example : T. Essay For Successful? E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the scholarships source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to for successful student include the page number in your in-text reference. Managing Assignment? Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. For Successful? If the author or the year of managing capital assignment publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is essay for successful, no need to scholarships no essays repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in essay for successful student Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of essay Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay.
Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Essay? Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. Managing Capital Assignment? In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the for successful mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of eng 120 business essays articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay.
It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of essay student source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of managing capital assignment work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Essay? Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. Human Capital Assignment? A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).
Title of article. Name of the essay for successful web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from warren, providing order, essay headings can function as an essay student, ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on managing human capital assignment, the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.
In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of essay for successful which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in essay APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the for successful student page next to scholarships no essays the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the essay for successful course, the name of professor, and the date of managing submission are printed at the bottom of the for successful APA title page. Strategic Brand Management? APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.
You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. Essay For Successful Student? In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA.
As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and essay the power, the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and essay for successful, guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on human assignment, the nature and the topic of a custom essay.
It particularly helps in for successful cases where many writers are involved in essay the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to essay for successful the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the chinese bell writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. Essay For Successful? In an academe, plagiarism is no essays, a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay student, essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of essay the power on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript.
Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and essay, spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of strategic professionalism it exudes.
As more complex topics are discussed, the student need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to strategic management consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and student, citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from strategic thesis, simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. Essay For Successful Student? P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay.
P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Eng 120 Literature Essays? Write Effectively With the essay for successful student Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is scholarships, merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Literary Criticism of The Namesake. Allusions to Nikolai V. Gogol and his short story “The Overcoat” permeate Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake, beginning with Gogol’s being the name the protagonist is called through most of the book. Yet few of the reviewers of the novel mentioned Nikolai Gogol at all in essay for successful student, their discussions of the novel, except to christopher describe the protagonist Gogol’s loathing of his name, or to quote without comment or explanation Dostoevski’s famous line, “We all came out of Gogol’s Overcoat. We will write a custom essay sample. on Literary Criticism of The Namesake or any similar. topic specifically for you. ” So far, no one has looked beyond the for successful student, surfaces to examine the significance of the allusions to Gogol that are so much a part of the fabric of Lahiri’s novel. Without the references to Nikolai Gogol, it is easy to chinese bell murders essay read the novel as simply another account of the for successful, difficulties of a first-generation American trying to “find himself,” nicely written, but not particularly thought-provoking. It may seem merely unexamined documentation of the confusion of its main character, a confusion which itself has become a bit of a cliche. The conventional wisdom about first generation Asian Americans is that an awareness of two cultures is a kind of curse which makes them unable to understand who they “really” are, as if identity were nothing more than cultural identification.
Read with an understanding of the significance of the Gogol story, however, the novel is much more clearly an elucidation of the causes and meaning of strategic management thesis that confusion, which comes not only from having a multiple cultural identity, but from some of the ways in which people in modern American society tend to view identity. In particular, the allusions to Gogol, along with the motif of naming and Lahiri’s own unique literary style, seem to suggest that some of the characters’ unnecessary unhappiness arises from the tendency to identify oneself with the aspects of selfhood that William James called the material self, one’s surroundings, clothing, food, and possessions, and for successful student, the social self, the loves and friendships that surround us. Business Literature Essays? Furthermore, in a mobile society like modern America, unfortunately, the essay student, relationships of the social self are apt to be transitory,which seems to be part of the no essays, protagonist’s problems in The Namesake. Page 2 Literary Criticism of student The Namesake Essay. In addition, although James includes the immediate family as part of the material self, the protagonist does not seem to realize the extent to which this is true until too late, which is also not uncommon. Inany case, what is often left underdeveloped is the essential self, the organizing consciousness that strives to understand the managing capital, meaning and essay for successful student, patterns of the scholarships, events of one’s life in for successful, this world, that searches for continuity, or that seeks a way to make peace with the irrational.
At first it seems that neither the hapless Akaky Akakyvitch of Gogol’s story nor his eccentric creator can have anything in common with the bright, handsome, conforming Gogol Ganguli of Lahiri’s novel, or this fantastic, grotesque, and very Russian nineteenth-century short story with the seemingly realistic novel about a twentieth-century Indian-American’s search for warren essay, an identity in American society. Essay? Nevertheless, “The Overcoat” is about identity, among other things. The protagonist’s name, Akaky Akakyevitch, suggests a contradictory identity in itself, being a saint’s name and yet sounding like a Russian baby-talk word for feces; and of course the name is also simply a repetition of his father’s name. Thesis? Akaky is a non-entity. Essay For Successful? A scrivener, he delights in copying out other people’s writing, and scholarships, yet is strangely unable and unwilling to try to essay for successful student write anything of his own, or even to change a word in the original text when he is specifically asked to. As a text, he isn’t anyone; he is simply copies of what is strategic brand management thesis written by essay for successful others. But this copying is scholarships bliss. Student? His very lack of identity is the source of his happiness. Brand? This changes when is obliged to buy a new overcoat, a costly overcoat, and becomes another person. Or rather, he becomes his overcoat. He and his new overcoat are even invited to a party in its honor by student the assistant head clerk of his department.
He becomes a new man, noticing women, for instance, when before he would forget where he was while crossing the street. As he is coming back from this uncharacteristic outing, his overcoat is stolen. When he reports the loss to a local dignitary (on his co-workers’ advice–no idea is his own), he is bullied and insulted for his temerity in approaching such an management important person. Tellingly, the Very Important Person demands, “Do you realize, sir, who you are talking to? ” (Gogol 263), as if he didn’t know who he was himself, without its being reconfirmed by essay student other’s fear of him. Exposed to the cold once again, the overcoatless Akaky then catches a fever and dies, but this is not the end of the story. Shortly after Akaky’s death, a “living corpse” who looks like Akaky begins haunting the same square in which Akaky was robbed, but this time as a stealer of overcoats rather than as a victim. Essay About? One of this Akaky’s victims is the same Very Important Person who bullied him, who had been mildly regretting his harshness, and who is now frightened into real repentance. The last we hear of essay for successful student Akaky and his ghost is when a policeman sees a burly man whom he takes to managing human capital assignment be the ghostly overcoat thief, accosts him, and essay for successful student, finds instead a man who is bell murders clearly not Akaky, but may be the original thief who robbed him. It’s a strange story, suggesting very non-American ideas about identity and the undesirability of having a fixed identity.
The overcoat that Akaky buys at such cost seems to be both the material self and the social self, both of which he previously lacked, and which he then mistakes for who he is. Vladimir Nabokov even suggests that for Akaky, the coat is essay for successful student like a mistress or a wife–some one/thing that defines him as a normal member of society and yet paradoxically causes him to easy lose his essential self. One can read the story as a kind of parable about identity theft and shifting identities, in which Akaky goes from being no-one, to being an essay for successful overcoat, to being a ghost, and strategic management, finally to being, perhaps, a version of the very person who robbed him, or at least into something that can be mistaken for him. Charles Bernheimer has suggested that the story reflects Nikolai Gogol’s own horror of having a fixed identity. One of the reasons that Gogol was unable to essay for successful student finish Dead Souls, Bernheimer says, was that “for Gogol to write The Book would be equivalent to a fixing of his personality, an act of definition that would subject his secret soul to essay understanding, to essay penetration and violation by the other” (54). Richard Moore suggests as well that Akaky’s copying is parallel to Gogol’s own writing in which he assumes a series of voices. There is a way in which Akaky, then, is a version of his creator. Eng 120 Essays? Moreover, the ending is deliberately ambiguous so as not to impose a meaning, an identity, on the story itself. The true protection seems to lie in not being known, not being knowable, and yet, some kind of outward identity is necessary too. “The Overcoat” is a meditation on identity and loss, but exactly what it is “saying” about these abstractions is ambiguous, because the story is essay for successful student clothed in language and structured to evoke meanings and evade them at the same time.
The meaning of the story is not just in the plot; in fact, Vladimir Nabokov suggests that to the extent that the story has a meaning, the style, not the plot, conveys it. Capital Assignment? The story combines voices and tones and levels of essay for successful reality. Nabokov says, “Gogol’s art discloses that parallel lines not only meet, but they can wiggle and get most extravagantly entangled, just as two pillars reflected in water in the most wobbly contortions if the necessary ripple is there” (58). Multiple, contradictory realities and identities exist as once. Like a Zen paradox, the story does not have a fixed meaning, but serves rather to create a space in business essays, which the reader can experience his own private epiphany. It is this ambiguity that draws Ashoke Ganguli, Gogol Ganguli’s father, to the story in the first place. As he reads the student, story on the almost fatal train ride that becomes a turning point in bell murders, his life, Ashoke thinks, “Just as Akaky’s ghost haunted the final pages, so did it haunt a place deep in Ashoke’s soul, shedding light on student all that was irrational, that was inevitable about the world” (Lahiri 14). Lahiri does not tell us any more than this about christopher warren, what exactly it is that he understands about the essay for successful student, irrational and the inevitable, because she, like Gogol, is working to evoke meanings rather than convey them. But perhaps one thing that Ashoke responds to in the managing assignment, story is the sense that both reality and identity are multiple, existing on essay many planes at the same time. Life is not a simple, rational, sequential experience.
Ashoke gains some unarticulated knowledge from the strategic brand management thesis, story that enables him to essay for successful student be many people at once and accept the contradictions of his life. He himself is both the dutiful son who returns to India every year to see his extended family and the man who left this hurt and bewildered family behind to begin a life in another country, both a Bengali and the father of essay two Americans, both the respected Professor Ganguli and student, the patronized foreigner, both Ashoke, his good name, and Mithu, his pet name. His world is not just India and America but the Europe of the authors he reads, his time both the twentieth and the nineteenth centuries. A person is many people, just as Akaky is all of the documents he copies and no one in himself. For Gogol Ganguli, however, the several identities that he takes on in the course of the assignment, novel are a source of pain, perhaps in part because he passively accepts them one after the other, often conjoined to a relationship with a woman, apparently confusing a series of material and social selves for who he is. Moreover, because these outer selves are sequential rather than simultaneous, they provide him with no sense of continuity, which is part of for successful their function in the lives of more contented and essay about, secure people.
And as in Nikolai Gogol’s short story, the essay student, meaning of. Lahiri’s novel seems to lie not so much in the plotline as in the style. It is managing human capital assignment a type of realism that assumes that to show reality, one must abandoned the tight causal plot of realism to show the randomness and irrationality of the for successful student, events that define the easy, characters’ lives. In addition, the present tense prose, which at first may seem to be merely trendy and irritating, also creates the effect of “suppressing the shared past that connects writer and reader,” as Ursula Le Guin has observed with some asperity about present tense prose in general (74). In this novel, however, the effect seems deliberate, as the characters are indeed cut off from essay for successful student their pasts–by physical distance, in the case of Ashoke and Ashima, or by the inability to understand the significance of the past, in the case of Gogol Ganguli and his wife Moushimi. Thus it seems appropriate that the about, readers are cut off from this past as well. Lahiri’s dispassionate, elusive style is one of the many items to come out of Gogol’s overcoat. From him through Vladimir Nabokov and the modernists she has taken the idea that the style is the meaning, not merely the for successful, means of conveying it. The way in human capital, which she writes also comes through a tradition of essay for successful student American writers as well, particularly Hemingway and Raymond Carver, who acutely observe the christopher essay, details of essay for successful physical reality as a way of implying the characters’ inner struggles (“Big Two Hearted River” and “Cathedral,” for example).
Yet this style is blended with Gogol to create a hybrid entity, Russian, American, and Indian, through which Lahiri creates vivid characters whose identities are nonetheless unknowable. Lahiri layers on detail after detail, until we can see the last eyelet in Ashoke’s shoes. But something essential is always left out. We learn the names of all the people who attend Ashima’s parties. We don’t know what Ashima or Ashoke like about these friends or what makes them more than names. We know that the first girl Gogol has sex with was wearing “a plaid woolen skirt and combat boots and mustard tights” (105), but we don’t know her name or what she looked liked or even the details of her body that a man would be more likely to strategic brand remember than the essay student, girl’s clothing. We know what Gogol reads as a boy and the names of his boyhood friends, but we don’t know what he thinks about these books or likes about these friends.
We know what Gogol and his wife Moushumi say when they are chattering at yuppie dinner parties, but not what they say to each other when they are arguing or when they are expressing their love for each other. Managing Capital Assignment? We sometimes learn what the essay student, characters feel, although more often, we are given a catalog of the details of their surroundings which they are noticing while they are having the feeling. And we almost never know what the characters are thinking, about who they are to themselves as they experience the rush of sounds and sensations that are their lives. Eng 120 Essays? Introspection, even if it were presented as interior monologue, would suggest that this voice was who the character “really” was. The effect is both eerie and essay for successful, deliberate, and perhaps suggests the ways in easy scholarships, which essential identity, the self as a continuous organizing consciousness, is beyond the power of words to for successful student describe.
We can only scholarships no essays know the surface. A sense of essay for successful student what lies beyond the surface can only be evoked and illuminated. Four Perspectives Continued from Gogol’s Namesake: Identity and Relationships in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake Author: Judith Caesar The novel is told through the sensibilities of four different characters, Gogol Ganguli, his mother Ashima, his father Ashoke, and his wife Moushumi, all of whom reveal different aspects of the material world and the personal relationships which are a part of each character’s outer identity. Of these people, Ashoke alone seems to have found the balance among the various aspects of essay self that enable him to live comfortably in a foreign country which his children will experience differently than he does. He has his family back in essay student, India, a network of Bengali friends whom he has known since coming to America, a house that he has lived in for easy scholarships no essays, years, and essay for successful student, familiar Indian customs blended with American ones until the blending itself becomes familiar, all of which provide an outer protection for an inner self. The material world of strategic America seems to be a source of unhappiness to Ashima (it is her consciousness, not Ashoke’s, that frequently notices American habits with distaste). Thus throughout the book, she struggles to recover the material and social selves of her life in essay for successful student, India and yet somehow adapt herself to life in the country to warren which she has come.
For both Gogol and Moushumi, the process of finding a way to live comfortably with what seems to them a double identity, two very different outer worlds, is even more complex, since, like other young Americans, they tend to confuse the outer identity with who they are. In part, they do this because modern consumer culture tends to encourage people to view themselves as their material selves, which makes finding a sense of self even more challenging for a person raised among different cultures and subcultures, especially if he concentrates on the question, “Which am I? ,” rather than realizing that he is both all and none of them. Ashoke Ganguli seems to want to help his son discover a way in which to live with the complexity of identity. To begin with, following Bengali custom, he attempts to student give him two identities, one identity, his daknam or pet name, who he is to the people who have known and loved him all his life, and another name, his bhalonam, his good name, who he is to warren the outside world. This will embed in him the knowledge that he is at essay for successful student least two people, who he is to his family and the people who care about literature essays, his, and student, who he is to outsiders. Perhaps he also wishes to convey the idea that identity is multiple and many faceted, like reality. It is not one thing or another, but simultaneity, as his own life has been. But the good name Ashoke later selects, Nikhil, the five-year old Gogol and his school reject; and then the eighteen-year-old Gogol rejects the name Gogol and becomes his good name, Nikhil, to everyone except sometimes his parents. Ashoke has given his son two names, two identities, but Gogol must find their meaning for himself in the country and the time in which he has been born. And with his acceptance and about the power of music, rejection of his two names, he begins a pattern of first accepting and then rejecting outer identities that seem imposed on him by for successful others and which he is seems unable to managing human distinguish from his essential self.
He seems to think he must be one thing or another, Bengali or American, rather than accepting ambiguity and multiplicity. The name Gogol means very different things to Gogol and Ashoke. To Ashoke, the name Gogol is first of all a reminder of the way in which the reading of Gogol’s short story saved his life, how it was his dropping of the page from the story that alerted rescuers that he was still alive after the student, train wreck and made them stop and pull him out of the wreckage where he would otherwise have perished. It is a rebirth of himself in a different form, as a person who wants to leave India and travel to other places, to form an identity for himself different from the one created by his life in assignment, India. And so, in a way, is the birth of his son. But Gogol is also a connection to essay for successful student his own family, to his grandfather who told him to read the bell murders, Russian realists, and whom he is going to see at the time of the essay for successful, train wreck.
There is an about of music identity here that transcends culture, as generations of Indians (ultimately, Gogol Ganguli becomes the fourth) find a sense of life’s essence in an English translation of a Russian work. But to Gogol Ganguli, Gogol is simply a strange name that he has been saddled with by accident. It makes him too different. (And it probably doesn’t help that when pronounced correctly, the name sounds like the student, English word “goggle”). Literature Essays? When he is in for successful student, high school and supposed to bell essay study Gogol’s story in English class, he refuses to read it. And strangely, instead of leading a discussion of the story itself, his teacher tells them about Gogol’s life, focusing on Gogol’s inner torment and his death by self-starvation. Gogol the writer is reduced to what was most bizarre about essay student, his personal life, for the delighted horror of American teenagers. He is treated in exactly the way the living Gogol most feared. He becomes his difference, not his genius. And ironically, because of Lahiri’s style, the teacher himself becomes nothing more than his clothing and his mannerisms.
To Gogol Ganguli, then, Gogol becomes the identity of a foreign madman who never experienced sex or any of the other initiations that lead to an adult identity for modern Americans. Scholarships No Essays? And yet he is still ambivalent. As Lahiri explains, “To read the story, he believes, would mean paying tribute to his namesake, accepting it somehow. Still, listening to his classmates complain, he feels perversely responsible, as if his own work were being attacked” (92). Throughout the novel, many of the most significant conversations between Gogol Ganguli and Ashoke begin with Nikolai Gogol, as Ashoke attempts to connect with his son through Gogol the essay for successful, same way that the Russian writer connected him to his grandfather. But Gogol Ganguli rejects these gestures, not recognizing them for what they are.
When Gogol Ganguli is fourteen, his father gives him a hard-bound copy of about the power Gogol’s short stories; Gogol thanks him politely and then continues listening to his Beatles’ album. When Ashoke quotes to him, “We all came out of Gogol’s Overcoat,” Gogol Ganguli asks, “What’s that supposed to mean? ” His father doesn’t answer, but merely tells him it will make sense to him someday (78). Characteristically, Lahiri doesn’t tell us how it makes sense to Ashoke, or how it will later make sense to his son. Later, when Gogol is no longer officially Gogol but Nikhil, Ashoke does tell him directly part of the personal significance of the essay for successful student, name to essay him, how it was by dropping the page of Gogol that he was rescued the night he almost died. When Gogol asks his father if he then reminds him of that night, Ashoke replies, “You remind me of student everything that followed” (124). For Ashoke, Gogol is chinese essay a new life, a rebirth, the creation of another life in another country, both his own life and his children’s. While Gogol Ganguli is disturbed by this knowledge, Lahiri doesn’t tell us precisely what he understands from it, except to imply, perhaps, that he feels to some degree guilty about having changed his name to Nikhil. For at eighteen, Gogol rejects the name, and with it, the trans-cultural identity that his father tried to give him. Although Nikhil is an Indian name, it enables him to essay student try on essay about of music a sophisticated identity he thinks he wants, sexy, cool, “normal. ” (He is “Nick” in dialogue later in the novel, especially when he is talking to Americans who are not the children of essay student immigrants). Chinese? Nikhil is his overcoat which makes the student, ways in which he is different from other Americans invisible.
Thus it is as Nikhil that he first kisses a girl, thinking afterward as he tells his friends about it, “it hadn’t been Gogol who kissed Kim. Gogol had nothing to do with it” (96). It is warren Nikhil whom he becomes at college and as Nikhil that he has his first girlfriend. Yet despite their apparent intimacy, he never introduces the girlfriend Ruth to essay for successful student his parents, because “He cannot imagine being with her in a house where he is still Gogol” (114). And Ruth herself is part of a series of identities which Gogol tries on, in this case, probably, the identity of typical Yale student. She is never precisely who she is in herself, since we never know the traits he values in her or what they talk about or who he is to her. The relationship dissolves when she goes to England and comes back full of British mannerisms and human capital assignment, expressions which have no place in his life. Thus, a person who had once seemed the emotional center of his life moves out of essay student it forever, beginning a pattern which will continue throughout the course of the novel. Perhaps it is not particularly unusual that he seems to managing human capital assignment have no lasting friendships to for successful give him a sense of continuity either; his emotional life centers on his lovers, and when each woman ceases being his lover, she moves out of christopher his life entirely, taking with her the essay, self he was with her. The overcoat, the name Nikhil, seems to represent part of the material self, along with the personal possessions, the clothing, the easy, food, the for successful, houses and apartments.
The transient love affairs like that with Ruth through which Gogol becomes a series of alternate identities are also the overcoat. Or to be more exact, his relationships provide him with possible identities which he passively accepts, at least temporarily. But to him, unlike his father, these identities come one at a time and are mutually exclusive and transitory. Chinese Bell? They are not what protect him from the outside world, but rather a disguise that he confuses for himself. This becomes even more clear when time shifts, and we next see Gogol twelve years later when he is an architect living in New York, where he has gone in part to escape being too geographically close to his family. Although he is now a grown man, he still seems to be going through the adolescent struggle to form an essay for successful identity for himself separate from the christopher warren essay, world of for successful his parents.
His being an architect seems to be a metaphor for the building of an outer self that he himself has designed. Yet he doesn’t seem to have been able to do that. Assignment? Tellingly, he wanted to build homes, but ends up designing staircases and closets for offices instead. Instead of making personal spaces, he creates impersonal public ones; even his own apartment remains as an impersonal space, without decor, without anything of him in it–or perhaps its very absence of essay personality reflects him and the way in which he lives elsewhere, in other people’s spaces and material and social selves. Maxine, a beautiful, wealthy American woman from an old WASP family has sought him out after they met at a party and absorbed him into her world and her lifestyle.
He spends most of his time in the house where Maxine lives with her parents, learning their tastes in eng 120 business literature, food, wine, dress, and conversation. She has a sense of herself, of the essay, continuity of her life with that of her parents and grandparents that he thinks he will never have, because he doesn’t have a sense of essays what he might have in essay for successful student, common with his parents emotionally or intellectually. At one point, “He realizes that she has never wished to be anyone other than herself … This, in his opinion, was the chinese bell murders essay, biggest difference between them” (138). And yet he never actively tries to create another identity for himself, as his parents have done, or to make sense of the one he has by trying to understand more about the permanent relationships in essay, his life, those with his family. Maxine’s sense of continuity and no essays, selfhood enable her to weather unhappy love affairs (she has just gone through one before meeting Gogol) without being devastated by them. Perhaps this is part of what draws him to her. She and her house and essay for successful student, her parents’ summer place in about of music, New Hampshire and their whole material world are his next identity. He is Maxine Ratcliff’s lover, or, as her parents introduce him, “the architect Max brought up with her” (157). It’s a lovely, expensive, comfortable identity, given to him as a love-token, which he seems to accept without thought. The only problem is that he cannot reconcile it with his identity as Ashima and Ashoke’s son and thus on some level, it feels like a betrayal. It’s not just a rejection of the for successful, home and food and conversational style of his parents, or of personal habits that are not to essay the power of music his personal taste; to him it seems a rejection of them.
Thus he imagines hearing the phone ring in the middle of the night at essay for successful student the summer cottage and essay of music, thinks it’s his parents calling him to wish him a happy birthday, until he realizes that they don’t even know the number. The call is an imaginary connection to a self he has tried to for successful student cut himself away from to become something different from the identity which he thinks has been given him by his parents. It is a reminder of the brand management, guilt he feels in rejecting their world and by extension, them. He hasn’t yet realized that instead of being an identity imposed on him from outside, they are part of the pattern of key relationships in his life through which he can define himself. Gogol’s way of living with Maxine and thinking about himself changes when Ashoke dies suddenly and unexpectedly of a heart attack. The material self is not the real self.
And yet it is also necessary, just as Akaky’s overcoat was. The paradox is essay student true in the way the multiple realities and identities of “The Overcoat” are true. Ashoke has created a material self of familiar rituals, places, and foods and essay, social self in his relationships with other Bengali families, both of which have formed a buffer for essay student, him, allowing him to live as a complex human being in a country which still seems to feel foreign to him. When Ashoke dies, all that is left of him are his material and social selves, the anonymous apartment where he was living by himself while on a fellowship at thesis another university, his clothing, which Gogol Ganguli collects from the hospital, his rental car, the meager possessions in the apartment, the more ample possessions in for successful student, the house he shared with Ashima, the scores of condolence letters that come from colleagues and human, friends that represent a lifetime’s network of relationships. Student? These things both are and are not Ashoke. Strategic Brand Management? They make the absence of his living self in all its potential so much more acute. Perhaps to feel that sense of lost potential, Gogol stays overnight in his father’s apartment, drives the car, and then returns to stay for weeks in the house in which Ashoke lived with Ashima, not only to comfort his mother but to immerse himself as much as he can in for successful student, who his father was.
Lahiri describes all of essay the power of music Ashoke’s possessions and the places he lived in intricate detail, catalog after catalog of specific and essay for successful student, vivid descriptions of objects, their shape, color, texture, turning them into a trope for Gogol’s grief. She describes the objects instead of the grief to show us more powerfully that grief’s intensity, for human capital assignment, the grief is beyond words. Only the objects are not. Student? They alone can evoke that an approximation of eng 120 business that grief. She also describes the objects because that is what Gogol focuses on while feeling that grief.
Among Ashoke’s possessions is essay student a copy of The Comedians, Graham Greene’s bitter novel about murder and essay, revolution in Papa Doc’s Haiti, in essay, which the characters come to regard the horror of the police state with a mixture of idealism, cynicism, and a strangely energizing despair. Like “The Overcoat,” it’s a work about the brand thesis, absurdity of the human condition, and essay, it’s a key to understanding something of Ashoke’s sensibility and his rich and complex intellectual life. This is the book he was reading when he died. But Gogol apparently never thinks to essay read it. After his father’s death, and in part perhaps because of his guilt over the way he had distanced himself from his parents, he separates himself more and for successful student, more from Maxine and her world, presumably to Maxine’s confusion and distress. But he himself doesn’t seem to realize why he is eng 120 literature doing this. Finally, when the relationship ends, we are told almost nothing about what he thinks or feels. We merely learn what he does and more tellingly what he fails to do.
When Maxine comes to visit him in his family home, now a place of mourning of which she is not a part, he “doesn’t bother to for successful translate what people are saying (in Bengali), to introduce her to everyone, to stay close by brand management thesis her side” (182). It is the essay, same technique Lahiri used to convey Gogol’s desolation at the loss of his father, but now it is essay used to essay imply something different, to suggest, perhaps, the bell murders, difficulty of understanding one’s own motivations, especially concerning deeply felt emotions. The self that he assumed with Maxine is abandoned, an empty shell of a self he can walk away from with few regrets. It is not who Gogol is. Indeed, Gogol defines himself primarily by who he isn’t, by rejecting or refusing to choose potential definitions, as he did when he was a baby and refused to essay student choose the object that was supposed to foretell his occupation in life. There seems to be in Gogol a reluctance to chinese bell explore on student his own, to make the eng 120 essays, active choices through which some people can gain a sense of self. After Ashoke’s death, a memory returns to Gogol, a memory of one of the few significant exchanges between father and son Lahiri reports which did not involve a discussion of Nikolai Gogol, perhaps because it suggests an idea about identity so different from that of Gogol, of identity as something to be actively created.
(Yet it too is one of the many simultaneous and contradictory truths about essay student, reality and bell murders essay, identity). Ashoke takes Gogol Ganguli on a walk on Cape Cod, picking their way over the rocks to the last point of student land, the furthest point east, the place where they can go no further, with Gogol literally following in strategic management, his father’s footsteps. Essay? “Try to remember it always,” his father tells him. “Remember that you and I made this journey, that we went together to chinese bell murders essay a place where there was nowhere left to go” (187). The anecdote is an open metaphor, and although Gogol Ganguli himself doesn’t seem to explore its meaning, the essay, emblematic image seems to the power suggest the way in which his father had wanted to guide him, to show him that exploration could be exhilarating, that he wasn’t “too little” to discover for himself where he could go and essay for successful student, what he could do. Scholarships? It also suggests that the action of for successful seeking can in itself be part of easy scholarships who one is, how one defines himself. However, at the time, and essay, indeed even as an adult, Gogol doesn’t seem to understand this meaning or this feeling. In fact quite the opposite sensation occurs to him later, when he is in Paris with his new wife Moushumi on what could have been like a honeymoon for them but which is not. Brand Management Thesis? He looks at the way in which Moushumi had created a new life in a foreign country for student, herself when she had lived in christopher warren, Paris before she met him. He thinks, “here Moushumi had reinvented herself, without misgivings, without guilt … He realizes that this is what their parents had done in America. What he, in all likelihood, will never do” (233).
The choice of Moushumi as a lover and student, then a wife seems to strategic brand management have been part of an unconscious attempt to concretize another identity, an adult identity that would connect him to his childhood world an.
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Essay on essay for successful, World Trade Organization (WTO) Read this essay to learn about World Trade Organization (WTO). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to World Trade Organization for International Business 2. Christopher Essay! Reasons to essay, Join WTO for International Business 3. Functions 4. Decision Making 5. Easy Scholarships No Essays! Organizational Structure 6. Principles of the Multilateral Trading System 7. The Deadlock 8. Ministerial Conferences and Other Details. Essay on World Trade Organization Contents: Essay on the Introduction to World Trade Organization for essay for successful student, International Business Essay on the Reasons to Join WTO for International Business Essay on the Functions of WTO Essay on Decision Making of WTO Essay on the Organizational Structure of the WTO Essay on the Principles of the Multilateral Trading System under the business literature WTO Essay on the Deadlock in WTO Negotiations Essay on Ministerial Conferences under World Trade Organization (WTO) Essay on for successful, GATT/WTO System and Developing Countries. Essay # 1. Business Essays! Introduction to World Trade Organization for International Business: The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization that deals with global rules of trade between nations. It provides a framework for conduct of essay student, international trade in goods and services.
It lays down the rights and obligations of governments in the set of multilateral agreements. In addition to goods and services, it also covers a wide range of issues related to international trade, such as protection of brand, intellectual property rights and dispute settlement, and prescribes disciplines for governments in formulation of rules, procedures, and student, practices in these areas. Moreover, it also imposes discipline at eng 120 business essays the firm level in certain areas, such as export pricing at unusually low prices. The basic objective of the rule-based system of international trade under the WTO is to ensure that international markets remain open and their access is not disrupted by the sudden and essay student, arbitrary imposition of import restrictions. Under the Uruguay Round, the national governments of all the member countries have negotiated improved access to no essays, the markets of the essay student member countries so as to enable business enterprises to warren, convert trade concessions into new business opportunities. The emerging legal systems not only essay confer benefits on manufacturing industries and christopher warren essay, business enterprises but also create rights in their favour.
The WTO also covers areas of interest to international business firms, such as customs valuation, pre-shipment inspection services, and import licensing procedures, wherein the emphasis has been laid on essay student, transparency of the procedures so as to restrain their use as non-tariff barriers. The agreements also stipulate rights of exporters and domestic procedures to initiate actions against dumping of foreign goods. An international business manager needs to strategic brand thesis, develop a thorough understanding of the new opportunities and challenges of the multilateral trading system under the WTO. The WTO came into existence on 1 January 1995 as a successor to essay student, the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Its genesis goes back to the post-Second- World-War period in the late 1940s when economies of most European countries and the US were greatly disrupted following the war and christopher essay, the great depression of the 1930s. Consequently a United Nations Conference on for successful, Trade and Employment was convened at Havana in November 1947. It led to of music, an international agreement called Havana Charter to create an International Trade Organization (ITO), a specialized agency of the for successful United Nations to handle the trade side of international economic cooperation. The draft ITO charter was ambitious and extended beyond world trade discipline to rules on employment, commodity agreements, restrictive business practices, international investment, and about the power, services. However, the attempt to for successful student, create the ITO was aborted as the US did not ratify it and other countries found it difficult to business literature essays, make it operational without US support. The combined package of trade rules and tariff concessions negotiated and student, agreed by 23 countries out of 50 participating countries became known as General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): an effort to salvage from the aborted attempt to create the ITO.
India was also a founder member of GATT, a multilateral treaty aimed at easy no essays trade liberalization. GATT provided a multilateral forum during 1948-94 to discuss the trade problems and reduction of essay for successful, trade barriers. World Trade Organization membership increased from 23 countries in 1947 to 123 countries by 1994. GATT remained a provisional agreement and organization throughout these 47 years and facilitated considerably, tariff reduction. During its existence from scholarships, 1948 to 1994, average tariffs on manufactured goods in developed countries declined from about 40 per cent to a mere 4 per cent. It was only during the Kennedy round of negotiations in 1964-67, that an anti-dumping agreement and a section of essay for successful, development under the management GATT were introduced.
The first major attempt to tackle non-tariff barriers was made during the Tokyo round. The eighth round of negotiations known as the Uruguay Round of 1986-94 was the for successful student most comprehensive of all and led to the creation of the WTO with a new set up of agreements. Essay # 2. Reasons to Join WTO for International Business: Despite the disciplinary framework for conduct of international trade under the WTO, countries across the world including the developing countries were in a rush to join the pack. Strategic Management! The WTO has nearly 153 members, accounting for over 97 per cent of world trade. Presently, 34 governments hold observer status, out of which 31 are actively seeking accession, including large trading nations, such as Russia and Taiwan. The major reasons for a country to join the WTO are : i. Essay! Since each country needs to export its goods and services to bell murders, receive foreign exchange for essential imports, such as capital goods, technology, fuel, and sometimes even food, it requires access to foreign markets. But countries require permission for making their goods and services enter foreign countries.
Thus countries need to have bilateral agreements with each other. By joining a multilateral framework like the WTO, the need to have individual bilateral agreements is obviated as the member countries are allowed to student, export and christopher, import goods and services among themselves. ii. An individual country is essay for successful student unlikely to get a better deal in bilateral agreements than what it gets in a multilateral framework. It has been observed that developing countries had to commit to a greater degree to developed countries in bilateral agreements than what is about of music required under the WTO. iii.
A country can learn from the experiences of other countries, being part of the community of countries and influence the decision-making process in the WTO. iv. The WTO provides some protection against subjective actions of other countries by way of its dispute settlement system that works as an in-built mechanism for enforcement of for successful, rights and obligations of member countries. v. It would be odd to remain out of WTO framework for conducting international trade that has been in existence for essay about of music, about six decades and accounts for over 97 per cent of essay for successful, world trade. It may even be viewed as suspicious by others. The major function of the WTO is to ensure the flow of international trade as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible. This is a multilateral trade organization aimed at evolving a liberalized trade regime under a rule-based system. The basic functions of WTO are: i. To facilitate the implementation, administration, and operation of trade agreements. ii. To provide a forum for further negotiations among member countries on matters covered by the agreements as well as on new issues falling within its mandate. iii.
Settlement of differences and disputes among its member countries. iv. To carry out periodic reviews of the trade policies of its member countries. v. To assist developing countries in trade policy issues, through technical assistance and training programmes. vi.
To cooperate with other international organizations. WTO is a member-driven consensus-based organization. All major decisions in the WTO are made by its members as a whole, either by ministers who meet at least once every two years or by their ambassadors who meet regularly in Geneva. A majority vote is also possible but it has never been used in the WTO and was extremely rare in the WTO’s predecessor, GATT. Scholarships No Essays! The WTO’s agreements have been ratified in all members’ parliaments. Unlike other international organizations, such as the World Bank and the IMF, in WTO, the power is student not delegated to the board of directors or the organization’s head.
In view of the complexities involved in multilateral negotiations among 150 member countries with diverse resource capabilities, areas of special interest, and geo-political powers, decision-making through consensus is highly challenging. Developed countries with much greater economic and political strengths often employ pressure tactics over easy scholarships developing and least developed countries in building up a consensus. This has led to considerable networking among the member countries and for successful, evolving of several country groups as shown in Exhibit 5.2. When WTO rules impose disciplines on countries’ policies, it is the outcome of negotiations among WTO members. The rules are enforced by the members themselves under agreed procedures that they negotiated, including the possibility of easy no essays, trade sanctions.
The sanctions too are imposed by member countries, and authorized by essay for successful the membership as a whole. Essay # 5. Organizational Structure of the chinese murders essay WTO: The organizational structure of WTO as summarized in Fig. 5.1, consists of the Ministerial Conference, General Council, council for each broad area, and subsidiary bodies. First level – The Ministerial Conference:
The Ministerial Conference is the topmost decision-making body of the WTO, which has to meet at least once every two years. Day-to-day work in between the Ministerial Conferences is handled by the following three bodies: i. The General Council. ii. The Dispute Settlement Body. iii.
The Trade Policy Review Body. In fact, all these three bodies consist of all WTO members and report to the Ministerial Conference, although they meet under different terms of reference. Third level – Councils for each broad area of trade : There are three more councils, each handling a different broad area of trade, reporting to the General Council. i. The Council for for successful, Trade in Goods (Goods Council) ii. The Council for Trade in Services (Services Council) iii.
The Council for Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Council) Each of these councils consists of no essays, all WTO members and is responsible for the working of the student WTO agreements dealing with their respective areas of no essays, trade. These three also have subsidiary bodies. Six other bodies, called committees, also report to the General Council, since their scope is smaller. They cover issues, such as trade and essay student, development, the environment, regional trading arrangements, and administrative issues. The Singapore Ministerial Conference in December 1996 decided to create new working groups to look at investment and competition policy, transparency in government procurement, and trade facilitation. Each of the higher councils has subsidiary bodies that consist of all member countries. It has 11 committees dealing with specific subjects, such as agriculture, market access, subsidies, anti-dumping measures, etc. The subsidiary bodies of the Services Council deal with financial services, domestic services, GATS rules, and specific commitments.
Dispute settlement body: It has two subsidiaries, i.e., the dispute settlement ‘panels’ of experts appointed to adjudicate on capital, unresolved disputes, and the Appellate Body that deals with appeals at the General Council level. Formally all of these councils and committees consist of the full membership of the WTO. But that does not mean they are the same, or that the distinctions are purely bureaucratic. In practice, the people participating in for successful the various councils and committees are different because different levels of seniority and different areas of expertise are needed. Heads of missions in Geneva (usually ambassadors) normally represent their countries at the General Council level. Some of the committees can be highly specialized and sometimes governments send expert officials from their countries to participate in brand these meetings. Even at essay the level of the Goods, Services, and TRIPS councils, many delegations assign different officials to cover different meetings. All WTO members may participate in all councils, etc., except the Appellate Body, dispute settlement panels, textile monitoring body, and plurilateral committees. The WTO has a permanent Secretariat based in Geneva, with a staff of around 560 and is headed by the Director-General.
It does not have branch offices outside Geneva. Scholarships! Since decisions are taken by the members themselves, the Secretariat does not have the decision-making role those other international bureaucracies are given. The Secretariat’s main duties are to student, extend technical support for the various councils and about the power, committees and the Ministerial Conferences, to provide technical assistance for essay student, developing countries, to analyse world trade, and to human capital, explain WTO affairs to the public and media. The Secretariat also provides some forms of essay for successful, legal assistance in the dispute settlement process and advises governments wishing to become members of the WTO. Essay # 6. Managing Capital! Principles of the Multilateral Trading System under the student WTO: For an international business manager, it is difficult to chinese, go through the whole of the WTO agreements which are lengthy and complex being legal texts covering a wide range of essay, activities. The agreements deal with a wide range of subjects related to international trade, such as agriculture, textiles and clothing, banking, telecommunications, government purchases, industrial standards and easy scholarships, product safety, food sanitation regulations, and student, intellectual property. However, a manager dealing in international markets needs to have an understanding of the basic principles of WTO which form the foundation of the multilateral trading system. These principles are discussed below: Under the eng 120 WTO principles, a country cannot discriminate between its trading partners and products and services of its own and foreign origin. Most-favoured nation treatment:
Under WTO agreements, countries cannot normally discriminate between their trading partners. In case a country grants someone a special favour (such as a lower rate of customs for one of their products), then it has to do the for successful same for all other WTO members. The principle is known as Most-favoured nation (MFN) treatment. This clause is so important that it is the managing capital assignment first article of the General Agreement on essay for successful student, Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which governs trade in goods. Christopher Essay! MFN is also a priority in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS, Article 2) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of essay, Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS, Article 4), although in each agreement, the principle is handled slightly differently. Together, these three agreements cover all three main areas of christopher, trade handled by the WTO. Some exceptions to the MFN principle are allowed as under: i. Countries can set up a free trade agreement that applies only to goods traded within the group—discriminating against goods from essay for successful, outside. ii.
Countries can provide developing countries special access to their markets. iii. A country can raise barriers against strategic management thesis, products that are considered to be traded unfairly from specific countries. iv. In services, countries are allowed, in limited circumstances, to discriminate. But the agreements only permit these exceptions under strict conditions. For Successful Student! In general, MFN means that every time a country lowers a trade barrier or opens up a market, it has to do so for the same goods or services from all its trading partners—whether rich or poor, weak or strong. The WTO agreements stipulate that imported and locally- produced goods should be treated equally—at least after the foreign goods have entered the market. The same should apply to easy, foreign and domestic services, and to foreign and for successful, local trademarks, copyrights and patents.
This principle of ‘national treatment’ (giving others the same treatment as one’s own nationals) is also found in chinese bell essay all the three main WTO agreements, i.e., Article 3 of GATT, Article 17 of GATS, and Article 3 of TRIPS. However, the principle is handled slightly differently in each of these agreements. National treatment only essay applies once a product, service, or an item of intellectual property has entered the market. Therefore, charging customs duty on an import is not a violation of national treatment even if locally-produced products are not charged an equivalent tax. (ii) Gradual Move Towards freer Markets Through Negotiations: Lowering trade barriers is one of the most obvious means of encouraging international trade.
Such barrier includes customs duties (or tariffs) and measures, such as import bans or quotas that restrict quantities selectively. Since GATT’s creation in 1947-48, there have been eight rounds of trade negotiations. At first these focused on lowering tariffs (customs duties) on managing capital assignment, imported goods. As a result of the negotiations, by the mid- 1990s industrial countries’ tariff rates on industrial goods had fallen steadily to less than 4 per student cent. But by the 1980s, the negotiations had expanded to cover non-tariff barriers on goods, and to new areas, such as services and human, intellectual property. The WTO agreements allow countries to introduce changes gradually through ‘progressive liberalization’. Essay! Developing countries are usually given longer period to fulfill their obligations. (iii) Increased Predictability of International Business Environment : Sometimes, promising not to raise a trade barrier can be as important as lowering one, because the promise gives businesses a clearer view of their future market opportunities. With stability and predictability, investment is encouraged, jobs are created, and consumers can fully enjoy the benefits of competition—choice and lower prices. The multilateral trading system is an attempt by governments to make the business environment stable and predictable.
One of the achievements of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade talks was to increase the essay amount of student, trade under binding commitments. In the WTO, when countries agree to open their markets for goods or services, they ‘bind’ their commitments. For goods, these bindings amount to ceiling on customs tariff rates. A country can change its bindings, but only after negotiating with its trading partners, which could mean compensating them for loss of trade. In agriculture, 100 per cent of products now have bound tariffs.
The result of this is easy scholarships a substantially higher degree of market security for traders and investors. The trading system under the WTO attempts to improve predictability and stability in other ways as well. One way is to discourage the use of quotas and other measures used to set limits on quantities of imports as administering quotas can lead to more red-tape and accusations of unfair play. Another is to make countries’ trade rules as clear and for successful, public (transparent) as possible. Many WTO agreements require governments to disclose their policies and practices publicly within the country or by notifying the WTO. The regular surveillance of national trade policies through the Trade Policy Review Mechanism provides a further means of encouraging transparency both domestically and at the multilateral level. The WTO is sometimes described as a ‘free trade’ institution, but that is chinese murders not entirely accurate. The system does allow tariffs and, in limited circumstances, other forms of for successful student, protection.
More accurately, it is bell murders essay a system of rules dedicated to open, fair, and undistorted competition. The rules on non-discrimination—MFN and national treatment—are designed to secure fair conditions of essay for successful, trade. The WTO has also set rules on dumping and subsidies which adversely affect fair trade. Warren Essay! The issues are complex, and the rules try to establish what is student fair or unfair, and how governments can respond, in particular by charging additional import duties calculated to compensate for damage caused by unfair trade. Many of the other WTO agreements aim to support fair competition, such as in agriculture, intellectual property, and services. Human! The agreement on government procurement (a ‘plurilateral’ agreement because it is student signed by only a few WTO members) extends competition rules to purchases by thousands of government entities in many countries. Essay # 7. Deadlock in WTO Negotiations: Despite intensive negotiations, deadlines were missed and negotiations across all areas of the Doha work programme were suspended mainly due to christopher essay, lack of convergence on major issues in agriculture and essay for successful, NAMA in July 2006. Agriculture remains the most contentious issue in the recent Ministerial Conferences, widening the eng 120 business literature essays developed- developing country divide. Major developed countries continue to give high amount of subsidies to for successful student, their farmers.
Interestingly, developed countries have fulfilled their obligation of reduction in reducible subsidy in technical terms despite increasing the absolute amount of subsidy. Besides, the EU and the US continue to give export subsidies as well. Ironically, developed countries are pressurizing developing countries to reduce their tariffs substantially. This poses a threat to the domestic farming sector of developing countries, which has got serious socio-economic and political implications. This makes negotiations in agriculture extremely complex.
Developed countries, on the other hand, are keen on about the power, market access for their industrial products. The issues leading to the deadlock of the Doha negotiations are shown in Fig. 5.4. In order to reach a settlement, the essay complexity of issues between the key players had to be addressed and a compromise reached. The US was looking for improved market access, with an average tariffs cut by around 66 per no essays cent, while the G20 group of larger developed countries led by India and Brazil were looking for a cut of around 54 per cent. The EU had offered a 46 per essay student cent average tariff cut. The G20 countries were looking for reduction in the US farm subsidies, greater than the cap offered by the US of around US$22.5 billion, as well as improved market access through lower tariffs. The EU was looking for improved market access to larger developing country markets for industrial products with a maximum tariff of about 15 per cent, besides improved access to services trade. Any breakthrough in the negotiation process required further reduction of agricultural subsidies by the US, greater reduction in business essays tariffs on agricultural goods by the European Union, and greater market access offered by for successful larger developing countries such as India and christopher, Brazil to the industrial goods of other countries. Essay # 8. Ministerial Conferences under World Trade Organization (WTO): The highest decision-making body in the WTO is the Ministerial Conference (MC) that has to take place once in two years.
Six ministerial conferences have taken place so far and have generated a lot of debate and controversies across the world, as discussed here: (i) Singapore Ministerial Conference : The first MC took place at essay student Singapore during 9-13 December 1996 and reviewed the operations post-WTO. Major developed countries brought in proposals to start negotiations in some new areas, such as investment, competition policy, government procurement, trade facilitation, and labour standards. This evoked a lot of controversy. Significant pressure was built up by the developed countries for all members to accept their proposals; this was strongly opposed by developing nations. However, an agreement was finally reached to set up working groups to study the process of the brand management relationship between investment and trade, competition and trade, and transparency in government procurement. These are generally termed as Singapore issues.
The subject of trade facilitation was to be studied in the Council for Trade in essay Goods. Conclusion of eng 120 business, Information Technology Agreement was an important decision made during the student Singapore Ministerial Conference based on the proposal brought by developed countries to have an agreement on zero duty on import of information technology goods. The second MC, held at Geneva (Switzerland) during 18-20 May 1998, discussed implementation concerns of developing and bell murders, least developing countries that led to establishment of a mechanism for evaluation of essay, implementation of easy, individual agreements. The US-sponsored proposals for zero duty on electronic commerce were discussed and an agreement was reached to maintain status-quo on the market access conditions for electronic commerce for 18 months. The agreement on status-quo actually meant that there would be zero duty on e-commerce since no country had been imposing duty on this mode of trade. A declaration on global electronic commerce was also adopted. Electronic commerce was defined as the mode of commerce in which all operations of trade would be conducted through the electronic medium; these operations include placing the order, supplying the essay product, and making the strategic brand management thesis payment. They also include sale and transfer of goods through electronic medium, such as music and cinematographic products, architectural and essay for successful, machine drawings and designs, etc.
However, the sale in which goods are physically transferred to eng 120 business essays, the buyer would not be considered e-commerce. (iii) Seattle Ministerial Conference : The third MC, held in Seattle (US) from 30 November to 3 December 1999, witnessed dramatic changes in for successful negotiations as the developing countries made intense preparations for the conference unlike in the previous MCs wherein issues brought in by the strategic brand management developed countries were chiefly discussed. In Seattle too developed countries tried to push forward new issues, such as investment, competition policy, government procurement, trade facilitation, and labour standards. However, developing countries insisted upon priority attention to their proposals as these were related to the working of the current agreement, before any new issue could be considered. No agreement on for successful student, the issues could be arrived at, leading to easy scholarships, a total collapse of the MC with a lot of confusion and without any decision. The fourth MC held during 9-14 November 2001, at essay student Doha in Qatar further built up the divide between the developed and the developing countries in the WTO.
On the one hand, developed countries were keen on business literature essays, formally pushing forward a new round of multilateral trade negotiations, which would include the issues of investment, competition policy, transparency in government procurement, and trade facilitation. On the other hand, there was stiff resistance from developing countries to initiating a new round as they felt that they were still in the process of comprehending the student implications of the last round, i.e., the Uruguay Round, of multilateral trade negotiations. Finally a comprehensive work programme was adopted at the end of about, Doha MC. Although formally it was not called a new round of negotiations, the work programme had all the essay student attributes of a fresh round of multilateral trade negotiations. Members decided to work out essay, modalities for negotiations on the Singapore issues and then start negotiations on the basis of the modality to be agreed by explicit consensus. For Successful! It was also agreed upon to make Special and Differential (SD) treatment for developing countries more precise, effective, and operational. The main commitments of the Doha Declaration were: i. To continue the commitment for establishing a fair and market-oriented trading system through fundamental reform of human assignment, support and protection of agricultural markets, specifically through.
a. Substantial improvements in market access. b. Reductions of all forms of export subsidies, with a view of phasing them out. c. Substantial reductions in trade distorting domestic support. ii. To give developing countries Special and Differential Treatment in negotiations to enable them effectively to take into account their development needs. iii. To ensure negotiations on trade in services aimed at promoting the economic growth of all trading partners and essay for successful student, the development of developing and least developed countries. iv.
To reduce or eliminate tariffs and thesis, non-tariff barriers in non-agricultural markets, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries. v. Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is a ‘single undertaking’ that means nothing is essay for successful agreed until everything is agreed. The fifth MC was held in about the power of music Cancun (Mexico) during 10-14 September 2003 under heightened strain between the major developed and developing countries. Essay! Developing countries believed that heavy subsidies on about of music, production and exports of agriculture in developed countries had been grievously harming their agriculture which is means of livelihood of their major population unlike in developed countries. There was hardly any significant action perceived on the part of the developed countries in the areas of implementation of issues and Special and Differential Treatment. On the other hand, developed countries insisted upon starting the negotiations on the Singapore issues. Under this atmosphere of complete apprehension, anger, and mistrust, no agreement could be reached and the MC terminated without any comprehensive declaration. (vi) The Hong Kong Ministerial Conference : The sixth MC took place in Hong Kong during 13-18 December 2005. It called for conclusions in student 2006 of negotiations launched at Doha in 2001 and establishment of targets and strategic thesis, time frames in essay for successful student specific areas.
The key outcomes of the Hong Kong Ministerial Conference included: i. Amendment to eng 120 business literature essays, TRIPS agreement reaffirmed to address public health concerns of developing countries. ii. Duty free, quota free market access for all LDC products by all developed countries. iii. Resolved complete Doha work programme and finalized negotiations in 2006. iv. For Successful Student! Elimination of export subsidies in cotton by developed countries in 2006; reduction of trade distorting domestic subsidies more ambitiously and over a shorter period. v. Elimination of export subsidies in agriculture by chinese bell murders 2013 with substantial part in the first half of the student implementation period. Developing countries, such as India will continue to have right to provide marketing and transport subsidies on business essays, agricultural exports for essay, five years after the end date for elimination of all forms of about of music, export subsidies. vi.
The agreement that the three heaviest subsidizers, i.e., the European Union, the US, and for successful, Japan, were to attract the highest cut in their trade distortion domestic support. Developing countries like India with no Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) will be exempt from any cut on de minimus (entitlement to provide subsidies annually on product-specific as well as non-product specific basis each up to 10 per cent of the agricultural production value) as well as on overall levels of eng 120 essays, domestic trade distortion support (consists of the AMS, the Blue Box, and de minimus). vii. Establishment of modalities in agriculture and Non-Agriculture Market Access (NAMA). viii. The agreement that developing countries were to have flexibility to self-designate appropriate number of tariff lines as special products. In order to address situations of surge in imports and for successful, fall in brand international prices, both import quantity and price triggers have been agreed under the Special Safeguard Mechanism for essay student, developing countries. ix.
The agreement that in capital NAMA and Special and for successful, Differential Treatment (SDT), elements such as flexibility and less-than-fall reciprocity in reduction commitments for developing countries reassured. x. No sub-categorization of developing countries when addressing concerns of small, vulnerable economies. Subsequently, at no essays the General Council meeting held at Geneva on for successful, 31 July 2006, an agreement was reached on eng 120, the framework in order to conduct the negotiations. Preliminary agreements were reached on broad approaches, especially in the areas of agriculture and industrial tariffs. It was decided to drop the three Singapore issues on investment, competition policy, and government procurement whereas negotiations on trade facilitation were to follow. Essay # 9. GATT/WTO System and Developing Countries: Over the years, the divide between the developed and developing countries in for successful student the WTO has widened, leading to eng 120, deadlocks in the process of essay, multilateral negotiations. It has also triggered widespread demonstrations (Fig.
5.5) across the world due to conflicting interests of member countries. Although developing countries form a much bigger group numerically under the WTO, decision making is significantly influenced by the developed countries. The major issues of concern from the perspective of developing countries are summarized here: i. The basic objective of the WTO framework is to liberalize trade in goods and services and protection of intellectual property. Countries with supply capacity directly benefit from expansion of exports whereas countries with intellectual property benefit from monopoly privileges, including high financial returns to owners of IPRs. As most developing countries neither have good supply base for goods and services nor much of IPRs, their direct gains from the WTO system is much lower compared to developed countries. ii. Reciprocity is the basis for liberalization under the WTO system. Countries get more if they are able to about the power, give more; conversely, they also get less if they give less.
Since member countries have vastly diverse levels of development, there is an in-built bias in the system for increasing disparity among countries. Although provisions such as differential and more favourable treatment have been incorporated in the WTO framework, these have several limitations and have hardly worked satisfactorily. iii. Retaliation is the ultimate weapon for enforcement of rights of member countries. Since developing countries are weak partners and retaliation by them against any major developed country has both economic and political costs, they are at a considerably disadvantageous position in their capacity to enforce rights and obligations. iv. The basic principles of the multilateral framework, such as national treatment, i.e., non-discrimination between imported and for successful, domestic goods, works against the process of development by managing discouraging domestic production by essay student developing countries.
v. Developed countries significantly influence the decision-making process as they possess enormous resources to make elaborate preparations for the negotiating process. As their views are put forth effectively and strongly, the issues of their interest take centre stage leading to frustration among developing countries. vi Substantial negotiations are carried out in small groups where developing countries are not present. Countries who have not participated are expected to agree when the results are brought forth in larger groups. It is difficult to stop decision-making at easy scholarships this stage as any such move by developing countries would mark them as obstructionists and have political repercussions. vii. Developed countries often take advantage of escape routes and loopholes in the agreements. For instance, the Agreement on Textiles was back-loaded and left the choice of products to essay, the importing countries. As developed countries were importers and had been imposing restraints, they chose only such products for liberalization that were not under import restraints without significantly liberalizing their textile imports until the end of 2004 when the easy scholarships agreement was automatically abolished.
Similarly developed countries could fulfill their obligation of reduction of subsidies in agriculture despite actually increasing considerably the absolute quantum of essay student, subsidy. viii. Developing countries view the WTO as an institutional framework to extract concessions from them, obstructing their goals of development and christopher, self-reliance. Despite vast differences among the interests of for successful, member countries, the WTO remains the only international organization that provides a multilateral framework for international trade. Besides trade in goods, it covers a number of issues related to international trade, such as services, intellectual property rights, anti-dumping, safeguards, non-tariff barriers, dispute settlement, etc., making its approach highly comprehensive.
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