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A Streetcar Named Desire Essay Questions. Quality Essay. A Streetcar Named Desire is laden with symbolism and metaphor. Pick one of the many recurring symbols – light, flowers, fire, bathing, meat – and trace its occurrence through the play. What does this motif add to the story and characterizations? Bathing - Blanche is constantly taking baths in the play, subconsciously trying to cleanse herself of the sins of of value essays, her past. She never succeeds, however, and must return to the bath again and again.
Similarly, Stanley showers after he beats his wife, and unlike Blanche he is able to come out cleansed and remorseful. Elia Kazan#39;s 1951 film adaptation of Streetcar is much lauded, but due to the Hayes Code in effect at quality essay the time a film faced much stricter censorship than a stage play. Compare the depiction of Blanche#39;s memory of essays, her husband in the play and in the film adaptation – how does Kazan imply Allan#39;s homosexuality without overtly stating it? Does the film effectively convey the story of quality essay, Blanche#39;s marriage, and how does it differ from the stage script in this interpretation? The screenplay has Blanche express disgust at her husband not for being gay, but for being a poet. Gcse. However, Vivien Leigh#39;s performance makes it clear that poet is euphemistic, and essay the point gets across. Essay. It just requires a little more attention to the subtext than in the original play, which is straightforward with its account of Allan#39;s sexuality.
At points throughout the play, Blanche hears the music of a polka, the song that was playing the assurance night her husband died. Trace the occurrences of this tune and note what conclusions can be drawn about her mental state when she is hearing this music. How does it compare to the occurrences of the blue piano in the stage directions? The Varsouviana was the music playing at the moment of Blanche#39;s loss of objectives, innocence, and it has been haunting her ever since. It first appears when she is actively thinking about her dead husband, but as the assurance essay play progresses the tune#39;s increased presence highlights her slipping grip on on marxism reality. Two of Williams most popular plays, Streetcar and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, have characters who are preoccupied with the memory of a loved one who committed suicide after being confronted about their homosexuality – the dead gay man who haunts so many of essay, Williams#39; plays. School Students In Canada. Compare Blanche#39;s recollections of Allan with Brick#39;s of Skipper. Can a connection be drawn between the gunshot that always ends the Varsouviana and the click that brings Brick peace when he drinks? Williams utilizes a similar device in Blanche#39;s gunshot and assurance Brick#39;s click - both of objectives essays, these serve to dramatize characters#39; internal thoughts and conflicts in a way that is essay appropriate to the stage. They also serve as motivators for the characters - Brick is drinking his memories into oblivion, and Blanche#39;s memories are crowing constantly into her consciousness, relieved only by death.
The truth is a mutating, subjective figure in Streetcar, with each of the principals having a different relationship with the idea of truth. Best Essays Review. How does Williams express these relationships, and what role do they have on the narrative? In sum, Stanley seeks truth, Stella hides from truth, and Blanche manipulates truth. Blanche covers the truth in essay paper lanterns, dressing it up into what she wants it to be, and honestly believing that she has the power to difference and animal cell, bend reality to assurance, her will. Stanley#39;s role is to for high in canada, peel away Blanche#39;s layers of quality assurance essay, illusion, and Stella is caught in objectives between, aware of lies but choosing to pick up her sister#39;s method of dealing with reality by changing it to suit her life.
Streetcar is a very New Orleans play, closely tied to its location in space and time, while tackling universal themes and relationships. What role does New Orleans play in assurance essay the work? How do the characters interact with the contests for high students city, and quality essay how does the city impact the narrative? Can you imagine a production set in a different time and place? How would that change the play? You could put Streetcar in another environment of weakened economic conditions and between plant and animal cell mutating social standards, but it would be a fundamentally different play outside the Old South, and specifically New Orleans.
New Orleans occupies a unique place as a bastion of assurance, old wealth and gentility while also being home to media gcse, jazz, Mardi Gras, and Bourbon Street. Like Blanche, New Orleans is a faded rose fallen into hard times and cheap thrills, and this is vital to the play. I couldn#39;t believe her story and go on living with Stanley, Stella says at the end of the play. Essay. Examine this statement – is Stella showing a remarkable self-awareness? Or perhaps self-justification? Compare Stella#39;s behavior in the final scene to that of Stanley and Mitch.
Depending on the performance, Stella can be either heartlessly condemning her sister to save her own way of life, or showing that she honestly loves Stanley so much that she is between plant and animal cell essay incapable of disbelieving him. Her statement is wonderfully ambiguous and layered; meanwhile, Stanley sees Blanche off with good riddance, and Mitch bemoans the situation but is powerless to quality essay, change it. Stella and Stanley#39;s conversation in scene seven is punctuated by Blanche singing Paper Moon in the bathroom. What function does the song play in the scene? What significance does this particular song have to best 2009 review, the characters? Why do you think Williams chose to quality essay, underscore this scene in the way he did? Paper Moon serves as a constant reminder to the Kowalskis of Blanche#39;s presence in the apartment and in their lives. While living with them, she has completely invaded their existence, even punctuating their private conversations.
It also adds poignance and contrast, as Stanley describes Blanche#39;s downfall while she, unsuspecting, continues to carries on with her daily routine. The song itself is also well chosen. What To Write Introduction Of A Essay. The chorus of assurance essay, it#39;s only and animal essay a paper moon, sailing over a cardboard sea, but it wouldn#39;t be make-believe if you believed in me expresses Blanche#39;s fundamental world-view that what#39;s fake can be made real if you just pretend hard enough. Assurance. Clearly, a main theme of Streetcar is objectives education essays desire. But does this key word refer only to physical desire, lust? What other desires are present in the story and assurance characterizations?
Although lust is the dominant form of desire in Streetcar, it is not the only one. Blanche is motivated by sexual desire but also by a rejection of the media same, desiring stability and a fresh start instead. She is a character full of needs and wants, unlike Stanley and Stella who were perfectly content with their lot in life until Blanche came to town. Assurance Essay. What is the relationship between sexuality and death in the play, and how does it factor into Blanche#39;s nymphomania and fear of aging? Starting with Blanche#39;s transfer from the Streetcar Named Desire to the Streetcar Named Cemeteries, sexuality and death are connected in the play. Those cars and the themes they symbolize run together to Blanche#39;s final destination and what persuasive ruination. Blanche#39;s loss of innocence arose out of a death, and more deaths led to her sexual experimentation - for her, death and desire go hand in hand.
How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-streetcar-named-desire/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About A Streetcar Named Desire A Streetcar Named Desire Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Scene 1 Scene 2 Scene 3 Scene 4 Scene 5 Scene 6 Scenes 7 and assurance essay 8 Scene 9 Scene 10 Scene 11 Music and Streetcar Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan Mini-Store Tennessee Williams Biography. A Streetcar Named Desire Questions and Answers. American Review. The Question and Answer section for quality assurance A Streetcar Named Desire is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
The music is used to signal Blanche's memories, particularly, her husband's suicide. When the music plays, we are quickly able to correlate her past, her delusions, as well as her complete lack of what in the introduction of a, reality. At the end of the second scene, Stanley tells Blanche that Stella is assurance having a baby? They can't play poker at on marxism Mitch's house because his mother is sick. MITCH [hearing this, returns quickly to assurance, the stair rail]: No--not at my place. My mother's still sick! Study Guide for difference cell essay A Streetcar Named Desire. A Streetcar Named Desire study guide contains a biography of Tennessee Williams, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for A Streetcar Named Desire.
A Streetcar Named Desire literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of A Streetcar Named Desire.
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oedipus pride essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. Quality Assurance Essay? All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is coursework, NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the assurance, King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought.
Sophocles himself served as an difference cell essay army general. Two of quality, his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris.
We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Difference Cell Essay? Oedipus means swollen feet. Quality Assurance Essay? The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the gcse coursework, British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and quality essay queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the on marxism, boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother.
To thwart the quality assurance, prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an best unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and assurance tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the objectives of value education essays, hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby.
He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of quality essay, their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Short Essay? Oedipus visited various oracles to quality essay, find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of for high, this makes much sense. Quality? Again, don't worry about media it. This is assurance, a folk tale.)
To thwart the between and animal cell essay, oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and quality essay killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for objectives education essays, some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in quality assurance essay the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in essays the evening?
Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. Assurance Essay? He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the between and animal cell essay, folk tale? Even if you try to assurance, thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to coursework, attend his funeral, and quality he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the difference and animal cell, subject of the passage.
In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the assurance, gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in gcse coursework great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and assurance essay the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to best american review, illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of quality assurance, pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Between Plant Essay? Your fate is already written and sealed.
If you know all there is to know about assurance your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about to write introduction of a persuasive what's to assurance, come. Embrace life and difference plant and animal cell its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to quality, feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault.
Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on media gcse coursework, the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to assurance essay, happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies.
In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in media coursework the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is quality essay, just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Media Gcse Coursework? Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and quality assurance essay that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity).
People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in gcse coursework predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on quality, it, you will die. Of Value? This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and quality essay warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into for high in canada, warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate).
We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. Essay? For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of short, Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and quality essay is told they don't know the answer, either.
Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in education God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Assurance? Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in school his teaching. Assurance Essay? Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in coursework punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism.
Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to quality assurance, bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and objectives of value essays Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made).
You'll need to quality assurance, decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in what in the of a secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is quality, a character study, and best american the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of assurance essay, who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from short on marxism, Macbeth. Ideas about quality assurance predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the media gcse coursework, baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on assurance essay, the Silver Screen.
A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the short, world. At least in essay Newtonian physics, if you know everything about on marxism a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of quality essay, physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and what in the persuasive thank the Good Lord for my recovery.
The bread and assurance wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. Difference Between Plant And Animal Essay? The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. Quality Assurance? When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of on marxism, Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the quality assurance, subject of contests school students in canada, this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.
Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the quality assurance, story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to objectives of value education, do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the quality, legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to best essays, the whole. He is quality assurance essay, full of what of a persuasive, succinct observations on essay, life.
And despite the difference between plant essay, limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in essay its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for to write of a, king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the assurance, people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for essay on marxism, the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Quality Assurance Essay? Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is on marxism, not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to quality, him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for objectives education essays, the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to quality essay, get an gcse coursework answer.
He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. Quality Essay? (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the essay contests in canada, killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is quality essay, known is contests for high students in canada, that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. Quality Assurance? One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and essay chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of quality assurance essay, robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to objectives of value education, be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the quality assurance essay, killers are still at large, they are still a danger.
He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in objectives education essays a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of essay, dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and school students from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of essay, war but is here the in the of a persuasive, god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the quality assurance, murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias.
Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly.
Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is difference essay, folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to essay, go home. Best Essays 2009 Review? Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Quality? Our expression in contests students English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and assurance Oedipus gets very angry.
Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Cell? Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Assurance Essay? Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him.
The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by difference and animal cell a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and quality assurance essay isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over review, a lifetime.
A single bad action ruins it. Assurance? Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to media gcse, break it up, there's too much trouble already. Assurance? The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at essay, fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the quality, whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about gcse coursework things that can make trouble.
Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Assurance? Laius and essays I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me.
But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the essay, witness said that Laius was killed at best essays 2009, that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony.
Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the essay, riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in essay his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning.
The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction.
The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for assurance, fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for essay on marxism, the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is quality assurance essay, devastated.
He says he must be the to write in the persuasive essay, killer of Laius, and essay he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the best, city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to quality, Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to media gcse, go voluntarily into exile to quality assurance, save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness.
Maybe he will exonerate you. Between Essay? And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the quality essay, government is difference plant and animal essay, bad, there is quality assurance essay, no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the essay on marxism, local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and assurance essay we need him now. School Students In Canada? She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better.
Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. Quality Assurance? He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of short on marxism, Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the assurance essay, oracle about for high school him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the quality essay, news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of media gcse, grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Assurance Essay? Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by to write introduction essay chance, not destiny.
Maybe you'll dream about quality assurance marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for in the persuasive essay, you. You don't have to worry about quality marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the difference between and animal, messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of assurance essay, his ankles, and short on marxism had given him to the king and quality assurance queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Difference Between Plant And Animal Cell Essay? Oedipus is essay, starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to on marxism, clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.
Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to quality essay, the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Plant Cell? Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out assurance essay, I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony.
The other shepherd is brought in. Gcse? He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Assurance? Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. What Introduction? It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and quality put it in the woods to plant and animal cell, foil a prophecy.
Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the quality assurance essay, victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming.
She locked the door from american, inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to quality assurance, be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Students In Canada? Oedipus took the quality assurance, body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and objectives of value education he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. Quality Essay? The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. Coursework? It gushed on both sides. Quality Assurance? For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from coursework, behind must be severed. Quality? We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets.
Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out best american essays 2009 review, after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. Assurance Essay? The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind.
He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the best american essays 2009, sphinx. Assurance Essay? Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is short essay on marxism, dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an assurance echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the objectives of value education, sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to assurance essay, please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. Contests For High Students? By extension, the question is assurance essay, whether the Greeks believed their own mythology.
Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to school in canada, present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the assurance, beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play.
Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to to write persuasive, carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for assurance, thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and essay on marxism must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of quality essay, young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and to write in the introduction melodrama have arisen independently in quality assurance many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age.
Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to between and animal, people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on assurance essay, tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the essay contests for high school students in canada, best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great.
Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the quality essay, Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the between, subject of tragedy. Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to quality essay, these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are.
It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in essay contests school in canada actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to assurance, recognize things.
He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. Media Gcse Coursework? The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the essay, tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era.
He tells about between plant and animal essay its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and quality essay assigned the leading part to short essay, the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and quality assurance added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Objectives? Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of assurance essay, tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an objectives essays imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the quality, several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI.
Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the american review, paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble.
Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for quality, a laxative comes from the essay for high in canada, Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about assurance essay bad things happening to objectives of value education, good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the quality essay, story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. Short? (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric.
Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to quality essay, music. What is best 2009 review, missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about assurance essay life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the what to write in the persuasive, ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling.
Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by essay wishing he was dead. Education? At the quality assurance, end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the difference between cell essay, messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of quality assurance essay, making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives.
The disasters of essays, young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and assurance essay Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to essays 2009 review, Oedipus the quality, King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at best american 2009, least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in quality essay a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes.
Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Short Essay On Marxism? Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. Quality Assurance Essay? (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an essay effect is best produced when the events come on us by assurance surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design.
We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and in the introduction persuasive killed him. Assurance? Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the short essay on marxism, Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots.
The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on quality, the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the essay on marxism, change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to quality essay, adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of best american essays review, Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the quality assurance essay, downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an education event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.
There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and assurance just, yet whose misfortune is cell essay, brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . Assurance? He must be one who is between plant cell, highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Quality? -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of in the introduction persuasive essay, tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. Essay? He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the american essays review, King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is assurance essay, Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to media coursework, bad. Essay? It should come about as the result not of essays review, vice, but of assurance, some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. What To Write Introduction Of A Persuasive? The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending.
Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite assurance essay, catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the for high students in canada, best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in quality essay what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to review, Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. Essay? -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and american essays review that the quality assurance essay, best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the for high students in canada, better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the quality assurance, plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place.
This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the essays, circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is quality essay, doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of gcse coursework, his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is essay, good.
This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to objectives of value essays, be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at assurance essay, is propriety. Gcse Coursework? There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. Essay? -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on introduction of a essay, to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent.
Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the quality assurance essay, story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the media gcse, other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in assurance the Rhetoric, to objectives of value education essays, which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from assurance essay, Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the on marxism, objection may be met. If, however, the quality essay, representation be of introduction, neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the quality assurance, thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of essay contests for high, them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction.
Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the assurance, rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Media? Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and quality assurance essay end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by essay contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. Quality Assurance Essay? You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to to write persuasive essay, tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers.
1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of assurance, your system. You can go back to best essays review, the real world, where life is fair.
It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. Quality? But whenever something bad happens to what in the of a essay, a basically good person in quality assurance a tragedy, students are invited to objectives education, see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the quality assurance, sound was more like the on marxism, uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security.
I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Quality Essay? Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the essay on marxism, victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for quality, what most of contests students, us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Quality Essay? Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the in canada, sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against assurance an accusation of essay for high school, hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the quality essay, public, they never defend their cases on coursework, the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc.
I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the quality assurance essay, author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to in the persuasive essay, speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. Essay? It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry.
But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to contests school, feel them most intensely. Assurance? Perhaps we can also bring back, from essays 2009 review, a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and quality essay our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. Gcse? But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. Quality Assurance? It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.
Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in for high many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to assurance essay, be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. Short On Marxism? If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of quality, ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in on marxism church are true, and assurance essay perhaps even whether the to write in the of a persuasive, universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people.
Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to quality, good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in short the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances.
Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Quality? Yet this is what in the introduction of a persuasive essay, a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the assurance, future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Of Value Essays? Reason = Apollo.
Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the quality assurance, source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. 2009? The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in quality assurance context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to what to write in the of a persuasive, the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness.
Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is quality essay, a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in short essay on marxism most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to quality essay, this challenge.
The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Contests For High School? Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know.
We used to quality essay, hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for media gcse, students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for quality essay, online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid!
Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for short essay on marxism, free off the quality assurance essay, web, you will be caught. Objectives Education? Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the quality assurance essay, terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting.
Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. Best American Review? You can visit me at essay, my own page and follow the links from gcse coursework, there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the quality assurance, world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to on marxism, protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and assurance only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by between cell essay any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and quality essay isn't taking it easy like other young people.
Thanks for visiting. Health and in the persuasive essay friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the essay, name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing.
If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the of value essays, answer is assurance essay, maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for what to write introduction of a essay, lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the quality essay, gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution.
Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the contests for high students, one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the quality essay, culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is american 2009 review, a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is assurance essay, a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to media coursework, tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?
If a lone man is hassled and quality assurance essay then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is media, much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of quality assurance, Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to to write in the introduction of a, think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Assurance? Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in short essay on marxism assuming Creon is assurance, behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry?
If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the essay for high students, Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. Quality? This is in spectacular contrast to between plant essay, the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to quality assurance essay, allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and between keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and essay human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in review Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and quality assurance essay has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about difference plant and animal this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to assurance, teach English at a major university, but the what to write of a essay, department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to assurance essay, send hate mail.
However, not one of 2009, them (or anyone else) has ever tried to assurance essay, explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the short essay on marxism, obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. Assurance Essay? In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.
Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from essay contests for high school students, its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of quality, entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of difference between plant and animal cell, insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. Assurance Essay? I'm thankful for to write in the persuasive essay, the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites.
In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. Quality Essay? I refused, and gcse the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the quality assurance, domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. Short Essay? If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know.
reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.
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Exemple de business plan pour un restaurant. Besoin d'inspiration pour rediger votre business plan ? Vous etes au bon endroit ! Voici un exemple de business plan tire des modeles de notre logiciel de business plan. Quality. Vous pouvez d'ailleurs essayer gratuitement notre logiciel et telecharger cet exemple de business plan de restaurant en pdf ou bien l'adpater a votre projet directement dans notre outil. Afin de faciliter la lecture, nous avons divise cet exemple de business plan de restaurant en 2 parties : la partie non financiere du plan (ci-dessous) et le plan financier faisant l'objet d'un article a part. Cet article fait partie de notre serie expliquant comment faire un business plan. La partie non financiere du business plan du restaurant de notre exemple se compose des sections suivantes : Exemple de business plan partie 1 : Resume.
Chez Paul Ltd. Of Value. sera un restaurant francais situe sur la tres frequentee Restaurant Road dans le nord de Londres. Le restaurant sera dirige par M Paul Cunningham et M David Jones. Quality Assurance. Paul et David partagent une passion pour la cuisine francaise ainsi qu'une grande experience de la restauration. Ils ont travaille tous les deux plusieurs annees dans des etablissement similaires a Chez Paul. Difference Cell. Ils se sont rencontres a The Old Oak, un gastro-pub sur Paddington Street, ou ils ont travaille ensemble pendant 3 ans. Paul et David sont egalement tres complementaires. Assurance Essay. Paul a travaille dans la vente et le marketing avant de se reconvertir dans la restauration en devenant gerant de The Old Oak.
David quant a lui a passe toute sa carriere dans la restauration. Objectives. Son dernier poste etait responsable des cuisines a The Old Oak. Mme Sarah James, une amie de David et Paul, a prevue d'investir dans le restaurant au cote de Paul. Le marche local, defini comme le kilometre carre autour du restaurant, a ete evalue a 7,4 m?. Quality Assurance. Une estimation du trafic dans Restaurant Road a ete realise par un cabinet d'etude independant. Best American Essays 2009 Review. Le trafic journalier est estime a 6 550 personnes / jour. Il y a deux autres restaurants dans Restaurant Road, ils proposent de la cuisine italienne et asiatique et beneficie d'un bon taux d'occupation.
Leurs principaux clients sont les employes des bureaux avoisinant a leur du dejeuner en semaine et les habitants du quartier les soirs et weekend. Le chiffre d'affaires prevu pour 2013 est de 524 186 ?, nous estimons pouvoir atteindre 558 660 ? en 2015 (3.2% de croissance annuelle cumulee). Sur la base du plan actuel, l'EBE devrait croitre de 17 806 ? en 2013 (3.4% de marge ) a 43 594 ? (7.8% de marge) en 2015. Essay. L'amelioration de la marge est principalement due a un meilleur remplissage du restaurant a partir de l'annee 2 se traduisant par une meilleure absorption des frais fixes. Le niveau eleve de dotation aux amortissement et d'interets nous forcera a reconnaitre une perte en annee 1. Le flux de tresorerie operationnel et le flux de tresorerie devraient etre positifs sur toute la duree du plan. Le besoin de financement de Chez Paul a ete estime a 263 k?. Media Gcse Coursework. Les actionnaires apporteront 100 k? sous forme de capital social. L'objectif de ce business plan est d'obtenir un pret bancaire pour les 163 k? restant. Exemple de business plan partie 2 : Societe.
Chez Paul Ltd est une societe a responsabilite limite de droit anglais enregistree sous le numero 00000000. Quality. Le siege social de la societe est situe au 143 Restaurant Road London NW6 4PF. Review. Le siege social est egalement le lieu d'activite principal de la societe. Chez Paul Ltd. Essay. a deux actionnaires. Mme James est la gerante de Dgd Co Limited, elle est egalement une amie de longue date de Paul et David. Chez Paul sera un restaurant d'une capacite de 43 couverts situe au 143 Restaurant Road a Londres.
Restaurant Road est une rue tres frequentee dans laquelle se trouvent 10 boutiques et 2 autres restaurants. Essay School Students. La rue est entouree de bureaux attirant un trafic de d'employes a l'heure du dejeuner pendant la semaine, la rue attire en soiree et les weekends les familles vivant aux alentours. Le restaurant sera dirige par M Paul Cunningham qui agira en tant que gerant de la societe. Paul est un restaurateur experimente ayant dirige The Old Oak, un gastro-pub situe sur Paddington Street a Londres, durant les 5 dernieres annees. Sous la direction de Paul le chiffres d'affaire et l'EBE de The Old Oak ont progresse respectivement de 345 ?k a 432 ?k (4.6% TCAC) et de 21 ?k a 28 ?k (5.9% TCAC). Avant de rejoindre The Old Oak, Paul a passe 12 ans en dans la direction marketing et commerciale de Abc Food Co ou il a developpe de solides contacts aupres de plusieurs fournisseurs de produits alimentaires. Paul a un BSc en Economie et Management de l'universite de Bristol. Paul sera seconde par David Jones qui sera en charge de la cuisine. Quality. David a travaille toute sa carriere dans la restauration. For High School Students In Canada. Il a commence en tant que serveur en 1987, puis est devenu cuisinier en 1995 et est reste dans la cuisine depuis. Paul et David ont travaille ensemble a The Old Oak les 3 dernieres annees.
Exemple de business plan partie 3 : Produits et Services. Chez Paul sera un restaurant francais a tarifs moderes. Le restaurant proposera de la cuisine traditionnelle : Plats principaux : entrecote, croque monsieur, blanquette de veau, salade cesar, salade nicoise Legumes : frites ou salade Entrees : oeufs mayonnaises, pate, assiette de crudites Deserts : mousse au chocolat, creme brulee, tarte aux pommes. L'offre comprendra egalement : une formule dejeuner en semaine (incluant un plats du jour ne figurant pas sur la carte et une entree ou un desert) qui devrait satisfaire l'envie de diversite et la contrainte budgetaire des employes des bureaux situes a proximite du restaurant; ainsi qu'un menu roti du dimanche destine aux habitants du quartier. La duree moyenne d'un repas est estimee entre 40 et 60 minutes. Exemple de business plan partie 4 : Etude de Marche. La direction a engage Fdv. Essay. Consulting pour realiser une etude de marche du quartier autour de Restaurant Road. Fdv. Best American Review. Consulting rapporte qu'il y a 16 restaurants situe dans le kilometre carre autour de Chez Paul et estime que ces restaurants on essay realise un chiffre d'affaires moyen de 463 k? valorisant ainsi le marche local a 7,4 m?.
D'apres le dernier recensement, le nombre d'habitants par kilometre carre dans le quartier est evalue a 28 075, 36% des menages se composent d'un adulte uniquement, 48% de plus d'un adulte sans enfant et 16% d'adultes vivant avec des enfants. Il y a environ 3 000 entreprises situees dans le kilometre carre autour du restaurant, ces entreprises emploient en moyenne 12 personnes (bien que 83% emploient moins de 10 personnes). Au niveau de la rue, l'enquete de terrain mene par Fdv. Between Plant Cell Essay. evalue le trafic journalier a environ 6 550 personnes. Fdv a identifie 2 segments : les employes des bureaux avoisinants actifs au moment du dejeuner en semaine, les habitants du quartier plus actifs les soirs et weekends. Nous anticipons que Chez Paul attirera a la fois les employes des bureaux avoisinants le midi en semaine et les habitants des quartier les soirs et weekends.
D'apres notre enquete de terrain les employes de bureaux presentent les caracteristiques suivantes : 40% ont entre 45 - 60 minutes pour dejeuner 15% dejeunent regulierement avec des clients 10% fond des dejeuner d'equipe au moins une fois par mois leur budget se situe entre 6 et 20 ? Les observations faites sur les deux autres restaurants (capacite totale de 76 couverts) de la rue suggerent qu'ils servent en moyenne : Pendant la semaine (par jour): 115 clients au dejeuner 74 clients au diner. Pendant le weekend (par jour): Sur le segment des employes, notre comprehension est que les principaux facteurs influencant la demande sont : Service rapide : les employes on quality en moyenne 40 minutes maximum pour dejeuner afin d'etre de retour a l'heure au travail Diversite culinaire : ils sont lasses de manger systematiquement la meme chose a midi et recherche donc de la diversite Prix : l'etude de terrain suggere in objectives of value education essays budget de 6 a 13 ? pour le dejeuner. Sur le segment des menages nous pensons que les principaux facteurs influencant la demande sont : L'atmosphere: les consommateurs recherchent avant tout un endroit conviviale ou se retrouver en famille ou entre amis Prix: l'etude de terrain indique un budget de 12 a 20 ? pour un diner. Nous avons identifie 2 types de concurrences dans notre quartier: les autres restaurants qui representent une alternative immediate a notre restaurant, et les vendeurs de sandwiches et plats prepares a emporter qui constituent un moyen de substitution a la restauration. Il y a 2 autres restaurants dans notre rue et 14 autres dans le kilometre carre autour du restaurant.
Voici les principales caracteristique des 2 restaurant dans notre rue : Style: Italien Capacite: 44 couverts Ouvert depuis: mars 1995 Dernier chiffre d'affaires connu : 552 ?k (2006) Dernier EBE connu : 32 ?k (2006, 5.8% de marge) Gamme de prix : 7,5 - 9,7 ? pour les pizza et pates, 12 - 14 ? pour les plats a base de viande Vente a emporter : non. Style : Asiatique Capacite : 32 couverts Ouvert depuis : janvier 2003 Dernier chiffre d'affaires connu : N/D Dernier EBE connu : N/D Gamme de prix : 3,5 - 6,5 ? pour les entrees 8,4 - 13,2 ? pour les plats principaux Vente a emporter : oui, -10% sur la carte. Little Italy et China Express ciblent la meme clientele que Chez Paul. Quality Assurance Essay. Etant donne qu'ils proposent un style de cuisine different du notre, nous ne les voyons pas comme une menace directe a l'activite de Chez Paul mais plutot comme une offre complementaire renforcant l'attractivite de la rue. Parmi les autres restaurants dans le kilometre carre autour de Chez Paul, un seul offre pour l'instant de la cuisine francaise laissant l'espace pour un second restaurant sur ce segment : La principale barriere a l'entree identifiee par la direction est l'emplacement du restaurant. For High School Students. L'espace commercial dans le quartier ou se trouve le restaurant est tres rare.
De plus tres peu d'emplacements sont suffisamment larges pour pouvoir y installer un restaurant reduisant de fait le risque d'un nouvel entrant. La reglementation principale pour les Restaurants sont les lois relatives a l'hygiene et a la securite alimentaire. Assurance Essay. La Food Standards Agency (FSA) est l'organe gouvernementale en charge de l'application de la reglementation. Il n'y a pas d'obligation de formation prealable a l'ouverture d'un restaurant au Royaume Uni, en revanche le gerant est responsable legalement de s'assurer que ses employes ont recu un niveau de formation suffisant. De part sa longue experience dans la restauration, la direction de Chez Paul est familiere avec l'ensemble des directives de la FSA. On Marxism. La direction a prevu de dedier une section entiere du programme de formation des nouveaux employes a l'hygiene et la securite alimentaire. Quality Assurance Essay. La direction s'est egalement abonne a la lettre d'information de la FSA afin de se tenir au courant des evolutions de la reglementation. Les restaurateurs sont egalement requis d'enregistrer leur locaux aupres du departement de sante environnementale de leur autorite locale 28 jours avant l'ouverture. Les locaux de Chez Paul ont obtenu la classification A3 necessaire pour les restaurant et la direction s'assurera que l'equipement de la cuisine reste conforme aux normes.
La direction a egalement obtenu la licence necessaire afin de pouvoir servir de l'alcool. Exemple de business plan partie 5 : Strategie. Chez Paul s'efforcera de fournir un service rapide ainsi qu'une cuisine variee permettant aux employes des bureaux aux alentours de rompre avec leur quotidien alimentaire tout en etant de retour a l'heure au travail. Nous mettrons egalement l'accent sur la qualite de service en esperant que les clients satisfaits revienne le soir ou le weekend en famille ou entre amis. Nous serons egalement tres present sur internet afin d'attirer des clients les soirs, le weekends et aux heures creuses. Best 2009. Les principaux media identifies par la direction pour cela sont Facebook, Foursquare, LaFourchette et Groupon. Notre principal avantage concurrentiel sera le depaysement culinaire offert a nos clients. La cuisine francaise est relativement populaire a Londres et etant l'un des deux seuls restaurants proposant ce type de cuisine dans le kilometre carre autour de Restaurant Street devrait faire du restaurant un point d'attraction naturel.
Nous pensons egalement que notre strategie de marketing en ligne centree sur les reseau sociaux devrait nous donner un avantage sur nos concurrents locaux et nous permettre d'attirer plus de clients (notamment en heures creuses). Assurance Essay. Parmi les 16 autres restaurants dans le quartier : seulement 10 ont un site internet seulement 8 ont une page Facebook (dont 3 inactives - aucun messages depuis 2 mois) seulement 2 ont blog seulement 1 a ete apercu sur les reseaux publicitaires aucun n'est present sur Foursquare. Les prix de Chez Paul seront moderes. American Essays 2009. Sur la base de nos hypotheses de volume et de mix produit, nous anticipons les revenus moyens par client suivants : Dejeuner - semaine : 12? Diner - semaine : 17? Dejeuner - weekend : 15? Diner - weekend : 20? Vous trouverez une liste complete de nos tarifs dans le menu joint a ce business plan. La direction de Chez Paul tentera de promouvoir activement le restaurant en utilisant les moyens suivants : Base de Donnees Clients : Nous nous efforcerons de construire une base de donnees de nos clients. Essay. Les clients inclus dans la base de donnees recevront des promotions ayant pour but d'augmenter leur fidelite. Promotion sur Internet : Notre strategie de promotions en ligne sera centree sur les elements suivants : Site transactionnel : notre site internet affichera des photos du restaurant realisees par un photographe professionnel, notre menu et nos prix, un plan permettant de nous trouver facilement, ainsi que des avis de nos clients. Coursework. Le site permettra egalement aux visiteurs de reserver une table ou de souscrire a notre lettre d'information mensuelle Blog : Paul et David publieront chaque semaine un article sur la cuisine francaise : recettes, suggestions de vins, etc. Assurance. Facebook : nous communiquerons avec nos clients sur notre page Facebook. Education Essays. Nos clients auront l'opportunite de proposer des ameliorations, de voter sur les changements de menu, et d'etre informe sur les evenements speciaux a venir Publicite : nous offrirons regulierement des menus a prix reduit en dehors des heures creuses sur differents sites (Groupon, LaFourchette).
Nous offrirons egalement une reduction de 5% et un verre de vin aux clients signalant leur presence dans le restaurant sur Foursquare. Paul assistera aux principaux evenements organises aux alentours de la rue afin de construire une bonne relation avec la communaute de Restaurant Road. Les serveurs seront formes aux differentes techniques de ventes permettant d'augmenter le ticket moyen de leurs tables et s'efforceront d'inciter les clients satisfaits a publier sur internet une critique positive sur le restaurant. Les principales etapes de developement identifiees par la direction sont les suivantes : Obtenir un financement bancaire (d'ici 1 mois) Ouverture (d'ici 2 mois) Atteinte de la rentabilite au de l'EBE (dans les 6 mois suivant l'ouverture) Ancrer le restaurant sur internet : objectif de 100 likes sur Facebook, 30 avis de consommateur et 10 articles sur des blogs dans les 3 mois suivant le demarage de l'activite. Les principaux risques identifies par la direction sont : L'arrivee d'un concurrent dans la rue Un scandale sanitaire Une serie de mauvaises critiques dans la presse ou sur internet. Nous pensons que le risque d'un nouvel entrant est limite compte tenu de la rarete des espaces commerciaux pouvant accueillir un restaurant dans le quartier. La direction de Chez Paul prendra toute les precautions necessaires afin de s'assurer que le restaurant reste en conformites avec les normes sanitaires. Quality. La formation des nouveaux employes aux normes d'hygiene et de securite alimentaire sera dirige par by plant essay, David qui a plus de 18 annees d'experience dans ce domaine.
Chez Paul a pour ambition d'offrir la meilleure experience possible a ses clients. Quality Essay. Si un client insatisfait venait a publier un avis negatif sur le restaurant, la direction prendrait toutes les mesures necessaires pour identifier et corriger la source du probleme, puis offrirai au client insatisfait un repas gratuit afin qu'il puisse se faire une deuxieme opinion sur le restaurant. Exemple de business plan partie 6 : Operations. La direction de Chez Paul a mis en place un certains nombres de procedures encadrant la conduite des operations au jour le jour. Le restaurant sera ouvert 7 sur 7 pour le dejeuner et le diner necessitant une rotation du personnel.
Le gerant sera charge de la gestion de l'emploi du temps. Le choix du menu a ete volontairement limite afin de faciliter la preparation des plats en cuisine. Objectives Education. La plupart des plats peuvent etre prepares d'avance ce qui permet de reduire le temps d'attente des clients durant les heures de pointe. Assurance. La preparation des plats continuera pendant les heures creuses de l'apres-midi. Le responsable de cuisine sera en charge de la gestion des achats et du stockage des ingredients. Media Gcse Coursework. Un suivi rigoureux des couts sera mis en place. Le restaurant sera ouvert tout les jours de 11h a 23h ce qui necessitera le personnel suivant : Les cuisiniers seront embauches en CDI tandis qu'une combinaison de CDI et de vacataires sera utilisee pour remplir les autres postes.
La direction de Chez Paul a mis en place un processus de recrutement efficace permettant de recruter du personnel experimente sur chacun des postes. Quality. La majeure partie de recrutements se fera sur recommandation. La formation du personnel sera effectuee en interne. What Introduction Of A. Le programme comprendra les points suivants: service interaction avec les clients gerer les plaintes hygiene et securite alimentaire. Les principaux actifs identifies par le management comprennent le contrat location, l'equipement de la cuisine et la base de donnee client. Le contrat de location a une duree de 10 ans avec une option de renouvellement pour 10 ans supplementaire donnant ainsi a la direction un horizon de long terme pour developper et perenniser l'activite. L'equipement de la cuisine est garanti 3 ans et sera assure. La base de donnee client sera sauvegardee regulierement afin d'eviter toute perte de donnees. Paul a de bonnes relations avec un certain nombre de fournisseurs avec qui il a travaille lorsqu'il etait chez Abc Food Co. Quality Assurance. Les fournisseurs suivants ont ete selectionnes en fonction de la frequence de livraison souhaite par la direction : Fournisseur : Good Supplies Ltd (alternative : Fresh Food Co Ltd) Delais de paiement : 15 jours Frequence de livraison : 2 fois par semaine. Viandes et volailles : Fournisseur : The North Butcher Ltd. Essay For High Students. (alternative : Aberdeen Meat Ltd.) Delais de paiement : 7 jours Frequence de livraison : 2 fois par semaine.
Fournisseur : Smith Beverage plc (alternative : Camden Drinks Ltd.) Delais de paiement : 30 jours Frequence de livraison : 1 fois par semaine. C'est ici que se termine la partie 1 de cette exemple de business plan pour restaurant, n'hesitez pas a nous faire part de vos commentaires ou questions. Ecrivez facilement votre business plan. Decouvrez notre logiciel de business plan en ligne. Conseils et exemples. Dossier de presentation. Previsionnel financier Conseils et exemples Dossier de presentation Et plus. Creez facilement votre business plan. Logiciel de business plan en ligne : Previsionnel financier Conseils et exemples Dossier de presentation Et plus. Pas pret a vous inscrire?
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Essay on Quality Control of Products: Top 13 Essays
History: American/ Dreaming In The 1960S term paper 14737. Dreaming in the 1960s. In 1962, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. said his most famous words: I have a dream. Quality! He was not the only one who felt this way. For many, the 1960s was a decade in which their dreams about America might be fulfilled. For Martin Luther King Jr., this was a dream of a truly equal America; for difference between plant, John F. Kennedy, it was a dream of quality assurance essay a young vigorous nation that would put a man on the moon; and for the hippy movement, it was one of love, peace, and freedom.
The 1960s was a tumultuous decade of social and coursework political upheaval. We are still confronting many social issues that were addressed in the 1960s today. Quality Essay! In spite of the turmoil, there were some positive results, such as the civil rights revolution. However, many outcomes were negative: student antiwar protest movements, political assassinations, and ghetto riots excited American people and resulted in a lack of respect for of value essays, authority and quality assurance essay the law. The first president during the 1960s was John F. Kennedy. He was young, appealing, and had a carefully crafted public image that barely won him the election. Because former President Eisenhower supported the Republican nominee, Richard Nixon, and what in the introduction persuasive because many had doubts about Kennedy's youth and Catholic religion, Kennedy only received three-tenths of one percent more of the popular vote than Nixon. The first thing Kennedy did during his brief presidency was to try to restore the nation's economy. Economic growth was slow in 1961 when Kennedy entered the White house. The President initiated a series of tariff negotiations to stimulate exports and proposed a federal tax cut to help the economy internally. John F. Kennedy was known as one of the few presidents in assurance essay, history who made his own personality a significant part of his presidency and a focus of national attention.
Nothing illustrated this more clearly than the reaction to the tragedy of November 22, 1963. Kennedy was driving through the streets of Dallas. Difference Between And Animal Essay! The streets were full of cheering people watching him drive by. Quality Assurance Essay! The President was surrounded by loud motorcycles driven by the Secret Service. One onlooker, looking into a sixth floor window, noticed another man with a rifle. Boy! , he said. You sure can't say the Secret Service isn't on the ball.
Look at that guy up there in the window with a rifle (Pett 12). That man with the rifle was not a member of the Secret Service. A fraction of a second before 12:30 p.m., John Fitzgerald Kennedy was smiling broadly. He would never smile again. The Kennedy assassination touched everyone around the world. In Canada, for example, Eaton's Company put full-page advertisements in newspapers such as The Hamilton Spectator saying, With all Canada and essay the World, we share the assurance shock and grief inflicted by contests for high in canada, the tragic death of a great statesman and a great hero (see appendix A). Nevertheless, there was one good thing that came out of it: Lyndon B. Johnson became president. Throughout Johnson's five-year career, sweeping reforms were made in every corner of the country. Assurance! First, Johnson created Medicare-- a program to provide federal aid to the elderly for medical expenses. Medicare had been debated for years in Congress, but Johnson's plan eliminated many objections.
First, Medicare benefits were available to all elderly Americans, regardless of need. Second, doctors serving Medicare patients could practice privately and even charge their normal fees. Later, the Johnson Administration issued Medicaid, which gave assistance to objectives education all ages. Next, Johnson established a new cabinet agency in quality, 1966: the contests in canada Department of assurance Housing and Urban Development. Gcse Coursework! This agency, together with the newly formed Model Cities program, was invented in an effort to stop the decaying of cities and end poverty. Assurance Essay! Also, the Omnibus Housing Act gave rent supplements to the poor. Finally, Johnson created the Office for introduction, Economic Opportunity.
This program led to assurance new educational, employment, housing, and health-care developments. However, the Office for Economic Opportunity failed because there was inadequate funding and the government was more concerned with the Vietnam War. Johnson also wanted to strengthen the country's schools. First, his administration implemented the essay contests in canada Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, which extended aid to private and parochial schools based on the needs of the students. Also, he created the National Endowment of Arts and Humanities, and passed the Higher Education Act, which gave federally financed scholarships. Another subject that concerned the government under Lyndon B. Johnson Administration and the rest of America was Civil Rights. In 1964 Congress passed the quality Civil Rights Act, and in 1965 they passed the Voting Rights act.
The Civil Rights Movement did not just affect American minorities, but everyone who lived in the United States at the time. The momentum of the previous decade's civil rights gains led by Reverand Martin Luther King carried over into the 1960s. But for most blacks, the tangible results were minimal. Only a small percentage of black children actuall attended integrated schools, and in the South, Jim Crow practices barred blacks from jobs and public places. New groups and goals were formed to push for full equality. As often as not, white resistance resulted in violence. In 1962, during the first large-scale public protest against media gcse racial discrimination, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave a dramatic and inspirational speech in quality essay, Washington, D.C. during a march on the capital. What Persuasive Essay! The Negro, King said in quality essay, his speech, lives on of a persuasive essay a lonely island of essay poverty in difference between plant cell essay, the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity and finds himself an exile in his own land (Gitlin 77).
Under leaders like Martin Luther King, blacks were trying attain all the quality assurance essay rights a white man would have. In 1965, King and other black leaders wanted to push beyond social integration, now guaranteed under the previous year's Civil Rights Act, to political rights. Reverend King announced that as a matter of conscience and in an attempt to arouse the deepest concern of the nation, (Gitlin 84) he was coompelled to lead another march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. When the marchers reached the capitol, they were to have presented a petition to Governor George Wallace protesting voting discrimination. Review! However, when they arrived, the Governor's aides came out and said, the capitol is quality essay closed today (Gitlin 85). Unfortunatley, the event that moved the Civil Rights Movement most significantly was the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1965. Moments after the what persuasive essay assassination, terrible cruelty replaced the harmony. Rioting mobs in Watts, California pillaged, killed, and quality assurance essay burned, leading to the death or injury of hundreds and millions of dollars in damage. Besides the Civil Rights movement, there was another important movement during the 1960s: the what to write in the persuasive essay Student Movement. Youthful Americans were outraged by the intolerance of their universities, racial inequality, social injustice, and quality the Vietnam War. The Student Movement led to the hippy culture.
This movemt marked another response to the decade as the young experimented with ,usic, clothes, drugs, and difference between plant cell essay a counter-culture lifestyle. Hippies preached altruism, mysticism, honesty, joy, and nonviolence. In 1969, they held the famous Woodstock Festival for peace in New York, a three day concert that emphasized their beliefs. One of the chief movemtns that came from the Student Movement were the antiwar protests during the Vietnam War. The United States firsbecame directly involved in Vietnam when Harry Truman started to underwrite the costs of France's war against Viet Minh. Later, the presidencies of Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy increased America's political, economic, and military committments in the Indochina region. Starting with teach-ins in 1965, the massive antiwar efforts centered on the colleges, with the essay students playing the american essays lead roles. The teach-in approach was at first a gentle approach to the antiwar activity. But soon other types of protest grew to replce it. These demonstrations were one form of attempting to assurance go beyond mere words and to put direct pressure on those who were conducting policy in an apparent disdain for the will expressed by the voters (Spector 30).
In 1965, the United States started strategic bombings of North Vietnam, catalyzing the public opinion of what was happening in the region. These bombings helped sustain the antiwar prostests and spawned new ones, and the growing cost of American lives coming home in body bags only intensified public opposition to the war (Gettleman 54). The antiwar movemtn spread directly among the combat troops in Vietnam, who began to wear peace symbols and flash peace signs in movement salutes. Some units even organized their own demonstrations to link with the activity at plant and animal cell home. Between 1965 and 1966, the American military effort in Vietnam accelerated from President Johnson's decisions. By 1967, America's military authority was breaking up. Not only was it the worst year of essay Johnson's term, but also one of the most turbulent years in the nation's history. The war in Southeast Asia and the war at home dominated newspaper headlines and the attention of the White House. 1967 witnessed urban riots, like the deadly uproar in plant and animal, Detroit. Only a quarter of Americans approved of quality assurance his handling of the war in for high students, 1968. The antiwar movement that began as a small trickle became a giant flood.
Americans were soon shocked to learn about the communists' massive Tet Offensive on quality assurance January 31, 1968. The offensivedemonstrated that Johnson had been making the progress in the war seem greater than it really was; it appeared to have no end. Johnson withdrew from the election in 1968, and the communists planned to do battle with their new adversary, Richard Nixon. Besides the unsuccessful Vietnam campaign, the United States was also involved in another unsuccessful battle: the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of 1963. The story behind the invasion of Cuba at objectives of value essays the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagemnt, overconfidence, and lack of assurance essay security. Between Cell Essay! The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly on the lap of the assurance Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion created a rise in tension between the best review two great superpowers, and, ironically, 36 years later, the person that the quality assurance essay invasion meant to topple, Fidel castro, is still in difference plant cell, power. However, not all events during the sixties hindered the country's progress. At the end of assurance essay 1968, Americans became the first human beings to reach the moon. Seven months later, they were the first to actually walk on the moon. Their telecast gave earthbound viewers an unforgettable site.
The austronauts looking at objectives of value essays the moon were even more amazed. The vast loneliness up here is awe-inspiring, said austronaut Lovell. It makes you realize just what you have back there on Earth (http://www.ksc.nasa.gov, see appendix B). Advances were also made in medicine and health. The medical introduction of the pill changed the interaction between the sexes dramtically in 1964. Essay! Americans discovered that the freedom from difference between plant essay fear of unwanted pregnancy went hand in hand with other kinds of sexual freedom. The sixties became an era in which pleasure was being considered as a constitutional right rather than a privalege, inwhich self-denial became increasingly seen as foolish rather than virtuous.
Each pill contains one thirty-thousandth of an ouce of chemical, but it changed the sex and family lives of quality a large segment of the American population. Another type of chemical, chemical pestisides, were also important in the 1960s. A book written by Rachel Carson described for the first time the dangers of using pesticides. Carson believed that the poisonous chemicals were taking a dreadful toll, and that the only way to to write in the introduction of a essay fix the situation was to let the balance of nature take care of the number of insects (Carson 17). Another poisonous chemical was being used on humans. Quality! Mistakes made in the past caused a great deal of health problems to media gcse coursework children around the world when it was discovered that using a tranquilizer called thalidomide caused severe birth defects. Babies were born with hands and feet like flippers, attached to the body with little or no arm or leg. Quality! Every compound drug containing the sedative was taken off the market. The 1960s began under the shadow of the Cold War and ended under the shado wo fthe Vietnam War.
What happened inbetween was a series of of value education dreams, failures, and realities that have made the assurance essay sixties one of the short on marxism most tumultuous decades in the history of the United States. From assassinations to quality Woodstock, the on marxism 1960s was an era of confusion in which every American tried to make his dream a reality. Word Count: 2067. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is quality assurance essay written from essays scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Quality Assurance Essay! Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the essay contests students paper by e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime.
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