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Immunology (Theses and Dissertations) - TARA - Trinity College Dublin

Thesis immunology

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Theses and Dissertations (Immunology)

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Samurai Dave: The Roving Ronin Report. Samurai Dave’s 2007 In Review Video. Here’s a video-photo montage of Samurai Dave’s 2007 In Review with music by thesis Seven Cycle Theory: The song is called “Only Once” which I think appropiate for life and traveling. You’ve only got one life – go somewhere and do something! Samurai Dave’s 2007 In Review: Travels, Festivals, and school study, Events. Another year has come and gone and in soppy melodramatic fashion, it’s time to look back on all we’ve done and didn’t do. Instead of focusing on love or lack there of or personal growth, I’ve look back through the magic of film and video on all the places and things I saw in 2007. I rang in the New Year between the thesis immunology traditional area of Asakusa and the sleazy area of Roppongi. Needlessly to say the 1st of January did not see me until much later in the day, in fact it was evening.

My first activity of the New Year then was the following day after sleeping off an all-nighter in Roppongi. I went to the Imperial Palace on January 2nd to hear the Emperor’s New Year address. Didn’t understand a word he said (my New Year’s Resolution is to fix that problem by next year). A week later I went to Meiji Shrine for Seijin-no-hi (Coming of Age Day) to five paragraph essay prompts high school, see kimono-clad girls strut their stuff. That weekend I went to Kanda Shrine to watch Shinto adherents prove their mettle by drenching themselves in freezing cold water. However given the unusual warmth that month, the normally chill-inducing spectactle looked rather refreshing.

The next week I went out to a temple in east part of Tokyo – Kameido. There they had a type of Noh performance. This was the first time for me to see Noh but by thesis the end of the year while I would be no expert in Noh, I would at least know Noh much better than before. The 3rd of in titles February is one of my favorite times of the year. This is Setsubun which is like a mix of New Years, Groundhog Day, and Halloween rolled up togther. Every year I attend the mami-maki (bean-tossing) at different temples. This time I hit three temples – Senso-ji in Asakusa, Zojo-ji in Hammatscho, and Kichibojin in Ikebukuro. I always enjoy watching old ladies knocking people over for thrown washcloths, beans, and other trinkets. I mainly stayed in thesis Tokyo and when I wasn’t killing zombies and Nazis on of essays my Playstation I was visiting gardens such as Hama-rikyu. The end of February brings out the plum blossoms, the heralds of Spring. To see them I took daytrips to Kamakura which due to thesis, the warm winter had already shed its plum blossoms and I went to Mito in in titles the Ibaraki Prefecture to thesis immunology, see Kairaku-en Garden with its hundreds of plum blossoms.

February was a good month for armor. I got the christopher warren chance to thesis, wear samurai armor twice. Once in Odawara in front of the castle for 200 Yen and another time in Ikebukuro at a store’s opening week for free. Short On Marxism. My inner geek was pleasantly sated. I took another daytrip out to Chiba to watch another type of thesis immunology Shinto ritual where half-naked men wrestled in public a cold muddy pond to ensure good fortune for immunology, all – its a Shinto thing. The next day I embarked on an ardous journey into five paragraph essay high the heart of the urban jungle of Tokyo. Along with my comrade, Zen Master Jeff, I hiked around the Yamanote Line for five days. Thesis. We stayed at an ryokan, an internet cafe, a karaoke box, and a capsule hotel. Our outfits were a mix of christopher warren samurai, old style Yakuza, pilgrim, and backpacker. We met quite a few people and had several interesting adventures because of these costumes.

In March I went to Nagoya where the year before I had attended one of the most amusing festivals – the fertility festival of Tagata Shrine. Once again I saw that huge wooden phallus hove into sight admist the awes and chuckles of the spectators. The next day I went to reconstructed castle whose original structure once belonged to immunology, warlord Oda Nobunaga. Two days later I celebrated St. Patrick’s Day at an Irish Pub with some co-workers where we listened to a kickass Irish band who were all Japanese. The next day I went to Asakusa’s Senso-ji Temple to watch the Kinryu-no-Mai – Golden Dragon Dance. Showing the spirit of union solidarity I attended the annual March in March, a gathering of foriegn and japanese union members.

It rained during the march but the short sun came out at the end – The Man can now control the weather! In April, I made my yearly Cherry Blossom pilgrimage to Kyoto where I enjoyed the Sakura both day and night thanks to nighttime illuminations. On the second day of my trip, I went to Nara, the first official capital of Japan, to feed the semi-tame persistant deer and see the Diabutsu – Great Buddha. The third day, I went to Yoshino which was an Imperial capital for some decades when there were two rival Imperial Courts for a time. As it was there was a Geisha performance going on back in Kyoto at the same time in the Gion Quarter – the Miyako Odori. Luckily I was able to thesis immunology, get a last minute ticket on my last day. Though laden with controversy (and with good reason) Yasakuni Shrine hosts an outdoor sumo event in mid-April. While the blossoms fall, sumo wrestlers toss each other around for our free amusement. A few days later I went to on marxism, Kamakura to see Cherry Blossoms and watch a display of immunology Yabusame – mounted archery. I injured my knee scrambling up a small tree for a better view.

This injury would come back to haunt later in the summer when I was limping about. Next Saturday, I went to Sumida Park in Asakusa to essay on marxism, see another demonstration of Yabusame. It was here were I first saw it performed years ago and I go back to Sumida almost every year. I went to Harajuku Park one Sunday to see the goth lolita anime folks. Thesis Immunology. While I was there I was interviewed for a French cable TV channel called French Wave or something like that. Punctuation Of Essays. It was suppose to air sometime in July but I had no way of seeing it. That particularly Sunday in Harajuku I stumbled the remnants of the group that used to dominate Harajuku – the dancing rockabilly gangs. Thesis. Don’t know why the influence essay essays cops drove them off 10 years ago. Usually in immunology May during Japan’s Golden Week, I stay put in christopher essay Tokyo either working or killing people – on thesis immunology my Playstation, of course. Although I get 3-4 days off and sometimes more depending on my schedule, I don’t like to travel at this time because everyone is traveling. Christopher. Prices are high and accomodations hard to come by.

Still this year, I went up to Yonezawa in thesis immunology Yamagata Prefecture to see the re-enactment of Kawanakajima, one of the short essay on marxism famous samurai battles of the immunology Sengoku (Warring States) Period. The re-enactment was more like a high school play with a fair size budget but that was ok as it added a surreal element of watching smiling schoolgirl samurai swinging swords about. I also try a bit of Yonezawa’s famous beef – which was a damn good (and expensive!) steak. From Yonezawa I went north to essay, Sendai and immunology, then to Hiraizumi where another festival was taking place. I watched Noh performed on five paragraph essay prompts high a 300 year old outdoor Noh stage and drummers dressed in bizarre deer costumes. As for accomodations, I stayed for three nights in thesis immunology true backpacking style -at the five prompts Chateau de Internet Cafe. The following week I was off again – back to immunology, Kyoto for of essays, 6 days. In Kyoto I went to the Silver Pavalion – Ginkakuji – named so even though it actually doesn’t have any silver.

A grim jest of thesis immunology financial destitution or a tourist scam, you decide. Still, lovely building, silver or no. I attended this year’s Kamogawa Odori geisha performance in Pontocho which had a story set during the public law case study civil war which burnt much of Kyoto and explained why Ginkakuji was silver-less. That evening I went to immunology, Gion Corner to in titles, get a crash course in traditonal Japanese arts from thesis immunology, Tea Ceremony, kodo playing (japanese harp), gagaku (court music and dance), geisha dancing, ikebana (flower-arranging), kyogen (the amusing plays inbetween the serious Noh dramas) finally to bunraku (puppet drama), All of this in under an hour. I took the second part of the punctuation of essays program and learned a bit on how to thesis immunology, do make tea in the traditional tea ceremony way. My tea was a bit strong I’m afraid. The following day I went outside of public Nara to see the site of the oldest Buddhist temple – Horyuji.

The current buildings do not date back to immunology, the 6th century, though. In Nara for two nights I watched Noh by torchlight. There’s no Noh like torchlight Noh. On Sunday I went to Iga-Ueno which was the hometown of some of Japan’s original Ninja. There I saw a short demonstration of Ninja fighting which basically means fighting dirty.

Monday I went to Ise famed for its shrines which are the shakespeare influence essay number one shrines in the Shinto faith. However, instead of going to these cultural meccas since I had been culturing it up anyhow, I went to a samurai theme park. Thesis Immunology. Ise has one of the Edo Wonderland themepark chains this one based on the later half of the Sengoku Period. I watched a samurai stage drama which I didn’t understand but the plot was simple enough to follow – bad samurai wants precious sword that good samurai guards. Good guy won. Dammit!

Gave away the ending – sorry! On Tuesday, I watched one of Japan’s oldest festivals, the Aoi Matsuri which was my main purpose for my trip. My knee had troubled me a bit at first but by the end of the trip, I was fine. However my knee injury would re-surface during the rainy season next month. In Titles. Before that occurred I still had some weeks with a trouble-free knee and so two days back from my Kyoto trip off I went to Nikko to catch the tail end of the immunology festival procession honoring Tokugawa Ieyasu. I caught a bit of Asakusa’s Sanja Matsuri as well. Public. I was really still tired from my Kyoto trip to gave these last two as much time and thesis, energy. But I watched people carrying around Mikoshi -portable shrines – and had a good time. I aslo caught another bit of Noh (it was definately becoming a Noh year for me).

I was rested enough towards the end of the month to take in sumo. I was fortunate to be there the day Yokozuna (champion) Asashoryu lost a pivotal match which paved the short essay on marxism way for a new Yokozuna. Well, fortunate for me not for him, I guess. Two days later I was in an area known as Miura, a beach area 2 hours south of Tokyo, where I watched another form of immunology Yabusame – Kasagake. Similar to short essay on marxism, Yabusame, kasagake has a more military practicality. The targets are placed in immunology front and are lower down at the same height as a dismounted enemy.

June is the christopher warren rainy season so I planned to take it easy for a change and immunology, just stay put but as luck would have it during the paragraph prompts Sanja Matsuri I chanced upon a poster for a festival in some town I never of thesis immunology before. The festival was honoring a samurai family from long ago who fled to the village of public school study Yunishigawa. Thesis. I was intrigued so off I went. To my dismay I missed the procession of warriors in 12th century armor by a day but I caught something even better – women in colorful robes dancing in shakespeare essay essays the street and immunology, an incredible performance on a biwa – a type of lute. I injured my knee by putting too much stress on it running to essay on marxism, work one day. I ended up limping into class. Through mid-June to thesis, mid-July I spent most of my days off at home but I did go to Harajuku park again one Sunday to see the inhabitants there. In mid-July, I was back down in public school law case study Kyoto once again. This time for the Gion Festival.

Two-story floats filled with musicians and covered with old tapestries were pulled through the streets. Thesis Immunology. Today the floats are dwarfed by tall modern buildings but back in the day, those floats must have really seemed gigantic. I also went into the mountains behind Kyoto to essay, Enryaku-ji which was once a huge temple compound with thousands of subtemples until the aforementioned Oda Nobunaga who apparently wasn’t much of a temple-going man burned many of the temples and thesis, killed a great number of priests. The priests, however, weren’t terribly temple-going types either has they maintained an army and used it to fight other temples and bully the capital. There was a sumo tournament in warren Nagoya so I headed up there and immunology, spent the whole day at the sumo tournament where I watched the various ranks of sumo wrestlers from the lowest to the highest compete. I aslo got the chance to visit one of the sumo houses but it was after their dinner so I missed all the “big” sumo wrestlers. Only the “little” guys were there cleaning up. I basically took it easy this trip though since the weather wasn’t all that great and my knee was bothering me. The last day I went on a type of fishing excursion known as ukai where cormorant birds are used to essay on marxism, catch fish. It was dark and rainy and my camera kept fogging up. Next week I was at it again – this time the thesis Soma Nomaoi, a festival I went to 2 years ago.

I saw again the paragraph high armored samurai in the best historical procession I’ve seen. This time I stayed for the last day’s festivities of the 3-day festival. I watched pensioners round up semi-wild horses at a shrine. August was a crazy month for me which made all the thesis previous months pale in comparison. Starting Aug 2 I went on an 8-day 6-festival trip throughout Tohoku. I started with the drumming festival of Sansa Odori in Morioka.

Then I went to Akita City where I watched people balance huge bamboo poles with lanterns on their palms, hips, and christopher warren, heads. South of Morioka, I spent two days at a festival where they had all kinds of dance performances but the best one and the one that brought me here in the first place was the Oni Kembai or devil dance. I spent two refreshing nights in a business hotel during the Oni Kembai festival – this after two nights in thesis immunology two uncomfortable internet cafes – before going to school, Hirosaki to see Neputa. then off to Aomori to see the last night of Nebuta in immunology which they put some of the best floats in harbor while fireworks go off overhead. The last festival was similar to Aomori’s Nebuta except that the floats were much taller – 3 of them clocked in at essay 22 meters high! This was Tachi Neputa, the tiny town of Goshogowara’s claim to fame. My knee bothered me so much at times I could barely walk. A week later I was in thesis immunology Niigata on christopher warren Sado Island to see once again the Kodo Taiko drum group’s 3-day concert. It was here I met with some sexy japanese belly dancers. I finally got myself a knee brace before going out to the island which helped me hobble about a bit better. Near the end of the month, I was back in Asakusa to catch the thesis Asakusa Samba Festival.

Lots of cameras were clicking away as scantily-clad samba girls pranced about to a Latin beat. The next evening I went to Kameido Temple to see another Noh performance this one by torchlight too. September – typhoon season – I really did take easy though I still went to sumo on one of my days off. In my neighborhood, I caught a festival. Though I missed the mikoshi, I saw a cool drum band. During that time there was an Oktoberfest celebration going on near Tokyo station at Hibiya Park. I spent two nights there drinking German and Japanese beers eating sausages and watching German and Japanese girls prance about in leiderhosen – or whatever german girls wear – to German oompah music.

I had meant to shakespeare, go to a festival that month up in Aizu in Fukushima Prefecture but this time my laziness finally said no and I stayed home the whole time and killed zombies on Resident Evil/Biohazard 4. October was another busy month as I took off to Europe to meet up with my parents, my sister and her husband, my cousin, and my uncle in a small family renunion in italy. I headed off first to catch the last two days of Oktoberfest in immunology Munich. Warren. The last Saturday of Oktoberfest was so packed I was in mortal danger of going beerless at thesis the world’s largest beer festival. Fortunately, the gods of essay beer smiled upn me and I was able to partake of the holy elixir. Then I spent a week beer-guzzling while taking in the castles of Bavaria’s mad king, Ludwig II and listening to some really talented street musicians.

An overnight bus brought me to Zagreb where I spent the morning wandering around the old town admiring the rampant grafitti. At noon, I had my eardrums shattered by thesis immunology their noonday chime which is delivered by a WWII howitizer cannon. From Zagreb I proceeded to Ljubjana, the capital of Slovenia, a country which tires of being mistaken for Slovakia. I spent a night there then spent a day at beautiful Lake Bled. An overnight train brought me into Venice – well not at first since in my exhaustion I got off at the first station before Venice and had to wait half-an-hour till the next one. I spent the shakespeare influence day wandering about the thesis city which was all I could afford to do as admission prices are stupidly high and the lines were stupidly long too. Developing Proposals. That night I arrived in Florence and thesis, spent much of the next day there. I met my family at a villa that was part of a small castle complex outside of Florence. Wasn’t use to this luxury – I had slept in a locker for two nights in the train station in Munich during Oktoberfest.

From then on it was smooth sailing – except when we got lost on the winding roads of the Tuscan Hills which was often. I went to several medieval walled towns that week in five essay prompts Tuscany and Umbria. Ah, the thesis immunology bloodshed and paranioa of five paragraph essay prompts high past centuries left some wonderful sites to see throughout the area. My favorite was Monteriggiono outside of Siena. I returned home to immunology, Tokyo just in time to five paragraph prompts school, catch a ride on the notorious Yamanote Halloween Train. Thesis Immunology. Little did I know till later of all the controversy that had been swarming around the event.

As it was, the killjoys helped to kill one Halloween Train but they knew nothing about the Halloween Train I was on – the killjoys left some amusingly angry comments on the Youtube video I made about the event. After the on marxism Halloween Train, I went into Roppongi for thesis, a bit fun and sleaze. I also went there on Weds, Halloween proper but it was dead and not int he Halloween sense. However, I did get a bit of grind action from public school law case, a she-devil and her playboy playmate pal. November was another quiet month.

On Culture Day, Nov 3, I went to a small pocket in Tokyo’s urban sprawl to see a small demonstration of a Japanese lord’s procession from several centuries ago and to see one of my student’s samba group perform. I went home for Thanksgiving where I got fat on some good southern grub such as fried catfish, mashed potatoes and gravy, and cornbread. Also got to pet my doggies. December was also a quiet one for traveling. I went to Sengaku-ji Temple in Shinagawa to see the festival honoring the 47 Ronin who 300 years earlier arrived on thesis immunology a snowy morning with the head of the lord’s enemy to lay at their masters’ grave. Then on the 23rd I went to the Imperial Palace again. This time to hear the Emperor give a birthday address. Since 2002, I’ve always gone to the Palace on the Emperor’s birthday. Last year I missed the address though I was still able to go inside. Five Essay. This year I got to see and hear some welldressed Japanese rightwingers (and possible yakuza) get really into wishing the immunology Emperor a happy birthday.

And the last 5 minutes of 2007 were spent at Zojo-ji Temple where hundreds of christopher warren balloons flew off. Whew! Well that’s that for 2007! Look out thesis immunology 2008! Actually, I think might just take the year off. Japan Remembers Its 47 Hero Samurai – the 47 Ronin Story.

Japan Remembers Its 47 Hero Samurai. A story of Edo piety, tragedy and shakespeare essay, vengeance that still resonates today. The re-enactment of the thesis 47 ronin coming with the head of their enemy. Every country has at least one story that strikes a deep chord within the heart and essay, soul of a culture to thesis immunology, resonate throughout society. Effective Research Proposals. It’s a story that illustrates the basic elements of a society so well that it’s told over thesis immunology and over christopher again, passing from generation to generation.

In America, every school child knows about the “heroic” battle at thesis immunology the Alamo in Texas. It’s an event that has been permanently etched in America’s cultural psyche with a mix of fact and fiction making it difficult to disentangle the school law case actual truth. Burning incense at the graves of the 47 ronin. Japan has many epic stories of love, tragedy and vengeance in thesis immunology its long history, but one story in particular stands out: the story of the 47 masterless samurai, or ronin. It is effective research a story that exemplifies the thesis samurai spirit and the cult of filial love between a retainer and his master. In its essence the story captures the christopher spirit of the thesis immunology Japanese. Many gather at essay on marxism Sengaku-ji Temple where three centuries ago the 47 Ronin came to their master’s grave with his enemy’s he ad. The 47 ronin were former samurai retainers who avenged their master’s death by killing his enemy then stoically awaiting the sentence of death to be passed on them by the government. Their act of defying the government’s laws and following the Way of the Samurai to be faithful to their lord unto death won the immunology 47 ronin everlasting fame and admiration of the Japanese people. Every year on December 14, people gather at five essay prompts school their graves at Sengakuji Temple in Tokyo to immunology, commemorate the deeds of the 47 ronin.

Their story began in 1701 at a time when Japan was isolated from the christopher rest of the immunology world by government edicts. Control of the country was in the hands of the shogun who ruled in Edo, now called Tokyo. The shogun of that time was known for his bizarre laws protecting dogs and other animals to the detriment to his own people. Under Shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, dogs were held in higher esteem than people. It was also a time of lavish extravagance and on marxism, decadent corruption.

The samurai were losing their status and many began acting less and thesis, less like samurai by drinking, gambling and attending kabuki plays. One country lord, Lord Asano of Ako, a man of public school law case study simple but honest beliefs was called upon by immunology the shogun to come to Edo and meet with envoys from the effective research emperor. Thesis Immunology. This would require him to learn the complex intricacies of court ceremony. Lord Asano was assigned to the master of court ceremonies, Kira Kozukenosuke, to be taught in the ways of imperial ceremony. Kira was accustomed to receiving gifts of effective proposals a monetary nature from his pupils, like many court officials of the time. When Lord Asano failed to immunology, bribe Kira properly, Kira became enraged and insulted him often. Lord Asano loses his temper and public school, along with it his life and his family’s position. Finally, Lord Asano could take it no longer and in a fatal moment of indiscretion, unsheathed his sword and attacked Kira while they were in the shogun’s castle. This action earned Lord Asano a quick death by seppuku — ritual suicide. Lord Asano’s samurai retainers led by Oishi Kuranosuke found themselves ronin and the Asano lands confiscated.

There were many who felt the thesis judgment was too harsh as well as unfair particularly because Kira who many felt orchestrated the attack was left unpunished. Lord Asano forced to commit seppeku for baring a sword in the Shogun’s castle. A core group of christopher essay Lord Asano’s retainers plotted vengeance against Kira. However, the spies of the shogun and Kira himself were on the lookout and Kira was well guarded against such reprisals. Immunology. Oishi and shakespeare, the other plotters disguised their true intentions and pretended to become farmers, merchants, gamblers and even drunkards. Oishi, who was watched the closest by the spies, went so far as to lull his enemies into a state of thesis false security that he left his wife, frequented brothels and developing effective, passed out thesis drunk in the most unsamurai-like manner in the streets of Kyoto.

His performance was so good that a passing samurai kicked and five paragraph high school, spat on him thinking Oishi a disgrace for sinking to immunology, such depths while not avenging his master. Lord Asano’s grave. The spies believed Oishi had truly become a harmless destitute creature and so Kira relaxed his guard. Oishi, however, secretly stole away to Edo and met with 46 other loyal companions to plot their assault on Kira’s mansion. Oishi signalling the begining of the shakespeare influence essays attack on Kira’s home. On a snowy evening on December 14, 1702, the thesis immunology 47 ronin attacked Kira’s home and took it completely by in titles of essays surprise. They found Kira cowering in a charcoal shed.

Kira was offered the choice to commit seppuku but he refused, so Oishi cut off his head with the same dagger that his lord used to kill himself. The 47 Ronin Attack! The 47 ronin then walked to Lord Asano’s grave in Sengakuji Temple and thesis immunology, placed Kira’s head upon it. After that, they turned themselves into christopher the shogun except for the youngest ronin who Oishi sent back to Ako to immunology, tell of Kira’s death. The 47 Ronin arrive at Sengaku-ji. The shogun was beside himself on what to christopher essay, do with the 46 ronin in his custody. To some degree he much admired them for being true to Way of the thesis Samurai. Their actions set off a controversy of debate. Much of the general public wanted their release. Several lords pleaded for the men to be granted life and be allowed to serve them.

On the other side, critics argued that the ronin had willfully disobeyed the shogun’s law and to pardon them would be to invite lawlessness and anarchy. In the end they were allowed to commit honorable seppuku rather than be executed like common criminals. They were interned with their lord at Sengakuji Temple. The surviving ronin was pardoned by the shogun and lived until he was 75 before being buried along side his comrades. Lord Asano’s lands and titles were restored to in titles, his family and his brother became the next lord of Ako.

Countless plays, novels, and later movies and documentaries have been done on this story that so caught the people’s attention. Even today, they are not forgotten and the 47 ronin are still held in thesis high esteem. Their story strikes so close to the heart of Japanese thought and belief that some Japanese scholars have said: “… to developing effective research proposals, know the story of the 47 ronin is to thesis, know Japan.”

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Racial and Ethnic Minorities Essay. History of racial and ethnic minorities in policing. Racial and ethnic discrimination are actions that are morally wrong because they result to violation of peoples rights. Humanity is guided by the principle of equality that calls for equal treatment of all individuals, claiming that racial differences should not hinder equal treatment of thesis immunology one particular group. Equality is the act of treating all people as equals irrespective of color, gender, age and ethnicity. The context of the equality principle differs from one factual environment to the other. For instance, in politics, equality refers to equivalent access to public resources, pay and public school law case, job opportunities.

Conversely, in criminal justice, the immunology equality principle means the application of the rule of law to all individuals. Equality in criminal justice therefore, discourages instances of punctuation in titles of essays discrimination by thesis immunology, the police towards any particular group of individuals. The history of warren essay ethnic and racial minorities in policing has been evident since slavery period. Various reforms and amendments have been developed in the United States criminal justice system to ensure fair treatment of all individuals by immunology, the police in policing. The world race is used to refer to a particular group of five paragraph essay school people who share a common biological inheritance that makes them distinct from immunology, those in their neighborhood. Conversely, ethnicity can be described as a cultural trend that defines a person’s way of life. The world race does not have a profound foundation and its existence does not have any biological value. Race is a literal word that was developed by individuals to refer to a particular group of people. In the United States, the concept of race developed during slavery period, where some races were considered lesser than others.

The criterion of race has been used by the US law enforcement systems in determining people’s rights. These events and activities gave rise to racism, a social practice whose virtues are racially based depending on a group’s race. Racism was therefore, practiced in three different aspects including personal intolerance, institutional racism and ideological racism. Ethnicity and racism were used as factors of consideration by the police in the course of performing their day to day activities of policing (Harrell 48). Ethnicity and in titles, race has been used as one of the indicators to immunology determine people’s attitude towards the police.

The history of criminal justice and policing in America works under racial and ethnic lines. Developing Effective Research Proposals? Racism has been a major problem facing police organizations, despite the thesis military trainings and policies that are laid before them. In criminal justice, policing lacks equal representation of every society. This has caused the minority groups to shakespeare essay essays suffer discrimination from the whites because they associate their race with violence behavior and crimes. The methods of immunology social control used by the police to the American communities differ according to ones race and shakespeare essay essays, ethnicity. Most of the crime blames are placed on minority groups than the whites. Institutional racism was and is the major and common form of racism practiced towards individual groups in the United States, which are also referred to as “petit apartheid”. It constitutes the interactions between citizens and the police, featuring their relationship with particularly the minority groups. Thesis? The police interact with people either openly or informally as they execute their day to day activities.

The concept of petit apartheid was used by policing in the past, which determined most of five essay prompts school their actions and decisions made within the criminal justice system. The apartheid concept promoted racism in policing, with the ethnic minorities facing biased treatments from the police like rough treatment and insults (Weitzer and thesis, Steven 34). The historical context of racism and ethnicity in policing. The history of racial and ethic minority discrimination is as old as creation. The United States of America is a multi-racial state, with members from different societies including African Americans, Asians, and Mexicans that form the minority community. These minority groups have contributed greatly to the US culture and punctuation of essays, economic stability. There has been a tendency, however, by the whites to discriminate these groups. Members of the minority groups have faced great challenges throughout their life in the United States because of underrepresentation in almost all sectors that can make their living equal to those of the Americans.

The Criminal Justice department is among those sectors that are leading with actions of discrimination. In policing, ethnic minorities are greatly discriminated in the process of thesis immunology recruitment, police discretion, courts and in proposals the process of criminal justice. American criminology is known for racial and ethnic discrimination in criminal justice and policing since its introduction. Racial and ethnic minorities’ discrimination in policing dates back to earlier times in the history of America and thesis immunology, has been receiving consisted scrutiny to ensure equal representation of all the American societies by the Criminal Justice Department (Sampson and Janet 360). Racial and ethnic disparities are not a new norm in the American criminal justice system. In the antebellum period, ethnic and racial discrimination in policing was a common practice among the developing effective research proposals police. African Americans were the major victims of racial discrimination because of their color and origin. Thesis? Throughout the history of the United States, racial discrimination began with the slavery system, extending through segregation and exclusion, which were practiced both formally and informally through court decisions and essay, policing legislations. Slaves were not considered as human beings, but servants to their masters because their race categorized them as inferior to the whites, since the beginning of slavery and slave trade in the seventeenth century to 1865. Regulations were put against slaves, with each of them having a slave tag that denied them the opportunity to enjoy the enormous freedom enjoyed by the whites. Slaves were exposed to plantation life to provide free and cheap exploitative labor through brutal treatment that was against human nature.

They did not have any rights and thesis, were expected to school remain captives. In the advent of the thesis immunology civil war, slavery was abolished and the Bill of Rights Amendments were revised to bring to an end the practice. This was aimed at ensuring that all individuals were granted equal freedom regardless of their ethnicity and race, and equal protection and paragraph essay school, treatment by the criminal justice system(Sharp and Susie 754).. After the Civil War, actions of discrimination continued to persist. This was facilitated by thesis immunology, the Jim Crow laws that were adopted by many states, which failed to influence essay effectively rationalize structures of discrimination in economic, social and legal forums.

For instance, the thesis African Americans could not participate in voting system because they did not have the right to vote. Additionally, they were racially separated from the influence essay essays whites under the established doctrine of “separate but equal.” The courts, however, held on to the Jim Crow laws. African Americans faced great challenges between mid 1800 to early 1900, caused by the practice of racism and their relations with the police were not perfected. In the thesis twentieth century, however, African Americans were accorded legal rights and the doctrine of “separate but equal” was abolished. Racal segregation was highly rejected and the civil rights required all people to be treated equally. Other minority groups who existed in punctuation the United States included the immunology Latinos, Alaska Natives and American Indians. These groups were not an exception and faced the same treatment and developing effective research, forms of segregation as the African Americans.

All the thesis minority groups in America since slavery period until 1900s faced criminal victimization from the police. They were considered as violent and criminals. This led to the number of minority individuals associated with actions of crime and violent behavior to increase compared to that of the whites. In Titles? Ethnic minority groups lived in slums and areas characterized by poverty, where instances of crimes were highly practiced. Conversely, the whites owned mansions and lived in areas that had sufficient security from the thesis police.

Policing activities were biased and the minority groups faced great challenges from the police (Rosenbloom and Niobe 430). Biased policing practices raised many questions about the literature of the public school law case criminal justice system towards racial differences. Thesis? This was facilitated by the increased number of minority groups that were alleged with criminal activities. Study conducted by various scholars showed that the criminal justice system was racially segregated and the ethnic minorities were underrepresented. A large percentage of the minorities remained unemployed because all the jobs available were allocated to the whites. In Titles Of Essays? The police departments did not execute fair policing. In their study, Dobbins and Bass found out that the police were prejudice. They urged police officers to ensure fairness and equality when dealing with all individuals to improve their social relations with the minority groups.

Race, crime, justice and criminology. Debates about thesis immunology racial and ethnic disparities were introduced in the criminal justice system by Christiansons, who collected state-by-state lists concerning the number of black individuals imprisoned compared to that of the whites. In Titles? According to his study, Christiansons found out immunology, that the number of blacks imprisoned was by far large that the whites. These conclusions were based on the general population that was present in all prisons in the United States. After this study, Christiansons developed the conclusion that the disproportionate representation of blacks and warren essay, whites in thesis immunology the criminal justice system was racially based. Is arguments were later contrasted by Klerk who after reviewing several studies came to christopher the conclusion that the criminal justice was not in way based on racial differences.

He added that the increased number of blacks in prisons was facilitated by their violent behavior. Christiansons encountered a lot of thesis criticism that was developed because of his argument that criminal involvement and public, crimes were not fairly judged. Most the thesis immunology crimes that required sentencing were concerned with blacks, an idea that Christiansons rejected. Blumstein, a member of the criminal justice argued that racial differences were considered as a factor when arresting criminals. This was contributed by the desperate nature of the African-Americans who lived in slum isolated areas and did not have any activity to engage them. Blumstein concluded that 80percent of individuals imprisoned in on marxism courts were African-Americans, who were judged with serious disparities and violent crimes. Using information from a survey conducted by the National Crime Survey (NCS), Langan tried to avoid questions that required him to give responses concerning bias in criminal justice system. Thesis Immunology? The surveys contained information provided by African-Americans who had been victims of the police behavior. After comparing the reports provided by direct victims of racial and five paragraph essay prompts, ethnic discrimination in policing and the reports of NCS, Langan concluded that the criminal justice system was biased. This information amounted to thesis immunology the increased racial disparities that were experienced in school study the court system. From this information, it was realized that ethnic and racial minority discrimination in policing was an ideology of the past.

Racial and ethnic minority disparities in policing. Evidence of racial and ethnic minority discrimination in policing has been proved through analysis of arrests, police contacts, intake decisions and referrals. Research conducted from the juvenile courts showed that 80 percent of arrests made were centered on blacks. This is because the police exercised a lot of power on thesis crimes that were not weighty compared to those that required intervention of the juvenile court system. When executing their duties, the police were featured African-Americans because of their race and short essay on marxism, ethnicity. According to thesis immunology research there is no great difference between the whites. This is according to Michael Griffith who stated that he had stayed with white children for the better part of school study his life.

In addition, Michael Griffith tried to interpret about his experience from the thesis radicalized political leaders in his country. According to Griffith, the verdict set in court could be used to determine the school law case study worthiness of the blacks in the society. He further states that after the judgment concerning two whites who were convicted for thesis murder, a certain reporter questioned whether the convictions had any connection with the worthiness of the black people in American society. As revealed through research the verdict was not based on the value of the short essay life of blacks, the worthiness of all human life in the country. Race relations were first brought into worldwide view on the onset of Howard Beach incident.

This was a four men case with whom their car broke down as the travelled in immunology the section of Howard Beach. These involved ‘Griffith’, aged 23, ‘Sandiford’, 36 ‘Timothy Grimes’, 18 and on marxism, ‘Curtis Sylvester’, 19. One of thesis them was left on the car as the rest walked in the major part of the beach for help. A group of white men spotted the as they were on their way from a neighborhood party. The picture presented here was that one group was black men, and the other white men. Christopher Warren Essay? The black men were spotted by the whites in a pizza parlor as they gave themselves something to eat. The white men referred to the black as ‘riggers’ as the moved on to attack them at the pizza. Immunology? The whites pounced on the black men as they strolled on the streets. They taunted the blacks after which they begun to beat them. It was a serious assault that left one of the black unconscious.

With one of the blacks diving through a big hole, staggering to a shore park way for safety, he met with death in which a court officer and son of policeman driving an automobile struck and killed him. Majority of the witnesses were whites who chased the short essay whites and called up the police. The police reached the scene and found two blacks, one lying dead while the other walked along the parkway dazed. Thesis Immunology? Instead of the police believing the short injured man and thesis immunology, treat him as a victim of the beating, the short essay on marxism treated him as a crime suspect. When the bare fact of this case was reached, in that the attack was ethnic based, and the whites attacked them only because they were blacks, an thesis alarm was widely raised. This resulted in a widespread immediate attention. This crime was condemned, and demands of quick action demanded by on marxism, the mayor, black leaders, and the police. The report given by the researcher as he tried to answer the thesis immunology reporter was against the interpretation of christopher warren other researchers who had varied arguments concerning the immunology relations of the warren race between the West Indians and the blacks. In addition, there are various procedural points, which can be used in understanding the racial disparity of the minorities, particularly, in the justice system. The enforcement agencies in thesis the United States submit many of the cases by juveniles in courts of the law although various people including parents and five essay prompts school, teachers petition the youths as well. Research also indicates that although the responsibility of the thesis police is to ensure that the inequality in the juveniles in limited through the juvenile system, the differences in juveniles based on race is enhanced by the police.

Details contained in all approaches of investigation by Michael Griffith and co-ethics showed that the criminal justice system was biased. The police carried out five prompts school, a lot of immunology attacks on African-Americans, who lived in slum areas because they were poor. Shakespeare Influence Essay Essays? After interpretation of reports provided by different people, it was found out that most of the crimes were racially based. Past criminal records also showed that the criminal justice system was biased. Feel free to contact our custom essay writing service if you need a high-quality custom written paper. All essays and research papers are written by professional academic writers. Get professional essay writing help now! Comments are closed.

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American Beauty Micro Features Analysis Film Studies Essay. The film I have specifically chosen for my micro-features analysis essay is Sam Mendes's Academy Award winning motion picture American Beauty winning numerous Oscars and praise from critics. Immunology? The narrative follows the miserable and mundane lives of the Burnham family consisting of Lester, a middle aged man who is facing a severe mid-life crisis and is extremely depressed, married to Carolyn who is an independent business women and housewife and their naive daughter Jane. The films promotional tagline 'look closer' subconsciously implies that the appropriate suburban lifestyle depicted within the narrative is not as ideal as initially perceived, therefore exploring the five prompts corrupt and thesis, dysfunctional Burnham family fuelled entirely by materialism. The brief sequence chosen for microanalysis is the exposition, otherwise known as the opening which establishes themes, characters, inner and on marxism, outer presence and the world they inhabit. Thesis Immunology? Sam Mendes, the director must specifically use a contribution of all micro-elements including sound, mise en scene, cinematography and editing in public law case study, order to grasp the viewer's conscious attention and propel the immunology narrative forward efficiently, however the two micro-aspects I have chose for analysis consist of mise en scene and cinematography which create meaning and evoke responses from the christopher warren audience. American Beauty immediately commences with Jane Burnham being recorded by an anonymous character, the conversation between the two is extremely personal based on her ultimate intention to kill her father. The uncomfortable atmosphere compliments the compelling dialogue as it the amateur recording technique is specifically used in immunology, order to create realism which grasps the developing effective research proposals viewer into a submissive position due to the nature of the thesis immunology camera shot shifting into an intimidating low angle shot which consists of Jane dominating the frame with direct eye contacts creating an overwhelmingly intense atmosphere. The lighting within the room is severely limited thus being partially illuminated which creates a room filled with sinister shadows creating an effective research proposals, ominous mood which emphasises her monotone clothing creating a mysterious persona that is unconventional for her age, more specifically sixteen therefore contradicting the typical 'cheerleader' stereotype. Jane's eye line match within the thesis camera shot detonates determination, zooming at a subtle pace whilst staring in a sinister way into school law case the camera engages the immunology viewer based on the cameraman refusing to allow her to escape voyeurism.

Carolyn Burnham is seen doing traditional female associated activities based on her natural characteristics hence her growing and maintaining the flowers within her garden, more specifically the roses are often associated with love and romance which is reflective of her provocative image possibly fuelled by her intentions to find another sexual partner regardless of her husband's consent however one could consider gardening mentally satisfies Carolyn which inevitably reduces her need for sex, although as an christopher warren, audience we seriously doubt Lester cares due to thesis, his lacklustre body language. Five Essay School? Lester perhaps outcasts himself from which unfortunately makes him invisible and unnoticeable, captured significantly during the scene where he is thesis seen eavesdropping on paragraph essay prompts high, the conversation between Carolyn and immunology, the homosexual next door neighbour. The intentional use of a 'cut in shot' shows his lack of presence and short essay on marxism, participation within his wife's life, master shot initially establishes the thesis conversation which is developing effective proposals predictably followed by shot-reverse-shot, the focus ruthlessly shifts between the dialogue where the previously distorted and blurred figure is seen in the window thus representing his fragmenting relationship with his wife and overall exclusion from society. Lester's perspective shows his helplessness to achieve acceptance hence his much more laid back approach to immunology, life, rather than a mundane lifestyle adopted by the majority suburban population, possibly aspiring to occupy a more hectic lifestyle however according to his established motivational issues in the exposition this seems highly unlikely. The outside of the house is illuminated entirely by natural light thus being much more glamorous therefore more appealing however he still holds distain towards it, in contrast the punctuation interior of the house is fuelled by minimal lighting which is significantly more realistic. In addition the interior of the house is also impractically dark which coincides with Lester's tone during the thesis voice over punctuation in titles of essays narration thus displaying two conflicting worlds; unfortunately he occupies the miserable one alone. Lester comments on the coincidental matching of Carolyn's attire and gardening apparatus, 'handle on those pruning shears matches her gardening clogs', stating it is not an thesis immunology, accident which can be applied to the significance of the door and effective research, its colour, more specifically being an intense shade of red which distinctly different from majority of white therefore standing out with exceptional prominence which denotes violence which is immunology depicted ruthlessly within the exposition and can be considered an public, important theme within the narrative. Lester has already foreshadowed his imminent death via voice over thus establishing the climax, building constant anticipation which makes the viewer become emotionally attached to the protagonist thus evoking empathy towards him and thesis, his circumstance.

The explicit performance of Lester during the masturbation scene in the shower reflects the realistic approach to the film, the initial shock of this scene can be uncomfortable for less mature audiences, and however it entices the influence viewer into thesis the realistic world of Lester which is uncountable to the majority of the population who indulge in similar activities. The claustrophobic experience within a shower cubicle can metaphorically represent a prison cell thus being imprisoned into a mundane suburban lifestyle. His body language during this scene is noticeably drained, the angle of his head on his own shoulders displays his lack of stability and main intention to sexually satisfy himself by his own means during the current moment regardless of anyone's opinion, especially Carolyn thus referring to it as the 'highlight' of his day without sarcasm. Lester's pleasured body language is due to the masturbation; however it could potentially be exaggerated based on the thrill of doing something against the norms of society hence the essays use of 'highlight'. Undoubtedly the severe lack of thesis immunology intimacy and chemistry with his wife could possibly be the reason for the masturbation rather than traditional sex, perhaps he is probably bored with sex like the majority of other things due to his refusal to abide by social norms to maintain a stable relationship on order to satisfy one another's needs. Whilst the Carolyn and short on marxism, Jane are waiting impatiently for Lester to proceed towards the noticeably expensive yet convention middle class car, basic processes such as making sure the suitcase is shut correctly emphasises his severe lack of motivation and commitment to thesis immunology, life. Lester is seen casually collecting his work from a high angle perspective, kneeling down in an inferior position to his wife puts significant emphasis in his subordinate role within the dysfunctional family, thus switching gender roles with his wife, which in the current society is acceptable although not predominantly for the traditional male ego especially for dignity and pride; however the warren essay behaviour displayed by him implies that his couldn't care less. Carolyn's performance such as the raising of the eyebrows displays utter disappointment since she is thesis immunology married to an individual who is shakespeare influence essays such a useless contribution to society thus making him obsolete or otherwise redundant, as he is expendable. Immunology? Her formal makes her seem significantly more financially independent, reinforced by the low angle perspective of Lester, making her seem significantly more intimidating and authoritative thus not requiring his assistance, potentially holding her back economically. The camera cuts to the family motionless within the car, unresponsive to one another with a significant lack of acknowledgement reinforced the extent of the families communicational breakdown, Lester is developing research seen sitting on the back seat of the car slumped, possibly even asleep whilst his wife and immunology, daughter sit in the front eager to get on with their social life, whether it is work or school. Essays? Lester positioned between the two within the medium shot, displays his prominence however his physical existence is lacking, possibly lost during the recent years which he has been entirely consumed by the capitalist society.

The clothing worn by Lester is thesis immunology representative of his social class; social indicators including his house, car and essay, clothing coincide with the typical middle class individual. Natural light is present within the scene but is obscured by the tinted windows, thus being restricted to immunology, reach its full potential, therefore subconsciously representing his constraints metaphorically hence the muted tones emphasising the lifeless atmosphere. In conclusion the micro-features within the exposition of American Beauty establishes key themes within the narrative, consisting of love, sexuality, identity, etc become more and of essays, more prominent as the narrative eventually progresses conveying numerous meaning during this brief sequence therefore dictating the characters personality and determining the choices they will make.

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Custom Brazil essay paper writing service. Brazil is one of the countries that show stable and rapid growth in their promising development. It has a dramatic history of the efforts to build a new country with decent future. This research study discusses the important domestic task of the Brazilian administration. It highlights the position of the country in the 20 th century. It embraces all the movements and political events that took place within the country in the years of economical and social decrease.

It also tells about great achievements that were made by immunology, the country at the beginning of the 21 st century. It illustrates the country’s road to development through proper measures taken by its president Lula. In Titles! The paper discusses the attempt of modernization policy, which also contributed to increase of thesis immunology, Brazil’s international prestige. Position of Latin America. It may be the true that Latin America is experiencing one of the most fascinating phases in its history. We can state this because the continent witnesses constant economic and stable growth.. Latin America stepped onto five paragraph essay high school, the path of modern economic growth in thesis immunology, the second half of the 20 th century. In general, that time was a period of unprecedented political stability. South American countries have been able to found their own requirements that meet a specific model of the development. The result of on marxism, this process was as follows: the countries of Latin America have strengthened their independence; conducted the reforms in agriculture; established the right direction of the export industry, and thesis displaced the imported goods; created new modern social and economic infrastructures; improved the macroeconomic regulations; managed to mobilize their own resources.

Moreover, they applied the five paragraph, practice of the countries with high developed economy to local experiences. It was achieved by the wide use of the capital and technologies offered by thesis, developed countries. Each country specializes in the export of one or two raw materials and products, which directly affects its welfare. Ecuador exports oil and bananas, Bolivia - tin and natural gas, Colombia coffee and oil, Peru - ferrous metals, Venezuela - oil, Chile copper and fruit, Argentina - meat, wool, and wheat, Brazil - iron ore, coffee, cocoa, and soy (Buvinic Mazza, 2004). The industrial development in Latin America has been linked mainly to mining. Also, the production of environmentally unsound and labor-intensive minerals and raw materials has been moved from the developed countries to Latin America. Punctuation In Titles Of Essays! For example, there are major copper smelters in Chile, factories that enrich tin ore and smelters that produce tin in Bolivia, as well as oil refineries in Venezuela. In countries all over immunology, Latin America, the leading sector of the paragraph prompts, economy is combined with a backward agriculture. Despite rapid economic growth, the countries still have a big external debt, which defines the dependent position of the whole continent in the world economy and leads to the situation when economic inequalities create intense social conflicts. Brazil in the 20th Century.

Only two countries have managed to build a relatively diverse industry. Brazil is one of them. It managed to develop the automobile and even the thesis, aviation industry. Brazil has provided its citizens with the nuclear power plants, it produces computers and military equipment. Brazil is a great example of the country of Latin America that has taken all necessary measures for raising the five paragraph school, country from the poverty to leadership in thesis, South America and globally. Brazil as a Country with a Huge Stock of Raw Materials. The formation of the world order is accomplished not only by developed nations. Countries which are not included into the world elite, but are growing rapidly are capable of exerting the international influence. Brazil is the South American leader that has applied for a new role in the global economy and developing research politics. Its economic dynamics and international hyperactive evidence this.

Brazil is a strong leadership in thesis immunology, Latin America. Lula, who won the title of world's most popular president, focuses on interaction with other rising giants. However, the socio-economic position of Brazil was not always as we know it today. It came through different reforms and struggles. Throughoutthe 20 th century, Brazil was looking for solutions in its development.

The country with a huge stock of raw materials and a great potential found proper solutions only at the turn of the 20 th and 21th centuries. Brazil in warren, the First Half of the 20th Century. The great influence on the development of the Brazil’s economy had the World War I, in which Brazil participated on the side of the Entente since 1917. The growth of the industry in the country was encouraged by immunology, the lack of industrial goods and difficulty of obtaining them from abroad. Shakespeare Essay Essays! After the World War I, middle and lower urban strata became more involved in the political life of the country. At that time, there were first major strikes and demonstrations of the urban proletariat. Those years were characterized by activity of the widespread political movement organized by the middle and junior officers. They campaigned against the economic and thesis immunology political authority of the christopher warren essay, traditional oligarchy. The Lieutenants Uprising took place in 1922, which was during the period of the oligarchic republic. It did not lead to any significant changes in the social structure of Brazil. Yet, it was a warning.

Eventually, the ruling oligarchy could not withstand the thesis immunology, severe crisis of global capitalism in 1929. As a matter of effective research proposals, fact, the sharp decline in the economic activity was brought by the economic crisis of 1929-1933. The economic crisis led to further aggravation of the social and political contradictions. In October 1930, as a result of the armed rebellion, Liberal Alliance came to power. It was supported mainly by the bourgeoisie and middle strata of the state. Getulio Vargas Dornellas became the thesis, President and kept the position of the Alliance until 1945. By 1940, the industrial production had increased very significantly, but coffee production declined. Yet, in order to save the interests of the old oligarchy, the government invested heavily in school study, the production of coffee, which continued to be the main export product of thesis, Brazil.

During the World War II, the five paragraph essay high, Brazilian industry obtained the further growth and development. The population of the country greatly increased. The proportion of people living on wages increased as well. After the World War II, the regime of personal dictatorship of Vargas was destroyed by thesis immunology, the raise of the democratic movement. Shortly after this, political parties were re-established and parliamentary and presidential elections were held.

In 1946, a new constitution of the liberal-democratic character was adopted. Social Movements and Political Events after the World War II. In the 1950s, Brazil intensified the process of substitution of imported goods by local production. Essay! The import was difficult because of the lack of currency. The country managed to create and sustain the development of such industries as automotive, electrical, and electronic. The huge step was done in thesis immunology, the manufacture of energy, civil construction, and road construction .A new capital of the country, Brasilia, was built. On the one hand, Brazil had a stable and quick development of its infrastructure and industry. On the other hand, the development of the economy to a large extent was due to foreign investment, and was accompanied by a huge rise in effective proposals, the external debt. In turn, the domestic investment was low, which generated inflation. Thesis! All these events and inadequate actions by the government have contributed to the aggravation of class contradictions of the christopher warren essay, Brazilian society and constant growth of social tension. In the country, mass political movements were organized, where the most active position was taken by trade union.

Youth also did not want to stand aside from the events within the country. Student leagues and other organizations were seeking to exert greater influence on immunology, political decisions. The nationalist movement that fought for social and economic reforms got popular, too. The country was filled with the internal political struggles. As a result, the country faced the five high, change of the authority under the military force. A new political regime, led by the military person, came to power. Brazil in the Second Half of the 20th Century. Since the middle of the 70s, the process of thesis, liberalization in politics was gradually gaining strength. During that process, the country saw the recovery of political rights. political refugees were allowed to come back. The pressure increased from people who demanded the return of democracy.

As a result, governors were elected by direct vote in 1982. It was a beginning of the policy based on democratic values. Short Essay On Marxism! Additionally, a wave of demonstrations in support of the direct presidential elections took place. “Brazil has experienced significant changes in the twentieth century (involving industrialization, urbanization, the integration of previously isolated regions, and patterns of demographic change dominated by thesis, the population movements), but also confronts historical continuity in the form of trenchant social inequalities” (Davila, Sachs, Wilheim, Pinheiro, 2009). The organized civil society of the middle class and students played a critical role in the process of the significant changes in warren, the Brazil. They made the contribution to the living spirit of the country’s life. The population began to hope that politics and power can be ethical. Immunology! They expected great changes. Brazil at the End of the developing research, 20th and at the Beginning of 21st Centuries. Brazil Has a Special Place on the International Scene.

Today, Brazil is completely different from the country that we knew in the 20 th century. Brazil is one of the countries that have a special place on the international scene. Brazil’s natural and human resources, its level of economic development , as well as its science and technology equal those found in the leading countries of the new world system that has developed in the 21 st century. Moreover, it has a decent place among developed countries in the interaction of the regional and global affairs. However, the purposeful tendency of Brazil in the world trade, and in economic and political space has been a relatively recent phenomenon, attributed to deep inner transformation and changes that have occurred in the last two decades. It is the economic and political changes that ensured the thesis immunology, rise and modernization of the country. The latter has become possible due to application of many measures. Above all, this result has been brought by active participation of the country in creation of the modern architecture of international economic and financial relations. Brazil, a country with a great potential, has woken up. The country did it in developing effective research proposals, the geo-economic and geopolitical sense. Thesis Immunology! A lot of of essays, facts evidence the success of the development of the country.

It holds the firm position on the key issues of world politics. It has strong relationship with other countries of Latin America and participation in immunology, the Great Twenty. Punctuation In Titles Of Essays! It maintains fruitful cooperation with other potential countries characterized with rapid development such as Russia, India, and China. Achievements of Brazil in the Last Century. Brazil had a lot of achievements during the last century. They were mixed with the positive and negative consequences for the country. Thesis! However, the country achieved its most significant success in the period between 2003 and2010.

It was during the period of presidency of influence essays, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. Thesis! He established clear goals for the development of law case study, his country. The president said that by 2020 Brazil would be, as a minimum, the fifth economy in the world (Brainard Martinez-Diaz, 2009). This defines the vector and sets guidelines for the further ascent of the Brazilian State. The great results and output of the current country’s achievements as a new stage of the development were not fast and simple. The time period over 500 years of this country’s existence was full of social upheavals and economic failures. By the end of the 20 th century, the outcomes of those events had led to the formation of thesis, a difficult situation in which the country faced profound economic imbalances, mass poverty, total corruption, and extreme social inequality. Essay! All of those were accompanied by political instability. However, after those internal problems and dramatic events, the modernization process started that produced tangible positive results for the country over a short period of time.

Brazil’s Way to the Economic Growth. The recent success in economics of the immunology, country is the result of the transition to a model with the open economy and structural reforms since the early 1990s. It is also necessary to note that the developing proposals, country made significant transformation in the direction towards modernizing its entire economic mechanism. As a result of the thesis, macroeconomic strategic decisions, the national economy has not only got rid from the uncontrolled inflation, but also acquired a new dimension and developing effective research quality. It is thesis important to select the main structural changes that have taken place in the last two decades and have shaped the modern look of the Brazilian economy. In 1997-2000, the core of the economic transformation was the privatization of the most inefficient state enterprises. Brazil was ranked first in the world in the amount of income derived from the transfer of state property into private hands.

The biggest act of privatization in Latin America was privatization of the telephone company that brought to the treasure 19 billion dollars (Brainard Martinez-Diaz, 2009). Punctuation Of Essays! It was the third large privatization in the world. Development of thesis, Different Branches of Industry. There was a significant increase in the role of the advanced manufacturing industry. It was a result of the developing research, efficient government policy. The government rightfully identified and thesis supported the strategic direction of development in the sphere of production of capital goods, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, and software. Special attention was paid to in titles the improvement of technological culture production. By the end of the first decade of this century, the local production provided 90% of the demand for industrial products, including more than 80% for machinery and equipment.

There was a rapid development of the high-tech industry, in particular aircraft building. The Embraer is the thesis immunology, third largest aircraft manufacturer. It is smaller only to such great corporations as Boeing and influence essays Airbus. The significant position was occupied by the mining industry. The country is the world's first producer of thesis immunology, iron ore.

It has large reserves of effective research, manganese and tantalum. As a matter of immunology, fact, the weak point of the national economy was the energy sector. The solution to this problem was found by diversifying energy sources and increasing the energy resource base. Public School! The development of the new oil fields is going to play a key role in the further development of the country. Brazil became the record for deep-water drilling and makes the production at a depth of up to 3 thousand meters.

According to the statement of Lula, Brazil has discovered oil reserves that contain approximately 50 billion barrels. Through such development of the country, it may become one of the world leaders in immunology, the future, as well as the largest producer and exporter of hydrocarbons. One of the main advantages of Brazilian economy is in titles a highly developed and immunology diversified agricultural sector. Since 1991, when there was a liberalization of prices for basic agricultural commodities, agricultural production has been growing at a steady pace. Global Trade and Social Development.

Measures of the Government to Support and Promote Agriculture. It should be noted that the government has taken serious measures to support and promote agriculture. It devised a program of agricultural credit on favorable terms. Short Essay! Specific progress has been made in the cultivation of soybeans. The collection of soybeans has increased four times for the last two decades. Thesis Immunology! This result is second only to that in the USA.

Other impressive results were achieved in production of poultry, beef, citrus and school law case other products. Now, the country covers their food need through the domestic production at 92% (Buvinic Mazza, 2004). This percentage trend is going to grow up. Brazil has become intone of the leaders of the world’s producers and exporters of food. The country has become one of the guarantors of global food security. Involvement of the Country in the International Trade. The important feature of the restructuring of the Brazilian economy is a significantly increased value of foreign trade in national development strategies.

The liberal economic reforms of the 1990s coincided with the process of globalization. The country became involved in thesis, the international trade and economic exchanges, and was forced to essay adapt to the strict requirements of the global market. This meant that an intelligent and efficient export promotion policy was needed for the compensation of the inevitable growth of import purchases. Thesis! The President of the in titles of essays, country announced that the growth of the foreign trade was a strategic priority in thesis immunology, its macroeconomic policies. The authorities have significantly reduced the number of clearly excessive regulations on export activities in order to simplify the trade (Buvinic Mazza, 2004). Attention of the Authorities to the Urgent Social Problems. The characteristic feature of the President Lula’s activity is the attention of authorities to the urgent social problems. Warren Essay! Since 2003, the program whose main goal is to fight hunger has been implemented. The realization of this program is very important for the country. The authorities of the thesis immunology, country remember that at the beginning of this century about a third of Brazilian population had lack of food. Half of rural residents had incomes less than one dollar per christopher essay, day.

The situation was particularly unreasonable due to the success of the Brazilian agriculture and increase of the food exports. Immunology! The presence of large hunger, poverty and misery in the country divided the nation into two opposing parts. The aforementioned economic chasm generated blatant social inequality, excluded the law case, tens of millions of Brazilians out of the thesis immunology, market economy, and caused mass crime. Five Paragraph Essay Prompts! This is why the fight against hunger was written into the general policy of the immunology, national security and was seen as a necessary tool to promote the country on the path of economic and social progress. This program does not mean the usual distribution of food. It has a comprehensive and multi-level nature, necessary for changing the face of Brazil and includes three groups of social projects. There were developed programs that were aimed to five high directly support the immunology, most vulnerable families. They included the organization of christopher, alternative channels of thesis immunology, selling products to needy citizens, providing a minimum rent, free school meals, and the establishment of consumer cooperatives. Measures were taken to provide access to the education and health care; eliminate illiteracy; improve pensions and short decrease the unemployment rate among the poor and needy (Havighurst, 2008). The growing economic power of Brazil has allowed it to immunology speak at regional and global levels in a stronger position and clearly claim to a significant role in punctuation, global affairs.

Now, there are many reasons to talk about the new geo-economic and geo-political parameters of the international positioning of the Brazilian State. One of the key political challenges of the country is the consolidation of South American Nations. The prime goal is to deepen the immunology, bilateral relations with neighboring countries and strengthen the development of effective regional institutions that can enhance the centripetal tendencies. It is necessary for developing effective the government of the country to give a new impetus to the integration process and to increase the influence of Latin America on the world stage. Do you want to get an.

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essay on roman baths by Angela Graebert. Today, it is considered proper hygiene to take a bath on a daily basis. Bathing usually takes place in a private bathtub or in a shower at home. Also, if a person has fallen ill, the immunology afflicted may seek advice from christopher, a family member, research the illness, or most likely, make a visit to a doctor. Immunology! These practices were not heard of when the public law case Celts, Saxons, Normans, and most notably, the thesis immunology Romans inhabited the island of Britain.

The ancient Romans relied upon their public bathing houses for cleanliness and in titles, healing. They also made these baths centers of entertainment and immunology, sites for warren essay worship, where they served tasty foods and alcoholic drinks. In 33 B.C. Thesis! during Augustus' reign, Rome had only 170 bathing houses (The History of warren essay Plumbing). But as visits to the baths became a necessary part of life, more and more bathhouses began to be built in the surrounding areas. By A. D., 300 the number of baths had increased to 937. Some baths were relatively small and could hold only 300 people, while larger baths could hold 1,500 and immunology, sometimes as many as 3,000 persons. Despite the great number of baths, there are three main bathhouses from antiquity that surpassed all others: the baths of Caracalla, in Rome, the baths of Diocletian, in Rome, and the Roman baths in influence, Bath, England.

The baths of immunology Caracalla could seat over 1,600 visitors and took up almost 28 acres of land (The History of public law case study Plumbing). The baths of Diocletian were even grander. The great bath, commissioned by the emperor, could hold more than 3,000 visitors (History of Ancient Roman Baths). Although these two Roman baths were spectacular, other notable baths with natural springs were built in England. It will be shown that the thesis baths, which give the city of Bath its name, while far from essay, Rome, were prized for thesis immunology the hot springs and were distinctly Roman in shakespeare essay essays, design.

Bath is located in West England, 10 miles east of Bristol and 100 miles west of London. One legend states the city was founded by Bladud, the son of King Lud (Bladud of Bath). According to thesis, the legend, Bladud was exiled from his hometown for short essay on marxism being a leper before he became a king. He later found work as a swineherd and observed that pigs enjoyed bathing in the warm mud. Supposedly, Bladud attempted to cure his leprosy by bathing in the mud as the thesis immunology pigs did.

He was successful and punctuation in titles, returned home to claim the throne that belonged to him. Bladud remained popular while the city of Bath remained under Celtic control. In A.D., 43 the Celts were conquered by the Romans. The Romans changed the name of the city to Aquae Sulis because they worshipped the thesis immunology goddess Sulis Minerva (Sullivan). Punctuation Of Essays! The name Sulis for a female fertility goddess came from the Celtic inhabitants of the land, and the name Minerva came from the Romans. The popularity of Sulis Minerva attests to the merging of immunology Celtic and Roman forms. In the late 6th century the Romans lost control of Bath to the Saxons after the law case study Battle of Dyrham. The Saxons and their pagan religion prevailed until the Norman Conquest of immunology 1066. The Normans built a cathedral and monastery and brought the baths back into use. However, over time, the baths again fell into ruin. There were later revivals with the city of Bath reaching its highest peak at the end of the 18th century during the Georgian period.

It was during this time that the city's roads and buildings were largely repaired. The baths were maintained throughout the 18th and 19th centuries and can be visited today. In visiting them, it is worthwhile to imagine what a visit to the baths would have been like if one were a Roman. A Roman Briton arriving at a bath around 10:30 a.m. probably paid a minimal fee to enter, although most Roman baths were usually free (The Roman Baths). The purpose of this fee was to keep the poor and the slaves from being able to use the shakespeare influence essay essays bathhouses. The first main stop upon arriving at a bath would be the thesis palestra.

This is where the ancient Britons participated in essay, exercises and activities. Ball games, weight lifting, wrestling, boxing, bowling, and board games are a few of the immunology most popular activities in which the Roman Britons would participate. Exercise was not performed competitively or vigorously; it was performed only to maintain good health and for enjoyment. The next stop would be the apodyterium, where the short on marxism ancient Britons would change their clothes (The Roman Baths). The apodyterium was similar to a modern day locker room. This room contained many shelves and immunology, cubbyholes where a visitor to the bath could store his belongings (History of developing research Ancient Roman Baths). Theft, however, was a common occurrence, so whenever possible a servant was left behind to thesis immunology, guard a person's belongings. Before entering the research warm waters of the tepidarium, or warm bath, a process known as stringling would occur. A person would apply oil to immunology, his entire body, which would loosen dirt and five school, sweat from the pores. Curved metal tools were then used to immunology, wipe the oil from the body.

If one wanted a massage, it would take place at this time. Essay! A long soak in warm water would prepare the bather for the remainder of thesis immunology their bath. After spending adequate time in the tepidarium, the visitor would proceed into the caldarium. This bath contained hot water and steamy air, which was meant to open a person's pores. While walking around in the caldarium, sandals were worn because the five paragraph essay prompts high school floor was hot enough to burn one's feet. The springs of Bath were extraordinary because they supplied naturally hot water to the baths. Immunology! The water of both the tepidarium and the caldarium remained heated by the rooms below the floor known as the hypocaust or furnace. The furnaces were kept lit by essay slaves. The last major stop at the baths was the frigidarium. This bath was filled with cold water and was meant to close the pores and thesis, refresh the body. The bathing process was a very important part of these baths; however, it was not the only purpose for developing effective research proposals visiting the baths.

A day at the bath would not be complete without an abundant amount of food and alcohol. Vendors walked around the baths shouting the items that were for sale: eggs, lettuce, fish, nuts, hog's fat, bread, cutlets and immunology, sausage. Alcohol consumption was also very high and patrons consumed mostly wine. Entertainment was also provided. No matter what a person's interest, they would easily be entertained by the large variety of activities. Performances of juggling and christopher warren essay, gymnastics were very popular and audiences listened to jesters and musicians. Philosophers and poets also delivered readings throughout the day. In addition to entertainment, the thesis immunology bathers were surrounded by beautiful artwork. Brightly colored statues and marble columns were displayed all around the baths. Mosaics made of glass covered the floors and on marxism, the ceilings. Much of thesis immunology this beautiful artwork was later removed to help construct the developing research cathedrals and medieval buildings, but ancient tile mosaic has been excavated and preserved (figure 1).

If a little relaxation in the sunshine was desired, the facility included some rooms with unglazed windows where it would be possible to sunbathe. Also, some baths contained gymnasiums, and there were other amenities such as libraries, bars, shops, museums, theatres, and barbershops. It appears that a visit to the baths in antiquity would be nothing less than luxurious. Although one cannot bathe in thesis, the baths today, a visit to the renovated area is an exciting and interesting experience. Five Paragraph! A visit allows for a greater appreciation of life in ancient Bath. The modern entrance to the Roman baths provides access to thesis, the renovated Pump Room, a facility that dates from the Georgian period. Here, visitors can eat lunch or purchase a cup of mineral water from the natural springs for only 50 pence. In the reception area located near the Pump Room, visitors are asked to pay a small fee of less than ?10 and can pick up a personal audio guide (Roman Baths). The audio guide discusses points of interest that are marked by numbers posted on the walls. The numbers can be selected on the audio guide so that the school law case visitor can listen to the appropriate commentary.

After leaving the reception area and walking out onto the terrace the visitor can look down over the rail to find the first impressive view of the Great Bath (figure 2). It is possible to walk completely around the immunology terrace and to shakespeare influence, view carved statues of historical figures on thesis immunology, the railing (figure 3). Punctuation In Titles! These sculptures were not part of the original complex. They were only added at the end of the 19th century after the Great Bath was renovated. At the bottom of a flight of stairs, the visitor will see the thesis immunology famous springs that feed the punctuation baths. Thesis Immunology! Although five springs provided water for shakespeare influence the Roman baths, there was one primary water source: the sacred spring.

More than one million liters of water flowed from this spring each day to thesis, supply the bathers with the paragraph high school water they needed. The water rose first into the temple courtyard of Sulis Minerva before being distributed to the various secondary baths. The base of the main spring was lined with lead and was uncovered. During the second century a classical building with barrel vaulting and columns was constructed over immunology, the sacred spring. The structure kept much of the light out, and thus, strengthened the allure of the spring. The site seemed more remote. Statues and columns were added to the site and offerings to Sulis Minerva were tossed into developing, the spring.

The building enclosing the thesis immunology spring remained until at least the 6th century when it collapsed and fell into paragraph essay prompts school, the spring. As visitors follow the course of the spring, they will notice objects in immunology, glass cases that archaeologists have recovered from the baths. Over 12,000 coins were tossed into the spring as sacred offerings. In addition to influence, that, curses were carved into sheets of lead or pewter and thesis, were thrown into the spring. For example, if a person had an item of clothing stolen from the apodyterium, he would write a curse for the person who stole his clothing in hope that the gods would bring him justice. The temple and the temple courtyard in the next area were extremely important places in the lives of these Roman bathers. Public Study! The temple stood two meters above the thesis immunology courtyard and had steps leading up to essay, it. Immunology! Four columns of the Corinthian order, held up the frieze and pediment. The triangular pediment bears the head of a Gorgon (figure 4), a motif associated with Sulis Minerva. During the Roman period, one could enter into the classical temple to view a bronze statue of the goddess, Sulis Minerva (figure 5).

Near the end of the second century, this classical style was altered when side chapels and an ambulatory were added to the temple. The temple remained this way until A.D., 391 when Theodosius, the Roman Emperor, demanded that all pagan temples be closed. The temple was, indeed, closed and eventually fell into shakespeare, ruin. The temple courtyard was where sacrificial offerings were made and where worshippers congregated. Altars, belonging to the worshippers, filled the courtyard. The sacred spring could be seen at the south end of the temple courtyard, and another building dedicated to the four seasons was located on the north end of the temple courtyard. This building has obtained its name from the facade of the thesis immunology building that had carvings of the four seasons.

The purpose of the public school law case study four seasons building is unclear. One theory is immunology that a Roman worshipper would spend the night in the four seasons in hope of seeing a vision while asleep (The Roman Baths: Bath). If one continues, the effective research proposals next view would be of the spring. The excess water from the thesis springs that was not needed for the baths flowed into the Roman drain, which was lined with wood, and emptied into the River Avon. In following the spring the visitor comes to the most exciting part of the visit: the Great Bath. At the center of the entire building is the Great Bath, the largest bath of them all: 80' by 40' by 6' (Sullivan). Four steps surround the short essay edge of the bath to lead down into the 1.6 meters of tepid water, at a temperature of 120 degrees Fahrenheit. The floor of the Great Bath like the sacred spring that fed it was lined with lead (45 sheets to be exact). When the bath was first built, a fountain was located in the middle of the north end that took water from the sacred spring and directed it into the Great Bath. This bath was once covered with a barrel-vaulted ceiling that was 40 meters high.

More caldariums were added as the thesis immunology bathing houses were expanded well into short, the 4th century. The heated baths were added to areas that are now referred to as the eastern and western baths. These baths probably allowed men and women to have more privacy (The Roman Baths: Bath). The baths were heated using stacks of tiles that were placed under the floor of a heated bath, known as pilae. The pilae allowed for immunology heat to be transferred into the room above. These stacks can clearly be viewed at short essay Bath today (figure 6). With the desire for even greater heat, another special room was developed known as the laconicum. This bath was packed full with heat and may have been similar to thesis, a present day sauna. In addition to these renovations, a large circular bath measuring (figure 7) 1.6 meters deep was constructed on a grander scales.

The round frigidarium was much larger because it was unheated. Nonetheless, as note above, there were many smaller heated baths that were part of the complex. Although Bath was never a major city in the Roman Empire, its baths were built on a large scale to satisfy the great number of visitors and the permanent residents. The very success of the baths meant that the complex used significantly more hot water than other baths, which was no doubt expensive for the city and made the facility difficult to maintain. The springs survived and continue to provide hot water. A sample can be obtained at the modern gift shop. Paragraph Prompts! Here, visitors can purchase a bottle of the healing water from the thesis sacred spring. One can also purchase many other items to remind them of the great experience they had at the Roman Baths. Luckily, for future visitors there is more to come. Bath is opening a spa that will be supplied by the hot springs (Thermae Bath Spa).

Hot baths, massages, steam rooms, body wraps, and mud baths will be available to the public. A two-hour session at the spa will cost ?19, a four-hour session will cost ?29, and an all day pass will cost ?45. Effective Research! Soon, anyone will be able to enjoy a day at the baths just as the Britons did centuries ago. Ancient Roman Baths. http://www.crystalinks.com/romebaths.html (28 May 2004. History of Ancient Roman Baths. Immunology! Kentucky Educational Television: 2004. http:// www.dl.ket.org/latin2/mores/baths/history/ (18 May 2004).

http://www.cityofbath.co.uk/history/body_bladud.html (14 July 2004). The History of Plumbing- Roman and English Legacy. http://www.theplumber.com/eng.html. 1994 (28 May 2004) The Roman Baths: Bath. http://www.romanbaths.co.uk.

Heritage Services (18 May 2004). coolmine/typ/romans/intro.html (18 May 2004). Secrets of Lost Empires: Roman Bath. NOVA Online Series. PBS: January 2000. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/roman/ (18 May 2004). Sullivan, Mary Ann. Roman Baths. sullivanm/bathbaths/bathbaths.html (28 May 2004).

Thermae Bath Spa. http://www.thermaebathspa.com (11 July 2004) Organized by Deborah Cibelli / Design by Brandon Bailey.