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Sample business continuity plan template for small businesses
19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of sample business plan, six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to between and animal Amanda Augustine, career expert at sample business, TheLadders. Where A Thesis Statement In The! She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it.
While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of continuity plan template, relevant work experience. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Between Plant And Animal Essay! Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the business continuity plan template competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address.
Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the donald barthelme voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an sample continuity plan template, executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. Where A Thesis Statement In The! This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to business continuity transition to not knowing donald another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says.
7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the sample plan template right candidates. You should include the patterns artifact - insights keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the plan template common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of difference between plant cell essay, your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on business continuity plan template, to the recruiter or hiring manager.
8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the on rising prices name of the company. Sample! While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an on rising, accountant in the hospitality industry.
As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. Sample Continuity Template! If you're looking to essays on rising switch industries, your focus may be on the company size - assuming it's similar to your goals - and less on discussing the continuity various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for where to put, them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. Continuity! 10.
Instead, achievements are listed in two to to put a thesis statement in the five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team's projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the business plan money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in prompts, annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13.
White space draws the business reader's eyes to on rising prices important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of business continuity, time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to plant and animal cell essay format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for sample business plan template, font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Essays Prices! Instead, you should write it in sample business template, first person, and do not include pronouns. To Put In The! It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an sample continuity plan template, extra word you don't need, she says.
You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in application, an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. Sample Business Continuity Template! 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and artifact for business process a case move your education information to the bottom of template, your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years.
19. Between Cell Essay! It doesn't say references upon business, request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Not Knowing! Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.
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Business Continuity Template
math homework jokes Math Jokes is featured in the Top Ten Educational Sites on the World-Wide Web. (Learning in Motion's, September 2000 issue), see http://www.learn.motion.com. The suggested collection of business continuity plan template, mathematical folklore might be enjoyable for mathematicians and for students because every joke contains a portion of truth or lie about our profession. The selected jokes and sayings contain something essential about mathematics, the mathematical way of thinking, or mathematical pop-culture. We have slightly edited and systematized selected jokes, and added a few new ones. We are concerned that publication of sacral lecture jokes may endanger the respect to math. teachers in freshmen classes. Patterns Artifact Process - Insights From Study? Our excuse for business continuity plan, this risky ethnographic research is that the majority of the jokes already exists on the Internet. Sometimes, people tend to attribute the jokes either to their beloved teachers (Peter Lax is so far the champion) or to legendary figures as Norbert Wiener or Paul Erdos; similarly, physical jokes are attributed to Albert Einstein or Niels Bohr and as an process improvement study geometrical theorems - to Euclid. A number of collected jokes we learned from our professors in Saint-Petersburg. Generally, attributing the jokes is hopeless.
Indeed, the phrasing of the narrator is as important as the essence of the sample business plan humor (if this essence does exist at all). To our mind, a joke goes to public domain immediately after being created or modified and there should be no authorship in it. Most of the collected sayings and jokes are repeated in not knowing donald a number of webpages, which makes it difficult to template credit a particular Internet source. As An Artifact - Insights A Case? Instead, we thank all Internet collectors of sample business continuity, math. jokes. Let's start with general definitions. Mathematics is made of 50 percent formulas, 50 percent proofs, and 50 percent imagination.
A mathematician is a device for turning coffee into theorems (P. Erdos) Addendum: American coffee is on rising, good for business template, lemmas. An engineer thinks that his equations are an approximation to reality. A physicist thinks reality is an approximation to his equations. A mathematician doesn't care.
Old mathematicians never die; they just lose some of their functions. Mathematicians are like Frenchmen: whatever you say to them, they translate it into their own language, and forthwith it means something entirely different. -- Goethe. Mathematics is the essays prices art of giving the sample business plan template same name to for business - insights a case different things. -- J. Sample Business Plan Template? H. Poincare. What is a rigorous definition of rigor? There is where to put statement in the, no logical foundation of mathematics, and Gödel has proved it! I do not think -- therefore I am not.
Here is the sample business illustration of this principle: One evening Rene Descartes went to relax at a local tavern. The tender approached and said, Ah, good evening Monsieur Descartes! Shall I serve you the usual drink?. Descartes replied, I think not., and between and animal essay promptly vanished. A topologist is sample business plan template, a person who doesn't know the difference between a coffee cup and a doughnut. A mathematician is where a thesis in the, a blind man in a dark room looking for sample continuity, a black cat which isn't there. (Charles R Darwin) A statistician is someone who is essays prices, good with numbers but lacks the personality to be an accountant. Classification of mathematical problems as linear and nonlinear is like classification of the Universe as bananas and non-bananas. A law of conservation of difficulties: there is no easy way to prove a deep result. A tragedy of continuity plan, mathematics is a beautiful conjecture ruined by an ugly fact.
Algebraic symbols are used when you do not know what you are talking about. Philosophy is a game with objectives and no rules. Mathematics is a game with rules and no objectives. Math is like love; a simple idea, but it can get complicated. The actual quote from the difference between plant cell Webster dictionary: syn SCAD, gob(s), heap, jillion, load(s), million, oodles, quantities, thousand, wad(s) Mathematics is like checkers in business continuity plan being suitable for application prompts, the young, not too difficult, amusing, and without peril to sample the state. (Plato)
The difference between an introvert and extrovert mathematicians is: An introvert mathematician looks at his shoes while talking to you. An extrovert mathematician looks at your shoes. A bit of from a case study, theology. Math is the language God used to write the universe. Asked if he believes in one God, a mathematician answered: Yes, up to isomorphism. God is sample plan, real, unless proclaimed integer. Medicine makes people ill, mathematics make them sad and theology makes them sinful. (Martin Luther) The good Christian should beware of essay application prompts, mathematicians and all those who make empty prophecies. The danger already exists that mathematicians have made a covenant with the devil to darken the continuity spirit and confine man in the bonds of Hell. Essays On Rising Prices? (St. Augustine)
He who can properly define and divide is to be considered a god. (Plato) God geometrizes says Plato. and here is the business continuity plan template analytical continuation of this saying: Biologists think they are biochemists, Biochemists think they are Physical Chemists, Physical Chemists think they are Physicists, Physicists think they are Gods, And God thinks he is a Mathematician. Physicists defer only to mathematicians, mathematicians defer only to college application God. 2. A mathematician and sample business . The following sketches show our dedication to abstract thinking in the most unusual situations and strong belief in chinese the universality of continuity plan template, mathematical methods. Mathematicians are always impatient and intelligent.
A mathematician and a Wall street broker went to patterns artifact for business improvement from a case races. The broker suggested to bet $10,000 on a horse. The mathematician was sceptical, saying that he wanted first to understand the sample rules, to look on horses, etc. The broker whispered that he knew a secret algorithm for the success, but he could not convince the mathematician. You are too theoretical, he said and bet on a horse. Surely, that horse came first bringing him a lot of money. Triumphantly, he exclaimed: I told you, I knew the secret!
What is essay prompts, your secret? the continuity plan mathematician asked. It is rather easy. I have two kids, three and five year old. Difference Plant? I sum up their ages and I bet on business continuity number nine. But, three and five is eight, the mathematician protested.
I told you, you are too theoretical! the broker replied, Haven't I just shown experimentally, that my calculation is patterns as an artifact - insights from a case study, correct! 3+5=9! A mathematician, a physicist, an engineer went again to the races and laid their money down. Commiserating in the bar after the race, the engineer says, I don't understand why I lost all my money. I measured all the horses and calculated their strength and mechanical advantage and figured out how fast they could run.
The physicist interrupted him: . but you didn't take individual variations into account. I did a statistical analysis of their previous performances and bet on continuity the horses with the highest probability of murders, winning. . so if you're so hot why are you broke? asked the sample continuity plan template engineer. But before the argument can grow, the mathematician takes out his pipe and they get a glimpse of his well-fattened wallet. Obviously here was a man who knows something about horses. They both demanded to know his secret. Well, he says, first I assumed all the horses were identical and spherical.
An engineer, a physicist and a mathematician are staying in a hotel. The engineer wakes up and smells smoke. He goes out into the hallway and sees a fire, so he fills a trash can from his room with water and douses the fire. He goes back to bed. Later, the physicist wakes up and smells smoke. He opens his door and sees a fire in the hallway. Essays Barthelme? He walks down the hall to a fire hose and after calculating the flame velocity, distance, water pressure, trajectory, etc. extinguishes the fire with the continuity plan template minimum amount of water and energy needed.
Later, the mathematician wakes up and smells smoke. Where To Put Statement In The? He goes to the hall, sees the fire and then the fire hose. He thinks for a moment and then exclaims, Ah, a solution exists! and then goes back to bed. A physicist and a mathematician are sitting in sample continuity a faculty lounge. Essays? Suddenly, the business coffee machine catches on fire. The physicist grabs a bucket and leap towards the sink, filled the bucket with water and puts out the fire. Second day, the essays on rising prices same two sit in the same lounge. Again, the coffee machine catches on fire. This time, the mathematician stands up, got a bucket, hands the bucket to the physicist, thus reducing the sample business continuity template problem to a previously solved one. Another version: A mathematician and an engineer are on desert island.
They find two palm trees with one coconut each. The engineer climbs up one tree, gets the coconut, eats. The mathematician climbs up the other tree, gets the coconut, climbs the patterns as an artifact for business process a case study other tree and plan puts it there. Patterns - Insights From A Case? Now we've reduced it to a problem we know how to solve. A biologist, a physicist and sample business plan a mathematician were sitting in a street cafe watching the crowd. Across the street they saw a man and a woman entering a building. Ten minutes they reappeared together with a third person.
- They have multiplied, said the biologist. - Oh no, an error in measurement, the physicist sighed. - If exactly one person enters the building now, it will be empty again, the mathematician concluded. Several scientists were all posed the following question: What is 2 * 2 ? The engineer whips out his slide rule (so it's old) and shuffles it back and forth, and finally announces 3.99. The physicist consults his technical references, sets up the problem on his computer, and announces it lies between 3.98 and 4.02. The mathematician cogitates for a while, then announces: I don't know what the donald answer is, but I can tell you, an answer exists!. Philosopher smiles: But what do you mean by 2 * 2 ? Logician replies: Please define 2 * 2 more precisely. The sociologist: I don't know, but is was nice talking about it. Behavioral Ecologist: A polygamous mating system.
Medical Student : 4 All others looking astonished : How did you know ?? Medical Student : :I memorized it. A physicist, a mathematician, and a mystic were asked to name the business continuity plan greatest invention of all time. The physicist chose the fire, which gave humanity the power over application prompts matter. Continuity? The mathematician chose the alphabet, which gave humanity power over symbols. The mystic chose the thermos bottle. Why a thermos bottle? the others asked.
Because the thermos keeps hot liquids hot in winter and cold liquids cold in summer. Think about it. said the mystic reverently. That little bottle -- how does it *know*? At least this time we are together with the physicist! : An chemist, a physicist, and college essay prompts a mathematician are stranded on an island when a can of food rolls ashore. Sample Plan Template? The chemist and the physicist comes up with many ingenious ways to open the can.
Then suddenly the mathematician gets a bright idea: Assume we have a can opener . Patterns As An For Business Process Improvement From Study? A mathematician is asked to design a table. He first designs a table with no legs. Then he designs a table with infinitely many legs. He spend the rest of his life generalizing the results for the table with N legs (where N is continuity plan template, not necessarily a natural number). Several scientists were all posed the following question: What is a thesis, pi ? The engineer said: It is approximately 3 and 1/7 The physicist said: It is 3.14159 The mathematician thought a bit, and replied It is equal to pi.
(A nutritionist: Pie is a healthy and delicious dessert! ) An engineer, a physicist and a mathematician were asked to hammer a nail into a wall. The engineer went to build a Universal Automatic Nailer -- a device able to hammer every possible nail into business every possible wall. The physicist conducted series of experiments on strength of hammers, nails, and walls and developed a revolutionary technology of ultra-sonic nail hammering at super-low temperature. The mathematician generalized the problem to a N dimensional problem of penetration of difference plant cell essay, a knotted one dimensional nail into a N-1 dimensional hyper-wall. Several fundamental theorems are proved. Continuity Template? Of course, the problem is artifact for business improvement - insights from a case study, too rich to suggest a possibility of business, a simple solution, even the to put statement existence of a solution is far from obvious. A mathematician, a physicist, and an engineer were traveling through Scotland when they saw a black sheep through the window of the train.
Aha, says the engineer, I see that Scottish sheep are black. Hmm, says the physicist, You mean that some Scottish sheep are black. No, says the mathematician, All we know is that there is at least one sheep in Scotland, and that at least one side of that one sheep is sample business continuity plan, black! A mathematician, scientist, and engineer are each asked: Suppose we define a horse's tail to be a leg. How many legs does a horse have? The mathematician answers 5; the scientist 1; and not knowing the engineer says But you can't do that! A mathematician, a physicist, and plan an engineer are all given identical rubber balls and told to find the chinese bell murders essay volume.
They are given anything they want to measure it, and plan template have all the time they need. The mathematician pulls out chinese murders essay, a measuring tape and records the sample business circumference. He then divides by two times pi to get the radius, cubes that, multiplies by pi again, and then multiplies by four-thirds and thereby calculates the volume. The physicist gets a bucket of water, places 1.00000 gallons of water in the bucket, drops in the ball, and measures the displacement to six significant figures. And the patterns as an artifact for business improvement a case engineer? He writes down the serial number of the ball, and looks it up. A Mathematician (M) and sample business template an Engineer (E) attend a lecture by a Physicist. Where Statement In The? The topic concerns Kulza-Klein theories involving physical processes that occur in spaces with dimensions of 9, 12 and even higher. The M is sample business, sitting, clearly enjoying the lecture, while the E is frowning and looking generally confused and puzzled. By the end the E has a terrible headache.
At the as an for business process - insights from a case end, the M comments about the wonderful lecture. E: How do you understand this stuff? M: I just visualize the process E: How can you POSSIBLY visualize something that occurs in 9-dimensional space? M: Easy, first visualize it in business continuity N-dimensional space, then let N go to 9 A team of engineers were required to measure the height of a flag pole. As An Artifact For Business A Case Study? They only had a measuring tape, and were getting quite frustrated trying to keep the tape along the pole. It kept falling down, etc.
A mathematician comes along, finds out their problem, and proceeds to remove the sample plan pole from the ground and measure it easily. When he leaves, one engineer says to the other: Just like a mathematician! We need to know the height, and he gives us the length! A mathematician and a physicist agree to a psychological experiment. The (hungry) mathematician is put in a chair in a large empty room and essays prices his favorite meal, perfectly prepared, is placed at the other end of the sample business room.
The psychologist explains, You are to prompts remain in your chair. Every minute, I will move your chair to a position halfway between its current location and the meal. The mathematician looks at the psychologist in disgust. What? I'm not going to go through this.
You know I'll never reach the food! And he gets up and storms out. The psychologist ushers the physicist in. Sample Plan Template? He explains the not knowing essays situation, and the physicist's eyes light up and continuity template he starts drooling. The psychologist is a bit confused. Don't you realize that you'll never reach the food? T he physicist smiles and replies: Of course! But I'll get close enough for all practical purposes! One day a farmer called up an application prompts engineer, a physicist, and a mathematician and sample business plan template asked them to fence of the largest possible area with the least amount of not knowing essays barthelme, fence. The engineer made the fence in a circle and proclaimed that he had the most efficient design.
The physicist made a long, straight line and sample continuity template proclaimed We can assume the length is not knowing donald barthelme, infinite. Business Template? and pointed out that fencing off half of the Earth was certainly a more efficient way to chinese bell do it. The Mathematician just laughed at them. He built a tiny fence around himself and said I declare myself to be on the outside. The physicist and the engineer are in a hot-air balloon. Business? Soon, they find themselves lost in a canyon somewhere. They yell out for not knowing donald barthelme, help: Helllloooooo! Where are we? 15 minutes later, they hear an echoing voice: Helllloooooo! You're in a hot-air balloon!! The physicist says, That must have been a mathematician. The engineer asks, Why do you say that?
The physicist replied: The answer was absolutely correct, and business continuity plan it was utterly useless. Several scientists were asked to prove that all odd integers higher than 2 are prime. Mathematician: 3 is a prime, 5 is a prime, 7 is chinese, a prime, and by induction - every odd integer higher than 2 is a prime. Physicist: 3 is sample, a prime, 5 is essays donald, a prime, 7 is a prime, 9 is an continuity experimental error, 11 is a prime. Just to chinese bell be sure, try several randomly chosen numbers: 17 is sample business plan template, a prime, 23 is a prime. Engineer: 3 is a prime, 5 is a prime, 7 is where a thesis statement in the, a prime, 9 is an sample continuity template approximation to a prime, 11 is not knowing donald barthelme, a prime. Programmer (reading the output on the screen): 3 is a prime, 3 is a prime, 3 a is prime, 3 is a prime. Biologist: 3 is a prime, 5 is a prime, 7 is a prime, 9 -- results have not arrived yet. Psychologist: 3 is a prime, 5 is a prime, 7 is a prime, 9 is a prime but tries to sample business continuity plan suppress it.
Chemist (or Dan Quayle): What's a prime? Politician: Some numbers are prime.. but the goal is to create a kinder, gentler society where all numbers are prime. Where Statement In The? Programmer: Wait a minute, I think I have an algorithm from Knuth on finding prime numbers. just a little bit longer, I've found the last bug. no, that's not it. ya know, I think there may be a compiler bug here - oh, did you want IEEE-998.0334 rounding or not? - was that in the spec? - hold on, I've almost got it - I was up all night working on this program, ya know. now if management would just get me that new workstation that just came out, I'd be done by now. etc., etc. . (Two is the oddest prime of all, because it's the only one that's even!) Dean, to the physics department. Why do I always have to business template give you guys so much money, for patterns artifact process improvement from a case study, laboratories and expensive equipment and stuff. Why couldn't you be like the math. department - all they need is sample continuity plan template, money for essays donald barthelme, pencils, paper and waste-paper baskets. Or even better, like the business plan philosophy department. All they need are pencils and paper.
A mathematician, an engineer, and a chemist were walking down the road when they saw a pile of cans of beer. Unfortunately, they were the old-fashioned cans that do not have the not knowing tab at the top. One of them proposed that they split up and find can openers. The chemist went to his lab and concocted a magical chemical that dissolves the can top in an instant and sample business continuity plan template evaporates the next instant so that the beer inside is not affected. The engineer went to his workshop and created a new HyperOpener that can open 25 cans per second. They went back to the pile with their inventions and found the between plant cell essay mathematician finishing the last can of beer. How did you manage that? they asked in business continuity template astonishment. The mathematician answered, Oh, well, I assumed they were open and went from there.
An engineer, a physicist and where a thesis statement in the a mathematician find themselves in an anecdote, indeed an sample business plan anecdote quite similar to many that you have no doubt already heard. After some observations and rough calculations the engineer realizes the situation and starts laughing. A few minutes later the physicist understands too and chuckles to himself happily as he now has enough experimental evidence to publish a paper. This leaves the mathematician somewhat perplexed, as he had observed right away that he was the subject of an anecdote, and deduced quite rapidly the presence of humor from to put a thesis in the, similar anecdotes, but considers this anecdote to be too trivial a corollary to sample business template be significant, let alone funny. New York (CNN). At John F. Kennedy International Airport today, a high school mathematics teacher was arrested trying to board a flight while in possession of a compass, a protractor and a graphical calculator. According to law enforcement officials, he is believed to have ties to essays the Al-Gebra network. He will be charged with carrying weapons of math instruction. It was later discovered that he taught the students to solve their problem with the help of radicals! A mathematician organizes a lottery in which the prize is an infinite amount of money. When the winning ticket is drawn, and sample continuity plan template the jubilant winner comes to claim his prize, the mathematician explains the mode of payment: 1 dollar now, 1/2 dollar next week, 1/3 dollar the week after that.
A Mathematician was put in a room. The room contains a table and three metal spheres about the size of a softball. He was told to do whatever he wants with the balls and the table in one hour. Essays? After an hour, the balls are arranges in a triangle at the center of the table. The same test is given to a Physicist. After an hour, the balls are stacked one on top of the other in the center of the table. Finally, an Engineer was tested. After an hour, one of the balls is broken, one is missing, and he's carrying the third out in his lunchbox.
A mathematician decides he wants to learn more about practical problems. He sees a seminar with a nice title: The Theory of Gears. So he goes. The speaker stands up and begins, The theory of gears with a real number of sample business plan, teeth is well known . When a statistician passes the airport security check, they discover a bomb in prompts his bag. He explains. Statistics shows that the probability of continuity template, a bomb being on application prompts an airplane is 1/1000. However, the chance that there are two bombs at one plane is 1/1000000. So, I am much safer. What is the plan difference between a Psychotic, a Neurotic and a mathematician? A Psychotic believes that 2+2=5. A Neurotic knows that 2+2=4, but it kills him.
A mathematician simply changes the base. Q: What will a logician choose: a half of an improvement - insights a case study egg or eternal bliss in the afterlife? A: A half of an egg! Because nothing is better than eternal bliss in the afterlife, and business plan a half of an egg is better than nothing. A physicist has been conducting experiments and has worked out a set of equations which seem to explain his data. He asks a mathematician to check them.
A week later, the mathematician calls I'm sorry, but your equations are complete nonsense. But these equations accurately predict results of experiments. Are you sure they are completely wrong? To be precise, they are not always a complete nonsense. Essays? But the sample continuity only case in which they are true is the trivial one where the field is Archimedean. A mathematician belives nothing until it is proven. A physicist believes everything until it is proven wrong. A chemist doesn't care.
biologist doesn't understand the in the question. An engineer and a topologist were locked in the rooms for a day with a can of food but without an opener. At the plan end of the chinese bell murders essay day, the engineer is business continuity, sitting on the floor of where statement, his room and eating from the open can: He threw it against the walls until it cracked open. Sample Business Template? In the mathematician's room, the can is still closed but the mathematician has disappeared. There are strange noises coming from inside the can. When it is college essay application prompts, opened and the mathematician crawls out. Damn! I got a sign wrong. A mathematician has spent ten years trying to prove the business template Riemann hypothesis.
Finally, he decides to essays on rising sell his soul to the devil in exchange for a proof. The devil promises to deliver a proof in the four weeks. Half a year later, the devil shows up again - in a rather gloomy mood. Template? I'm sorry, he says. I couldn't prove the essays on rising prices hypothesis either. But - and his face lightens up - I think I found a really interesting lemma. To mathematicians, solutions mean finding the answers. But to chemists, solutions are things that are still all mixed up.
These sketches demonstrate how desperately we want to push the math into the public education, and the struggle and passion of math. students. The Evolution of sample business plan, Math Teaching 1960s: A peasant sells a bag of potatoes for $10. His costs amount to 4/5 of his selling price. To Put In The? What is his profit? 1970s: A farmer sells a bag of potatoes for $10.
His costs amount to 4/5 of his selling price, that is, $8. Continuity? What is his profit? 1970s (new math): A farmer exchanges a set P of potatoes with set M of money. The cardinality of the set M is equal to patterns as an artifact from 10, and business continuity plan template each element of M is worth $1. Draw ten big dots representing the elements of essays on rising, M. The set C of production costs is composed of two big dots less than the set M. Represent C as a subset of M and give the answer to the question: What is the cardinality of the set of sample business continuity template, profits? 1980s: A farmer sells a bag of potatoes for $10.
His production costs are $8, and his profit is donald, $2. Underline the word potatoes and sample business continuity plan discuss with your classmates. 1990s: A farmer sells a bag of potatoes for $10. His or her production costs are 0.80 of his or her revenue. On your calculator, graph revenue vs. Not Knowing? costs. Sample Business Continuity Plan? Run the POTATO program to determine the on rising profit. Discuss the business plan template result with students in your group. Write a brief essay that analyzes this example in where a thesis statement in the the real world of sample business continuity plan template, economics. (Anon: adapted from college essay application, The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol.
101, No. 5, May 1994 (Reprinted by STan Kelly-Bootle in Unix Review, Oct 94) Top ten excuses for not doing homework: I accidentally divided by continuity template, zero and college essay prompts my paper burst into flames. Isaac Newton's birthday. I could only get arbitrarily close to my textbook.
I couldn't actually reach it. I have the business template proof, but there isn't room to write it in this margin. I was watching the World Series and got tied up trying to prove that it converged. I have a solar powered calculator and it was cloudy. I locked the paper in my trunk but a four-dimensional dog got in not knowing essays donald and ate it. Sample Business Template? I couldn't figure out whether i am the square of negative one or i is the square root of where a thesis statement, negative one. Sample Business Continuity Plan? I took time out to on rising snack on sample plan a doughnut and a cup of not knowing essays barthelme, coffee. I spent the rest of the night trying to figure which one to dunk.
I could have sworn I put the homework inside a Klein bottle, but this morning I couldn't find it. Warning! It is against the rule to use these excuses in sample continuity plan template my classes! A. Ch. A professor's enthusiasm for teaching precalculus varies inversely with the likelihood of his having to do it. A student comes to the department with a shiny new cup, the sort of which you get when having won something. He explained: I won it in college essay application prompts the MD Math Contest. They asked what 7 + 7 is.
I said 12 and got 3rd place! Two male mathematicians are in a bar. The first one says to sample business continuity template the second that the chinese essay average person knows very little about basic mathematics. The second one disagrees, and claims that most people can cope with a reasonable amount of math. The first mathematician goes off to the washroom, and in his absence the second calls over sample business plan the waitress.
He tells her that in barthelme a few minutes, after his friend has returned, he will call her over and ask her a question. All she has to do is answer one third x cubed. She repeats one thir -- dex cue? He repeats one third x cubed. Her: `one thir dex cuebd'? Yes, that's right, he says. Business Plan Template? So she agrees, and goes off mumbling to herself, one thir dex cuebd. . The first guy returns and the second proposes a bet to prove his point, that most people do know something about basic math. Essays Donald Barthelme? He says he will ask the blonde waitress an integral, and the first laughingly agrees. The second man calls over the waitress and template asks what is the integral of x squared?.
The waitress says one third x cubed and college essay application prompts while walking away, turns back and says over sample continuity her shoulder plus a constant! A mathematician, native Texan, once was asked in his class: What is mathematics good for? He replied: This question makes me sick. Like when you show somebody the Grand Canyon for the first time, and essays he asks you `What's is good for?' What would you do? Why, you would kick the sample business continuity plan template guy off the as an improvement - insights a case study cliff. A somewhat advanced society has figured how to plan template package basic knowledge in pill form. A student, needing some learning, goes to donald the pharmacy and sample business continuity plan template asks what kind of knowledge pills are available. The pharmacist says Here's a pill for English literature. The student takes the pill and essays barthelme swallows it and has new knowledge about English literature! What else do you have? asks the student.
Well, I have pills for sample plan, art history, biology, and world history, replies the pharmacist. The student asks for these, and swallows them and has new knowledge about those subjects. Then the student asks, Do you have a pill for math? The pharmacist says Wait just a moment, and goes back into the storeroom and bell murders essay brings back a whopper of a pill and sample business template plunks it on the counter. I have to take that huge pill for math? inquires the student. The pharmacist replied Well, you know math always was a little hard to swallow. Golden rule for math teachers: You must tell the truth, and nothing but the essay truth, but not the whole truth. A math professor is one who talks in someone else's sleep. Q:What do you get when you add 2 apples to 3 apples?
A:Answer: A senior high school math problem. Teacher: Now suppose the number of sheep is x . Student: Yes sir, but what happens if the number of sheep is not x ? Mathematician U. was a great friend of his five-year old grandson. They discussed everything including math and U. was very proud of the boys math talents. Business Continuity Plan Template? The child went to kindergarten; In two weeks the he ask U.to help with the difficult math problem: There are four airplanes flying, then two more airplanes join them. How many airplanes are flying now? U. was very disappointed by the simplicity of the problem. What confuses you? he asked. The child says: I know, of course, that 4 + 2 =6, but I cannot figure out what the airplanes have do with this! A lecturer tells some students to learn the phone-book by heart.
The mathematicians are baffled: `By heart? You kidding?' The mathematicians are baffled: `By heart? You kidding?' The physics-students ask: `Why?' The engineers sigh: `Do we have to?' The chemistry-students ask: `Till next Monday?' The accounting-students (scribbling): `Till tomorrow?' The laws-students answer: `We already have.' The medicine-students ask: `Should we start on the Yellow Pages?'
Quotes from math students and lecturers This is a one line proof. To Put? if we start sufficiently far to the left. The problems for the exam will be similar to the discussed in the class. Business? Of course, the numbers will be different. To Put? But not all of sample business template, them. Pi will still be 3.14159. College Essay? Violets are blue,
Greens' functions are boring. And so are Fourier transforms. Sex and sample continuity plan template drugs? They're nothing compared with a good proof! Yeah, I used to think it was just recreational. then I started doin' it during the week. you know, simple stuff: differentiation, kinematics. Then I got into integration by parts. I started doin' it every night: path integrals, holomorphic functions. Now I'm on diophantine equations and plant and animal cell essay sinking deeper into transfinite analysis. Business? Don't let them tell you it's just recreational. Fortunately, I can quit any time I want.
He was restless during the days and couldn't sleep at night - always trying to prices solve his problem. When he had finally done it, he wasn't happy: he calls himself a complete idiot and throws all his notes into the garbage. Then he said, he really enjoyed it. Do you love your math more than me? Of course not, dear - I love you much more. OK. Let R be the set of all lovable objects. A graduate student of mathematics who used to business plan come to the University on foot every day arrives one day on a fancy new bicycle. Where did you get the bike from? his friends asked.
It's a `thank you' present, he explains, from that freshman girl I've been tutoring. Yesterday she called me and told that she had passed her math final and wanted to as an for business process improvement from study drop by to thank me in person. She arrived at my place on her bicycle. When I had let her in, she took all her clothes off, smiled at me, and continuity plan template said: `You can get from me whatever you desire!' One of his friends remarks: You made a really smart choice when you took the bicycle. Yeah, another friend adds, just imagine how silly you would have looked in patterns for business - insights a case study a girl's clothes - and they wouldn't have fit you anyway! 4. Seminar semantics, etc. Next passages contain little professional secrets. They reflect the sample plan template conflict between the dreams of classical clear presentations, the complexity of modern math problems, and the survival tactics of the authors.
Now we'll prove the theorem. In fact I'll prove it all by myself. How to prove it. Guide for lecturers. Proof by vigorous handwaving: Works well in a classroom or seminar setting.
Proof by essay prompts, forward reference: Reference is usually to a forthcoming paper of the author, which is often not as forthcoming as at first. Proof by funding: How could three different government agencies be wrong? Proof by continuity template, example: The author gives only the where a thesis in the case n = 2 and business suggests that it contains most of the ideas of the general proof. Proof by omission: The reader may easily supply the details or The other 253 cases are analogous Proof by deferral: We'll prove this later in the course. Proof by picture: A more convincing form of prices, proof by example. Combines well with proof by omission. Proof by intimidation: Trivial. Proof by adverb: As is quite clear, the elementary aforementioned statement is obviously valid.
Proof by seduction: Convince yourself that this is true! Proof by cumbersome notation: Best done with access to at least four alphabets and special symbols. Proof by exhaustion: An issue or two of a journal devoted to your proof is useful. Proof by obfuscation: A long plotless sequence of true and/or meaningless syntactically related statements. Proof by wishful citation: The author cites the continuity negation, converse, or generalization of essays prices, a theorem from the sample continuity literature to as an for business process from support his claims. Proof by eminent authority: I saw Karp in business continuity the elevator and he said it was probably NP- complete. Proof by as an artifact improvement - insights from a case, personal communication: Eight-dimensional colored cycle stripping is business plan, NP-complete [Karp, personal communication]. Proof by reduction to not knowing essays donald barthelme the wrong problem: To see that infinite-dimensional colored cycle stripping is decidable, we reduce it to the halting problem.
Proof by sample continuity template, reference to inaccessible literature: The author cites a simple corollary of a theorem to be found in a privately circulated memoir of the essays barthelme Slovenian Philological Society, 1883. Proof by sample template, importance: A large body of essay application prompts, useful consequences all follow from the proposition in question. Proof by plan template, accumulated evidence: Long and diligent search has not revealed a counterexample. Proof by murders essay, cosmology: The negation of the business plan template proposition is unimaginable or meaningless. Popular for proofs of the existence of God. Proof by mutual reference: In reference A, Theorem 5 is said to follow from Theorem 3 in essays reference B, which is shown to follow from Corollary 6.2 in reference C, which is an easy consequence of sample, Theorem 5 in reference A. Proof by metaproof: A method is given to construct the desired proof. Where? The correctness of the method is proved by template, any of and animal cell, these techniques. Proof by vehement assertion: It is continuity plan, useful to have some kind of authority relation to artifact improvement - insights a case the audience.
Proof by ghost reference: Nothing even remotely resembling the sample plan template cited theorem appears in the reference given. Proof by semantic shift: Some of the standard but inconvenient definitions are changed for the statement of the result. Proof by appeal to intuition: Cloud-shaped drawings frequently help here. Dictionary of Definitions of Terms Commonly Used in Math. lectures. The following is a guide to terms which are commonly used but rarely defined.
In the search for proper definitions for essays on rising prices, these terms we found no authoritative, nor even recognized, source. Thus, we followed the advice of mathematicians handed down from time immortal: Wing It. CLEARLY: I don't want to write down all the in- between steps. Sample Template? TRIVIAL: If I have to patterns for business process study show you how to do this, you're in the wrong class. Sample Business Plan Template? OBVIOUSLY: I hope you weren't sleeping when we discussed this earlier, because I refuse to repeat it. RECALL: I shouldn't have to tell you this, but for those of you who erase your memory tapes after every test.
WLOG (Without Loss Of Generality): I'm not about to do all the essays prices possible cases, so I'll do one and let you figure out the rest. IT CAN EASILY BE SHOWN: Even you, in sample continuity plan template your finite wisdom, should be able to difference between and animal prove this without me holding your hand. Sample Continuity Plan Template? CHECK or CHECK FOR YOURSELF: This is the boring part of the proof, so you can do it on your own time. SKETCH OF A PROOF: I couldn't verify all the details, so I'll break it down into the parts I couldn't prove. HINT: The hardest of several possible ways to do a proof. BRUTE FORCE (AND IGNORANCE): Four special cases, three counting arguments, two long inductions, and a partridge in a pair tree. On Rising? SOFT PROOF: One third less filling (of the page) than your regular proof, but it requires two extra years of course work just to understand the terms. Sample Business Continuity? ELEGANT PROOF: Requires no previous knowledge of the subject matter and bell is less than ten lines long. Sample Continuity? SIMILARLY: At least one line of the proof of chinese bell murders essay, this case is the sample continuity same as before. CANONICAL FORM: 4 out of prices, 5 mathematicians surveyed recommended this as the final form for their students who choose to finish. TFAE (The Following Are Equivalent): If I say this it means that, and if I say that it means the plan other thing, and college application if I say the other thing.
BY A PREVIOUS THEOREM: I don't remember how it goes (come to think of it I'm not really sure we did this at all), but if I stated it right (or at all), then the rest of this follows. TWO LINE PROOF: I'll leave out sample plan, everything but the conclusion, you can't question 'em if you can't see 'em. BRIEFLY: I'm running out of artifact for business a case, time, so I'll just write and talk faster. LET'S TALK THROUGH IT: I don't want to write it on the board lest I make a mistake. PROCEED FORMALLY: Manipulate symbols by the rules without any hint of their true meaning (popular in sample continuity template pure math courses). Difference And Animal Cell Essay? QUANTIFY: I can't find anything wrong with your proof except that it won't work if x is business plan, a moon of artifact for business improvement - insights study, Jupiter (Popular in applied math courses). Sample Template? PROOF OMITTED: Trust me, It's true.
Traditional - contemporary math dictionary. Professional secrets. The highest moments in the life of a mathematician are the first few moments after one has proved the statement in the result, but before one finds the mistake. Golden rule of deriving: never trust any result that was proved after 11 PM. The professional quality of a mathematician is inversely proportional to the importance it attaches to space and equipment. Relations between pure and applied mathematicians are based on trust and understanding. Namely, pure mathematicians do not trust applied mathematicians, and sample continuity template applied mathematicians do not understand pure mathematicians. How dare of you to think that I am an analyst! Some mathematicians become so tense these days that they that they do not go to sleep during seminars. If I have seen farther than others, it is because I was standing on the shoulders of giants.
In the sciences, we are now uniquely privileged to sit side by side with the giants on whose shoulders we stand. If I have not seen as far as others, it is because giants were standing on my shoulders. Mathematicians stand on each other's shoulders. Mathematicians stand on each other's shoulders while computer scientists stand on each other's toes. It has been said that physicists stand on not knowing barthelme one another's shoulders. If this is the case, then programmers stand on one another's toes, and software engineers dig each other's graves. These days, even the business template most pure and abstract mathematics is in patterns as an a case danger to be applied. The reason that every major university maintains a department of business continuity plan, mathematics is that it is cheaper to do this than to institutionalize all those people. Here, the powerful mathematical methods are successively applied to the real life problems.
All positive integers are interesting. Assume the contrary. Then there is a lowest non-interesting positive integer. But, hey, that's pretty interesting! A contradiction. All positive integers are boring.
Assume the contrary. Then there is essays prices, a lowest non-boring positive integer. Who cares! Mathematicians have announced the existence of a new whole number which lies between 27 and 28. We don't know why it's there or what it does, says Cambridge mathematician, Dr.
Hilliard Haliard, we only know that it doesn't behave properly when put into equations, and that it is divisible by six, though only once. There are two groups of people in the world; those who believe that the business continuity plan template world can be divided into two groups of people, and those who don't. Theorem: The world is divided into two classes: people who say The world is divided into two classes, and people who say: The world is for business improvement - insights from study, divided into two classes: people who say: The world is divided into two classes, and people who say: The world is divided into two classes: people who say . There are three kinds of people in the world; those who can count and those who can't. There are 10 kinds of sample business continuity template, people in the world, those who understand binary math, and those who don't. There really are only two types of people in the world, those that DON'T. DO MATH, and those that take care of them. The world is everywhere dense with idiots. A cat has nine tails.
No cat has eight tails. A cat has one tail more than no cat. Therefore, a cat has nine tails. The less you know, the more you make. Proof: Postulate 1: Knowledge is Power . Postulate 2: Time is Money . As every engineer knows: Power = Work / Time. And since Knowledge = Power and Time = Money. It is therefore true that Knowledge = Work / Money . Solving for not knowing donald, Money , we get:
Money = Work / Knowledge. Thus, as Knowledge approaches zero, Money approaches infinity, regardless of the amount of Work done. Q: How do you tell that you are in the hands of the Mathematical Mafia? A: They make you an offer that you can't understand. The cherry theorem (a puzzle that reminds some of template, calculus theorems) Q: What is a small, red, round thing that has a cherry pit inside? Notes on the horse colors problem. Lemma 1. All horses are the patterns process from a case same color. (Proof by induction) Proof.
It is obvious that one horse is the same color. Let us assume the sample business continuity plan template proposition P(k) that k horses are the same color and to put a thesis statement in the use this to imply that k+1 horses are the same color. Given the set of k+1 horses, we remove one horse; then the remaining k horses are the same color, by hypothesis. Business Continuity Plan? We remove another horse and replace the patterns for business from first; the k horses, by hypothesis, are again the same color. Sample Continuity? We repeat this until by exhaustion the k+1 sets of k horses have been shown to and animal essay be the continuity plan same color. It follows that since every horse is the same color as every other horse, P(k) entails P(k+1) . But since we have shown P(1) to be true, P is true for all succeeding values of between plant and animal, k , that is, all horses are the same color. Theorem 1. Sample Business Continuity Plan Template? Every horse has an infinite number of legs. (Proof by intimidation.) Proof. Horses have an even number of legs.
Behind they have two legs and in front they have fore legs. This makes six legs, which is certainly an not knowing essays barthelme odd number of sample business, legs for a horse. But the only number that is both odd and even is infinity. Therefore horses have an chinese essay infinite number of legs. Now to show that this is general, suppose that somewhere there is a horse with a finite number of legs. But that is continuity, a horse of another color, and by the lemma that does not exist. Corollary 1. Everything is the difference between cell same color. Proof. The proof of continuity plan template, lemma 1 does not depend at all on essays the nature of the sample template object under consideration.
The predicate of the antecedent of the universally-quantified conditional 'For all x , if x is a horse, then x is the essays on rising prices same color,' namely 'is a horse' may be generalized to 'is anything' without affecting the validity of the proof; hence, 'for all x , if x is anything, x is the same color.' Corollary 2. Continuity Plan Template? Everything is white. Proof. If a sentential formula in x is logically true, then any particular substitution instance of it is a true sentence. Chinese Murders? In particular then: 'for all x , if x is an elephant, then x is the same color' is true. Now it is manifestly axiomatic that white elephants exist (for proof by blatant assertion consult Mark Twain 'The Stolen White Elephant'). Therefore all elephants are white. By corollary 1 everything is white.
Theorem 2. Alexander the Great did not exist and he had an infinite number of limbs. Proof. We prove this theorem in two parts. First we note the obvious fact that historians always tell the truth (for historians always take a stand, and therefore they cannot lie). Hence we have the sample business continuity template historically true sentence, 'If Alexander the Great existed, then he rode a black horse Bucephalus.' But we know by corollary 2 everything is to put a thesis statement in the, white; hence Alexander could not have ridden a black horse. Sample Business Continuity Plan Template? Since the consequent of the conditional is false, in order for the whole statement to be true the prompts antecedent must be false. Continuity? Hence Alexander the - insights from Great did not exist. We have also the sample business plan template historically true statement that Alexander was warned by for business improvement from study, an oracle that he would meet death if he crossed a certain river. He had two legs; and 'forewarned is four-armed.' This gives him six limbs, an even number, which is certainly an odd number of limbs for a man.
Now the only number which is even and odd is infinity; hence Alexander had an infinite number of limbs. Business Continuity Template? We have thus proved that Alexander the Great did not exist and that he had an infinite number of limbs. According to statistics, there are 42 million alligator eggs laid every year. Of those, only about half get hatched. Of those that hatch, three fourths of on rising, them get eaten by predators in the first 36 days. And of the rest, only 5 percent get to be a year old for one reason or another. Isn't statistics wonderful? If it weren't for statistics, we'd be eaten by alligators! Let's play with math objects! An insane mathematician gets on sample a bus and starts threatening everybody: I'll integrate you!
I'll differentiate you. Everybody gets scared and runs away. Plant And Animal Essay? Only one lady stays. The guy comes up to sample business plan template her and says: Aren't you scared, I'll integrate you, I'll differentiate you. The lady calmly answers: No, I am not scared, I am e^x . More advanced and more New York style story: A constant function and e^x are walking on Broadway. Then suddenly the constant function sees a differential operator approaching and runs away. So e^x follows him and asks why the hurry. Well, you see, there's this differential operator coming this way, and when we meet, he'll differentiate me and nothing will be left of me. For Business Process From A Case? Ah, says e^x , he won't bother ME, I'm e to the x ! and sample continuity he walks on.
Of course he meets the differential operator after a short distance. The number you have dialed is imaginary. Please rotate your phone 90 degrees and try again. The shortest math joke: let epsilon be 0. (For native LaTex speakers: $$lim_ 3^2 = 16$$) 1 + 1 =3 , for sufficiently large one's. The combination of the Einstein and Pythagoras discoveries: The limit as n goes to infinity of sin (x) /n is 6 . Proof: cancel the n in the numerator and denominator.
As x goes to zero, the limit of 8 /x is 00 (infinity), then the limit (as x goes to chinese bell murders zero) of Z /x is N. Examples of inverse problems: Q: To what question is the answer 9W. A: Dr. Wiener, do you spell your name with a V? Q: To what question is the answer Dr.
Livingstone, I presume. A: What is your full name, Dr. Presume? Q: how many times can you subtract 7 from plan template, 83, and what is study, left afterwards? A: I can subtract it as many times as I want, and it leaves 76 every time.
A Neanderthal child rode to school with a boy from Hamilton. Sample Business Template? When his mother found out chinese murders essay, she said, What did I tell you? If you commute with a Hamiltonian you'll never evolve! Pope has settled the continuum hypothesis! He has declared that cardinals above 80 have no powers. In modern mathematics, algebra has become so important that numbers will soon only have symbolic meaning. A circle is a round straight line with a hole in the middle.
In the topologic hell the beer is packed in Klein's bottles. He thinks he's really smooth, but he's only C^1. Moebius strip no-wear belt drive! (Please see other side for warranty details.) Q: Why couldn't the moebius strip enroll at the school? A: They required an continuity plan template orientation. Q: What is the where a thesis statement in the world's longest song?
A: Aleph-nought Bottles of Beer on the Wall. Q: Why do Computer Scientists get Halloween and Christmas mixed up? A: Because Oct. 31 = Dec. 25. Q: Why did the chicken cross the Moebius strip? A: To get to the other . er, um . Q: Why did the mathematician name his dog Cauchy? A: Because he left a residue at sample template, every pole. Q: What do you get when you cross an elephant and a banana? A: | elephant | * | banana | * sin(theta)
Q: What do you get if you cross a mosquito with a mountain climber. A: You can't cross a vector with a scalar. Q: What is a compact city? A: It's a city that can be guarded by finitely many near-sighted policemen. Two mathematicians are studying a convergent series. The first one says: Do you realize that the series converges even when all the terms are made positive?
The second one asks: Are you sure? Absolutely! Q: What does the zero say to the the eight? Life is complex: it has both real and imaginary components. Math problems? Call 1-800-[(10x)(13i)2]-[sin(xy)/2.362x]. Divide fourteen sugar cubes into three cups of coffee so that each cup has an odd number of sugar cubes in it. That's easy: one, one, and twelve.
But twelve isn't odd! Twelve is an odd number of cubes to put in a cup of coffee. A statistician can have his head in an oven and his feet in ice, and he will say that on the average he feels fine. Q: Did you hear the one about the statistician? The light bulb problem.
Q: How many mathematicians does it take to screw in a light bulb? A1: None. It's left to the reader as an difference cell essay exercise. A2: None. A mathematician can't screw in a light bulb, but he can easily prove the work can be done. A3: One. He gives it to four programmers, thereby reducing the problem to the already solved (ask a programmer, how) A4: The answer is intuitively obvious. A5: Just one, once you've managed to present the problem in terms he/she is familiar with. A6: In earlier work, Wiener  has shown that one mathematician can change a light bulb.
If k mathematicians can change a light bulb, and if one more simply watches them do it, then k+1 mathematicians will have changed the sample business continuity plan light bulb. Therefore, by bell essay, induction, for sample business continuity template, all n in the positive integers, n mathematicians can change a light bulb.  Weiner, Matthew P. How many mathematical logicians does it take to replace a lightbulb?? None: They can't do it, but they can prove that it can be done. How many numerical analysts does it take to a thesis replace a lightbulb?? 3.9967: (after six iterations). How many classical geometers does it take to replace a lightbulb?? None: You can't do it with a straight edge and a compass. How many constructivist mathematicians does it take to replace a lightbulb??
None: They do not believe in infinitesimal rotations. How many simulationists does it take to replace a lightbulb?? Infinity: Each one builds a fully validated model, but the light actually never goes on. How many topologists does it take to screw in a lightbulb?? Just one. But what will you do with the sample business continuity plan doughnut? How many analysts does it take to screw in a lightbulb?? Three: One to essays prices prove existence, one to prove uniqueness and sample continuity template one to derive a nonconstructive algorithm to do it. How many Bourbakists does it take to replace a lightbulb: ? Changing a lightbulb is a special case of a more general theorem concerning the maintain and repair of an to put statement electrical system. To establish upper and lower bounds for the number of personnel required, we must determine whether the sufficient conditions of Lemma 2.1 (Availability of personnel) and those of plan, Corollary 2.3.55 (Motivation of not knowing donald, personnel) apply.
Iff these conditions are met, we derive the result by an application of the theorems in Section 3.1123. Business Continuity Plan? The resulting upper bound is, of course, a result in an abstract measure space, in the weak-* topology. How many professors does it take to replace a lightbulb?? One: With eight research students, two programmers, three post-docs and a secretary to help him. How many university lecturers does it take to replace a lightbulb?? Four: One to do it and plant and animal cell three to co-author the paper. How many graduate students does it take to replace a lightbulb?? Only one: But it takes nine years. How many math department administrators does it take to replace a lightbulb? None: What was wrong with the old one then.
Aerodynamicists do it in drag. Algebraists do it by symbolic manipulation. Algebraists do it in business continuity plan template a ring, in fields, in groups. Analysts do it continuously and smoothly. Applied mathematicians do it by computer simulation. Banach spacers do it completely.
Bayesians do it with improper priors. Catastrophe theorists do it falling off part of a sheet. Combinatorists do it as many ways as they can. Complex analysts do it between the sheets. Computer scientists do it depth-first. Cosmologists do it in the first three minutes. Decision theorists do it optimally. Functional analysts do it with compact support. Galois theorists do it in a field. Game theorists do it by dominance or saddle points.
Geometers do it with involutions. Geometers do it symmetrically. Graph theorists do it in four colors. Hilbert spacers do it orthogonally. Large cardinals do it inaccessibly. Linear programmers do it with nearest neighbors. Logicians do it by choice, consistently and completely. Logicians do it incompletely or inconsistently.
(Logicians do it) or [not (logicians do it)]. Number theorists do it perfectly and rationally. Mathematical physicists understand the theory of how to do it, but have difficulty obtaining practical results. Pure mathematicians do it rigorously. Quantum physicists can either know how fast they do it, or where they do it, but not both. Real analysts do it almost everywhere. Ring theorists do it non-commutatively.
Set theorists do it with cardinals. Statisticians probably do it. Topologists do it openly, in not knowing essays barthelme multiply connected domains. Variationists do it locally and globally. Cantor did it diagonally. Fermat tried to do it in the margin, but couldn't fit it in.
Galois did it the night before. Mðbius always does it on the same side. Markov does it in chains. Newton did it standing on continuity template the shoulders of giants. Turing did it but couldn't decide if he'd finished. These jokes are sometimes stupid, but still funny. Math and application prompts Alcohol don't mix, so. PLEASE DON'T DRINK AND DERIVE. Motto of the society: Mathematicians Against Drunk Deriving.
Q: What's the business plan contour integral around Western Europe? A: Zero, because all the Poles are in Eastern Europe! Addendum: Actually, there ARE some Poles in college essay application Western Europe, but they are removable! One day, Jesus said to his disciples: The Kingdom of Heaven is like 3x squared plus 8x minus 9. Sample Business Continuity? St. Thomas looked very confused and asked St. Peter: What does the patterns as an artifact for business improvement from study teacher mean? St.Peter replied: Don't worry - it's just another one of his parabolas.
Q: What is the area of a circle? R: Pie are not square. Business Plan Template? Pie are round. Cornbread are square. Q:What is murders essay, a proof? A: One-half percent of alcohol. Q:What is a dilemma? A: A lemma that proves two results. Q: What's nonorientable and lives in the sea?
Q: What's yellow and equivalent to the Axiom of Choice. Q: What's purple and commutes? A: An abelian grape. Q: What's yellow, linear, normed and business continuity plan complete? A: A Bananach space. Q: What's a polar bear?
A: A rectangular bear after a coordinate transform. Some say the pope is the greatest cardinal. But others insist this cannot be so, as every pope has a successor. Q: How many light bulbs does it take to change a light bulb? A: One, if it knows its own Goedel number. Q: What does the little mermaid wear? Was General Calculus a Roman war hero? What's your favorite thing about mathematics?
Knot theory. Yeah, me neither. Noah's Ark lands after The Flood and Noah releases all the animals, saying, Go forth and multiply. Several months pass and Noah decides to check up on the animals. All are doing fine except a pair of snakes. What's the problem? asks Noah. Cut down some trees and let us live there, say the where to put a thesis statement in the snakes. Noah follows their advice. Several more weeks pass and Noah checks up on continuity plan the snakes again. He sees lots of little snakes; everybody is happy. Noah says, So tell me how the trees helped.
Certainly, reply the snakes. Essay Application? We're adders, and sample business template we need logs to multiply. Q: Why didn't Newton discover group theory? A: Because he wasn't Abel. In Alaska, where it gets very cold, pi is only 3.00. As you know, everything shrinks in college the cold. They call it Eskimo pi.
How do you prove in three steps that a sheet of paper is a lazy dog? 1. A sheet of paper is an ink-lined plane. 2. An inclined plane is a slope up. 3. A slow pup is sample business continuity, a lazy dog. A geometer went to the beach to catch the rays and became a TanGent. Life is complex. It has real and imaginary components. A group of Polish tourists is flying on a small airplane through the Grand Canyon on a sightseeing tour. College Essay Application? The tour guide announces: On the right of the airplane, you can see the famous Bright Angle Falls. The tourists leap out of continuity, their seats and crowd to the windows on the right side. This causes a dynamic imbalance, and patterns as an for business improvement from the plane violently rolls to the side and crashes into the canyon wall.
All aboard are lost. The moral to sample business continuity plan template this episode is: always keep the poles off the essay right side of the sample business plan template plane. Next several stories are attributed to real mathematicians. For most of them, it was impossible to check the truthfulness of the story. Therefore the names are often removed.
In 1915, Emma Noether arrived in Göttingen but was denied the application prompts private-docent status. The argument was that a woman cannot attend the business plan template University senate (the faculty meetings). Hilbert's reaction was: Gentlemen! There is nothing wrong to have a woman in the senate. Senate is on rising prices, not a bath. After Laplace completed his masterpiece Mecanique Celeste (Mechanics of the Heavens) he presented a copy to his friend Napoleon. Napoleon, who also was a mathematician, after going through the book called in sample plan Laplace and said to him: You have written a book about Mechanics of the Heavens without mentioning God? Laplace replied: Sire, I had no need of a thesis statement, that hypothesis. The following problem can be solved either the easy way or the hard way.
Two trains 200 miles apart are moving toward each other; each one is going at a speed of 50 miles per sample business continuity hour. A fly starting on the front of one of them flies back and forth between them at a rate of 75 miles per hour. It does this until the trains collide and crush the where a thesis statement fly to death. Business Continuity Plan? What is the total distance the fly has flown? The fly actually hits each train an infinite number of times before it gets crushed, and one could solve the problem the hard way with pencil and paper by summing an infinite series of distances. The easy way is as follows: Since the trains are 200 miles apart and each train is essay prompts, going 50 miles an hour, it takes 2 hours for the trains to collide. Therefore the business plan template fly was flying for two hours. Since the patterns as an artifact from a case study fly was flying at a rate of 75 miles per hour, the fly must have flown 150 miles. That's all there is to it. When this problem was posed to John von Neumann, he immediately replied, 150 miles. It is very strange, said the sample plan poser, but nearly everyone tries to sum the infinite series.
What do you mean, strange? asked Von Neumann. That's how I did it! Another von Neumann quote : Young man, in mathematics you don't understand things, you just get used to them. The mathematician S. had to move to a new place. His wife didn't trust him very much, so when they stood down on the street with all their things, she asked him to watch their ten trunks, while she get a taxi. Some minutes later she returned. Essays? Said the husband: I thought you said there were ten trunks, but I've only counted to nine. The wife said: No, they're TEN! But I have counted them: 0, 1, 2, . Business Template? N. had the habit of simply writing answers to donald homework assignments on the board (the method of sample continuity, solution being, of course, obvious) when he was asked how to solve problems.
One time one of his students tried to get more helpful information by asking if there was another way to solve the where statement problem. Template? N. looked blank for a moment, thought, and then answered, Yes. In his lecture, ** formulated a theorem and said: The proof is obvious. College Prompts? Then he thought for a minute, left the lecture room, returned after 15 minutes and happily concluded: Indeed, it is sample business plan, obvious! A famous mathematician was to give a keynote speech at a conference. Asked for an advance summary, he said he would present a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem -- but they should keep it under their hats.
When he arrived, though, he spoke on a much more prosaic topic. As An For Business Process - Insights From? Afterwards the conference organizers asked why he said he'd talk about the theorem and then didn't. He replied this was his standard practice, just in case he was killed on the way to the conference. A mathematician about his late colleague: He made a lot of mistakes, but he made them in a good direction. I tried to business plan template copy this, but I found out that it is very difficult to make good mistakes.
This story is attributed to Professor Lev Loytiansky, the stage is in Soviet Union in and animal essay thirties or forties. L. Continuity? organized the difference between plant and animal seminar in hydrodynamics in business template his University. Among the regular attendees there were two men in the uniform, obviously military engineers. They never discussed the problems they were working on. But one day they ask L. to help with a math. Difference And Animal Essay? problem. They explained that the solution of a certain equation oscillated and business asked how they should change the coefficients to make it monotonic.
L. looked on the equation and said: Make the wings longer! Students asked ** to exclude a part of the course from the final exam. ** agreed. Encouraged by the easy success, the students asked to skip another part of the course, and ** agreed again, and then again. However, in the end of the term he did include all this material in essays on rising the exam. The class loudly complained: Dr **, you promised us to skip this stuff! ** answered: Yes, I did. But I lied!
Ernst Eduard Kummer (1810-1893), a German algebraist, was sometimes slow at business template, calculations.. Whenever he had occasion to do simple arithmetic in class, he would get his students to help him. Once he had to college essay application prompts find 7 x 9. Seven times nine, he began, Seven times nine is er -- ah --- ah -- seven times nine is. . Sample Business Continuity Plan? . . Sixty-one, a student suggested. Kummer wrote 61 on the board. Sir, said another student, it should be sixty-nine. Come, come, gentlemen, it can't be both, Kummer exclaimed. It must be one or the patterns as an artifact process improvement - insights a case other.
This anecdote is attributed to Landau (the Russian physicist Lev not the Göttingen mathematician Edmund). Landau's group was discussing a bright new theory, and one of junior colleagues of Landau bragged that he had independently discovered the theory a couple of years ago, but did not bother to publish his finding. I would not repeat this claim if I were you, Landau replied: There is nothing wrong if one has not found. a solution to a particular problem. Continuity Template? However, if one has found it but does not publish it, he shows a poor judgment and college inability to understand what important is in modern physics. A famous mathematician was to give a keynote speech at a conference.
Asked for an advance summary, he said he would present a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem -- but they should keep it under their hats. When he arrived, though, he spoke on a much more prosaic topic. Afterwards the conference organizers asked why he said he'd talk about the theorem and then didn't. He replied this was his standard practice, just in plan case he was killed on the way to as an artifact for business improvement a case the conference. Limericks are always limericks. Sample Template? (The obscene math limericks were mercilessly excluded) A mathematician confided. That the Mobius band is one-sided. And you'll get quite a laugh.
If you cut one in half. 'Cause it stays in one piece when divided. A mathematician named Klein. Thought the Mobius band was divine. Said he: If you glue. The edges of two. You'll get a weird bottles like mine. There was a young fellow named Fisk, A swordsman, exceedingly brisk.
So fast was his action, The Lorentz contraction. Reduced his rapier to a disk. 'Tis a favorite project of on rising prices, mine. A new value of pi to assign. I would fix it at 3. For it's simpler, you see,
Than 3 point 1 4 1 5 9. If inside a circle a line. Hits the center and goes spine to template spine. And the line's length is where a thesis statement, d the circumference will be. Pi goes on and on continuity template and on . And e is murders essay, just as cursed. I wonder: Which is larger. When their digits are reversed? A challenge for many long ages. Had baffled the sample business plan savants and sages. Yet at last came the light:
Seems old Fermat was right-- To the on rising prices margin add 200 pages. If (1+x) (real close to 1) Is raised to the power of 1. Over x, you will find. Here's the value defined: Integral z-squared dz. from 1 to the cube root of 3. times the sample business continuity cosine. of three pi over 9. equals log of the cube root of 'e'.
And it's correct, too. A burleycque dancer, a pip. Named Virginia, could peel in and animal cell essay a zip; But she read science fiction. and died of constriction. Attempting a Moebius strip. This poem was written by John Saxon (an author of math textbooks). ((12 + 144 + 20 + (3 * 4^(1/2))) / 7) + (5 * 11) = 9^2 + 0. A Dozen, a Gross and a Score, plus three times the continuity plan square root of four, divided by seven, plus five times eleven, equals nine squared and not a bit more. In arctic and tropical climes, the integers, addition, and times, taken (mod p) will yield. a full finite field, as p ranges over the primes.
A graduate student from Trinity. Computed the cube of process improvement - insights a case, infinity; But it gave him the fidgets. To write down all those digits, So he dropped math and sample business continuity took up divinity. Chebychev said it and I'll say it again: There's always a prime between n and difference plant cell 2n! A conjecture both deep and profound. Is whether the circle is round;
In a paper by Erdos, written in Kurdish, A counterexample is found. (Note: Erdos is pronounced Air - dish) There once was a number named pi.
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The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics. Beneficent actions and motives have traditionally occupied a central place in morality. Common examples today are found in social welfare programs, scholarships for needy and meritorious students, communal support of health-related research, policies to improve the welfare of animals, philanthropy, disaster relief, programs to benefit children and the incompetent, and preferential hiring and admission policies. Continuity Plan? What makes these diverse acts beneficent? Are such beneficent acts and policies obligatory or merely the pursuit of optional moral ideals? These questions have generated a substantial literature on beneficence in both theoretical ethics and applied ethics. College? In theoretical ethics, the dominant issue in recent years has been how to place limits on the scope of beneficence. In applied and professional ethics, a number of issues have been treated in the fields of biomedical ethics and business ethics. 1. The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence.
The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity. It is suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all forms of action intended to benefit or promote the good of other persons. The language of continuity template, a principle or rule of beneficence refers to a normative statement of a moral obligation to act for the others' benefit, helping them to further their important and legitimate interests, often by preventing or removing possible harms. Many dimensions of applied ethics appear to incorporate such appeals to obligatory beneficence, even if only artifact - insights a case study implicitly. For example, when apparel manufacturers are criticized for not having good labor practices in factories, the ultimate goal of the criticisms is sample continuity plan template, usually to chinese essay obtain better working conditions, wages, and benefits for workers.
Whereas beneficence refers to sample business continuity plan an action done to benefit others, benevolence refers to the morally valuable character traitor virtueof being disposed to act to benefit others. Many acts of beneficence have been understood in moral theory as obligatory, as determined by principles of beneficence that state moral obligation. However, beneficent acts also may be performed from nonobligatory, optional moral ideals, which are standards that belong to a morality of meritorious aspiration in which individuals or institutions adopt goals and practices that are not obligatory for everyone. Exceptional beneficence is commonly categorized as supererogatory , a term meaning paying or performing beyond what is obligatory or doing more than is required. This category of extraordinary conduct usually refers to high moral ideals of action, but it has links to essay virtues and to Aristotelian ideals of moral excellence. Such ideals of action and moral excellence of character need not rise to sample business plan template the level of the moral saint or moral hero. Even moral excellence comes by degrees.
Not all supererogatory acts of beneficence or benevolent dispositions are exceptionally arduous, costly, or risky. Examples of less demanding forms include anonymous gift-giving, uncompensated public service, forgiving another person's costly error, and college essay application prompts, complying with requests to provide a benefit that exceeds the obligatory requirements of business template, ordinary morality or professional morality. Saintly and heroic beneficence (and benevolence) are at the extreme end of a continuum of beneficent conduct and commitment. Essays On Rising? This continuum is not merely a continuum mapping the territory beyond duty. Sample Business Continuity Plan? It is a continuum of beneficence itself, starting with obligatory beneficence. The continuum runs from strict obligation (grounded in the core norms of beneficence in ordinary morality) through weaker obligations (the outer periphery of ordinary expectations of persons, such as great conscientiousness in attending to a friend's welfare) and on to the difference and animal, domain of the morally nonrequired and exceptionally virtuous. The nonrequired starts with lower?level acts of supererogation such as helping a stranger who is lost find a desired location in a city. An absence of this sort of beneficence constitutes a defect in the moral life, even if not a failure of sample business plan, obligation. The continuum ends with high-level acts of to put a thesis, supererogation such as heroic acts of self-sacrifice to benefit others. Plan Template? Beneficence is best understood as spread across this continuum.
However, there is considerable controversy about where obligation ends and supererogation begins on the continuum. A celebrated example of beneficence that rests somewhere on this continuum, though it is hard to locate just where, is the New Testament parable of the Good Samaritan. In this parable, robbers have beaten and and animal, left half-dead a man traveling from Jerusalem to Jericho. A Samaritan tends to his wounds and business, cares for a thesis statement in the, him at an inn. The Samaritan's actions are beneficent and the motives benevolent. However, they do not seemon the information givento rise to the level of sample plan, heroic or saintly conduct. The morally exceptional, beneficent person may be laudable and barthelme, emulable, yet neither a moral saint nor a moral hero. 2. The Historical Place of Beneficence in Ethical Theory. The history of ethical theory shows that there are many ways to think about beneficence and benevolence.
Several landmark ethical theories have embraced these moral notions as central categories, while proposing strikingly different conceptual and sample plan template, moral analyses. Prime examples are found in the moral-sentiment theory of David Hume, where benevolence is the not knowing essays barthelme, central “principle” of human nature in his moral psychology, and in utilitarian theories, where the principle of utility is business plan, itself a strong and prices, demanding principle of beneficence. Beneficence in sample template these writers is close to the essence of morality. Bell? Other writers, including Kant, have given less dominance to beneficence, but still give it an important place in morality. Hume's moral psychology and virtue ethics make motives of benevolence all important in business moral life.
He argues that natural benevolence accounts, in great part, for essays prices, what he calls the sample template, origin of essays prices, morality. A major theme is his defense of benevolence as a principle in human nature, in business template opposition to theories of psychological egoism. Much in bell murders essay Hume's moral theory is directed against Mandeville's (and perhaps Hobbes's) theory that the motive underlying human action is continuity template, private interest and that humans are naturally neither sociable nor benevolent. Hume argues that egoism rests on difference essay a faulty moral psychology and maintains that benevolence is an “original” feature of plan, human nature. Benevolence is Hume's most important moral principle of human nature, but he also uses the term “benevolence” to designate a class of virtues rooted in prompts goodwill, generosity, and sample business continuity plan template, love directed at others. Hume finds benevolence in many manifestations: friendship, charity, compassion, etc. Although he speaks of both benevolence and justice as social virtues, only benevolence is a principle of human nature. Rules of essays donald barthelme, justice, by contrast, are normative human conventions that promote public utility. In his inquiries into the principle of continuity, self-love, Hume does not reject all aspects of the egoists' claims about the between essay, absence of impartial benevolence in human motivation. Sample Business Continuity Plan? He acknowledges many motives in human nature and uses metaphors of the dove, wolf, and serpent to illustrate the mixture of elements in our nature.
Principally, he sees human nature in on rising the domain of moral conduct as a mixture of benevolence and self-love. Whereas the egoist views human nature as limited to motives such as survival, fear, ambition, and the search for happiness, Hume regards persons as motivated by a variety of passions, both generous and ungenerous. He maintains that these elements vary by degree from person to person. Lacking distinctive information about a particular individual, we cannot know whether in that person benevolence typically dominates and controls self-love, or the converse. In Utilitarianism , John Stuart Mill argues that moral philosophers have left a train of unconvincing and sample, incompatible theories that can be coherently unified by a single standard of beneficence that allows us to not knowing donald barthelme decide objectively what is right and wrong. He declares the sample, principle of utility, or the “greatest happiness” principle, to be the basic foundation of morals: Actions are right in proportion to their promotion of happiness for all beings, and wrong as they produce the reverse. This is chinese murders, a straightforward principle of beneficence and potentially a very demanding one. Mill and subsequent utilitarians mean that an template action or practice is right (when compared with any alternative action or practice) if it leads to the greatest possible balance of beneficial consequences (happiness for Mill) or to the least possible balance of bad consequences (unhappiness for Mill).
Mill also holds that the concepts of duty, obligation, and right are subordinated to, and determined by, that which maximizes benefits and minimizes harmful outcomes. The principle of utility is presented by Mill as an chinese murders essay absolute or preeminent principle, thus making beneficence the one and plan template, only supreme principle of ethics. It justifies all subordinate rules and where a thesis in the, is not simply one among a number of prima facie principles. Mill's theory of sample plan template, morality is welfare-oriented at college, its core because moral rightness is template, determined by goodness, which is itself to be understood in terms of the welfare of individuals. It is a consequentialist theory because the moral rightness and essays donald barthelme, obligatoriness of actions are established by their beneficial results. It is an aggregative theory because a judgment about right or obligatory action depends on an appraisal of the effects of sample business, different possible actions on the welfare of all affected parties, which entails summing positive benefits and negative effects over all persons affected. Beneficence has rarely occupied such a central role in a moral theory.
Kant notoriously rejects the utilitarian model of a supreme principle of a thesis statement, beneficence, but he still finds a vital place in the moral life for beneficence. He seeks universally valid principles (or maxims) of duty, and beneficence is one such principle. A motive of benevolence based on sentimentso admired by Humeis morally unworthy in Kant's theory unless the business continuity template, motive behind benevolent action is a motive of duty. The motive likewise cannot rest on utilitarian goals. Kant argues that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, i.e. to be helpful to others according to one's means, and without hoping for any form of personal gain thereby.
Benevolence done from friendly inclination he regards as “unlimited” (a term subject to essays donald barthelme different interpretations, but meaning at least “having no boundaries in potential scope”), whereas beneficence from duty does not place unlimited demands on persons. Nonetheless, the limits of duties of beneficence are not clear and precise in sample business continuity plan template Kant. While we are obligated to some extent to sacrifice some part of our welfare to benefit others without any expectation of recompense, it is not possible in the abstract to fix a definite limit on how far this duty extends. We can only say that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, according to that person's means, and that no one has an unlimited duty to do so. Kant here anticipates, without developing, what would later become one of the most difficult areas of the chinese murders essay, theory of beneficence: How, exactly, are we to continuity plan specify the limits of beneficence as an obligation? 3. Is Beneficence Obligatory or Merely a Moral Ideal? Deep disagreements have emerged in moral theory regarding how much is demanded by obligations of beneficence. Some ethical theories insist not only that there are obligations of college prompts, beneficence, but that these obligations sometimes demand severe sacrifice and extreme generosity in the moral life. Business Template? Some formulations of utilitarianism, for example, appear to barthelme derive obligations to give our job to a person who needs it more than we do, to give away most of continuity plan, our income, to devote much of our time to civic enterprises, etc. It is where in the, likely that no society has ever operated on such a demanding principle, but it does seem embraced, at least abstractly, by continuity plan a number of moral philosophersarguably even on between plant cell Kant's theory of the categorical imperative (although, as already mentioned, Kant seems to deny such scope to obligatory beneficence). By contrast, some moral philosophers have claimed that we have no general obligations of beneficence.
We have only duties deriving from sample business plan specific roles and assignments of patterns as an for business process - insights from study, duty that are not a part of ordinary morality. These philosophers hold that beneficent action is virtuous and business template, a commendable moral ideal, but not an obligation, and thus that persons are not morally deficient if they fail to act beneficently. An instructive example is found in the moral theory of Bernard Gert, who maintains that there are no moral rules of beneficence, only moral ideals. The only obligations in the moral life, apart from duties encountered in professional roles and bell, other specific stations of duty, are captured by moral rules that prohibit causing harm or evil. In Gert's theory, the general goal of continuity plan template, morality is to minimize the causation of difference and animal cell, evil or harm, not to business continuity template promote good. Rational persons can act impartially at all times in regard to all persons with the donald barthelme, aim of not causing evil, he argues, but rational persons cannot impartially promote the good for all persons at all times.
Those who defend such a beneficence-negating conclusion (regarding obligation) do not hold the extreme view that there are no obligations of beneficence in contexts of role-assigned duties, such as those in professional ethics and in specific communities. They acknowledge that professional and other roles carry obligations (or duties, as Gert insists) that do not bind persons who do not occupy the relevant roles; they claim that the actions one is template, obligated to perform within the roles are merely moral ideals for any person not in the specific role. That is, these philosophers present beneficence not as a general obligation, but as a role-specific duty and as institutionally or culturally assigned. In rejecting principles of obligatory beneficence, Gert draws the line at chinese bell murders essay, obligations of nonmaleficence. Sample Business Continuity Template? That is, he embraces rules that prohibit causing harm to other persons, even though he rejects all principles or rules that require helping other persons, which includes acting to prevent harm to not knowing barthelme them. Business Plan Template? Thus, he accepts moral rules such as “Don't kill,” “Don't cause pain or suffering to others,” “Don't incapacitate others,” “Don't deprive others of the goods of life,” and the like. His theory therefore makes nonmaleficence central to the nature and theory of moral obligation while denying that beneficence has any place in the theory of obligation. However, the mainstream of moral philosophy has been to make both not-harming and barthelme, helping to be obligations, while preserving the distinction between the two.
This literature can be confusing, because some writers treat obligations of nonmaleficence as a species of obligations of beneficence, although the two notions are very different. Rules of beneficence are typically more demanding than rules of nonmaleficence, and rules of nonmaleficence are negative prohibitions of continuity template, action that must be followed impartially and that provide moral reasons for legal prohibitions of certain forms of conduct. By contrast, rules of beneficence state positive requirements of action, need not always be followed impartially, and not knowing, rarely, if ever, provide moral reasons that support legal punishment when agents fail to abide by the rules. The contrast between nonmaleficence and beneficence notwithstanding, ordinary morality suggests that there are some rules of beneficence that we are obligated to follow impartially, such as those requiring that we make efforts to rescue strangers under conditions of sample business plan, minimal risk. Even some legal punishments for failure to rescue strangers may be justifiable.
Significant controversies have arisen in both law and moral philosophy about how to formulate and defend such requirements, but one more or less classic idea has been to argue that a person P has an obligation of beneficence to help another whenever the where, other is at risk of business plan template, significant loss of or damage to some basic interest; P's action is necessary (singly or collaboratively) to prevent this loss or damage; P's action (singly or collaboratively) is likely to and animal cell essay prevent the loss or damage; and business continuity plan template, P's action does not present significant risks, costs, or burdens to P while the benefits that the other person can be expected to gain outweigh any burden that P is likely to incur. 4. Chinese Essay? The Problem of Over-Demanding Beneficence. Some philosophers defend extremely demanding and sample plan, far-reaching principles of to put a thesis, obligatory beneficence. Peter Singer's theory is the most widely discussed example. In his early work, Singer distinguished between preventing evil and promoting good and contended that persons in affluent nations are morally obligated to prevent something bad or evil from happening if it is in sample business continuity plan their power to do so without having to sacrifice anything of comparable importance. In the face of preventable disease and prompts, poverty, for example, we ought to donate time and resources toward their eradication until we reach a level at which, by giving more, we would cause as much suffering to ourselves as we would relieve through our gift. Singer leaves it open what counts as being of comparable importance and as being an appropriate level of sacrifice, but his argument implies that morality sometimes requires us to invest heavily in rescuing needy persons in sample business plan the global population, not merely at the level of local communities and political states.
This claim implies that morality sometimes requires us to make enormous sacrifices. It would appear that the demand is placed not only on on rising individuals with disposable incomes, but on all reasonably well-off persons, foundations, governments, corporations, etc. All of these parties have moral obligations to refrain from spending resources on nonessential items and to use the available resources or savings to lend assistance to those in urgent need. Frills, fashion, luxuries, and the like are never to determine expenditures, and one is to give to the needy up to the point that one (or one's dependent) would be impoverished. Sample Business Continuity Plan? Singer has not regarded such conduct as an enormous moral sacrifice, but only as the discharge of a basic obligation of beneficence. Singer's proposals have struck many as overly demanding, impracticable, and a significant departure from the demands of donald, ordinary morality. Sample Template? This assessment has generated a number of criticisms, as well as defenses, of demanding principles of on rising, beneficence such as the one proposed by Singer. Critics continue today to argue that a principle of beneficence that requires persons, governments, and corporations to seriously disrupt their projects and sample continuity plan, plans in order to benefit the patterns process - insights from a case, poor and underprivileged exceeds the sample continuity plan, limits of ordinary moral obligations and chinese murders, have no plausible grounding in moral theory. They argue that the template, line between the not knowing, obligatory and the supererogatory has been unjustifiably erased by such a principle. In effect, the claim is that an aspirational moral ideal has redrawn the lines of real moral obligation.
Singer has attempted to sample template reformulate his position so that his theory of beneficence does not set an overly demanding standard. He maintains that no clear justification exists for the claim that obligations of ordinary morality do not contain a demanding principle of beneficence, in particular a harm-prevention principle. He apparently would explain the lack of concern often shown for poverty relief as a failure to draw the correct implications from the very principles of beneficence that ordinary morality embraces. Patterns As An Process Improvement - Insights A Case? Later in plan his series of publications on the subject Singer attempted to take account of a thesis in the, objections that his principle sets an sample business continuity plan template unduly high standard. He has not given up his strong principle of beneficence, but he has suggested that it might be morally wise and most productive to publicly advocate a lower standardthat is, a weakened principle of beneficence. Patterns As An Artifact Process Improvement - Insights From? He therefore proposed a more guarded formulation of the principle, arguing that we should strive for donations of a round percentage of income, such as 10 per cent, which amounts to more than a token donation and sample business plan template, yet also is not so high as to make us miserable or turn us into moral saints. This standard, Singer proclaimed, is the minimum that we ought to do to conform to obligations of essays on rising prices, beneficence. Controversy continues today about how to business continuity analyze and evaluate the commitments of a principle of beneficence, including how to formulate limits that reduce required burdens on agents' life plans and make meeting the obligations of beneficence a realistic possibility. Various writers have noted that even after many persons have donated generous portions of their income, they could still donate more while living decent lives; and, according to a strong principle of beneficence, they should donate more. Establishing the theoretical and practical limits of donation and sacrifice is clearly very challenging, and perhaps an impossible ideal. However, it does not follow that we should give up a principle of difference plant and animal, beneficence.
It only follows that establishing the moral limits of the demands of beneficence is profoundly difficult. Liam Murphy has proposed to fix the limits of individual beneficence to meet global problems of need by using a cooperative principle of fairness in which, in any given circumstance, it must first be determined what each reasonably affluent person must do to contribute a fair share to an optimal outcome. Sample Continuity? An individual is only required to aid others beneficently at the level that would produce the best consequences if all in society were to a thesis give their fair share. One is not required to do more even if others fail in their fair-share obligations of beneficence. Unlike act-consequentialism, this theory does not demand more of agents when expected compliance by others decreases. Murphy's cooperative principle is intuitively attractive, but it may not have the necessary moral punch to sample template address issues such as global poverty. Murphy seems right to suggest that large-scale problems requiring beneficence should be conceived as cooperative projects, but his limit on individual obligations seems unlikely to have a practical effect of increasing international aid and the like beyond present commitments and not knowing essays donald barthelme, levels.
If, as is to be expected in virtually all situations of sample business plan, global poverty, others fail to comply with their fair-share obligations of beneficence as set out in this theory, it is not clear why each person's obligation is set only by the original calculation of a single fair share. This is not to not knowing barthelme say that Singer's approach is superior. The more demanding a principle is, the continuity plan, less likely are people to comply with its demands. Also, at an intuitive level, Murphy seems right that an individual's obligations of beneficence should not increase to fill gaps merely because others are failing to meet their obligations. In his Uehiro Lectures on Global Poverty, Singer defended his arguments about beneficence including the public advocacy thesis (see the Other Internet Resources). Here a difference of emphasis emerged in his theory, together with a somewhat sympathetic response to Murphy. Singer seems concerned with which social conditions will motivate people to give, rather than with attempting to determine obligations of beneficence with precision.
Singer responds to critics such as Murphy by between plant and animal cell conceding that perhaps the limit of sample template, what we should publicly advocate as a level of giving is no more than a person's fair share of what is needed to relieve poverty and the like. Unless we draw the where to put a thesis, line here, we might not be able to motivate people to give at all. Plan Template? A fair share is where a thesis in the, a lower threshold of one's obligations than the obligations Singer originally envisaged, but more realistic. Sample Business Continuity Plan Template? The emphasis on motivation is presumably intended to give is a more subtle and convincing approach to the nature and limits of beneficence. Wherever the line of precise limits of obligatory beneficence is essays, drawn, the line is likely to template be revisionary by drawing a sharper boundary on our obligations than exists in ordinary morality. Singer's proposals, unlike Murphy's, seem to difference plant and animal cell essay represent a revision of ordinary morality's requirements of sample business template, beneficence, despite the faint presence in the history of Western morality of religious obligations of tithing. A variety of proposals regarding the limits of beneficence have been made by on rising philosophers, but no agreement on even a general principle exists. Sample Template? Accordingly, many now doubt that ethical theory or practical deliberation is equipped to establish precise conditions and limits of obligations of beneficence. 5. Liberty-Limiting Beneficence: The Problem of Benefit Paternalism. A still much-discussed issue about beneficence descends historically from Mill's On Liberty , where Mill inquired into the nature and limits of chinese murders essay, justifiable social control over business plan template, the individual. Where Statement In The? He argues that the measure of a person's libertyor personal autonomyis the measure of the plan template, person's independence from influences that control the person's preferences, thoughts, and essay, behavior.
Various principles commonly assumed to be moral principles have been advanced to justify the limitation of sample plan, individual liberties. Joel Feinberg, who was philosophically close to various of Mill's views, called these principles “liberty-limiting principles.” Mill defended the view that only patterns as an artifact for business improvement from a case one principle validly limits liberty. Feinberg called it the sample business, harm principle : A person's liberty (or autonomy) is college essay application prompts, justifiably restricted to prevent harm to others caused by sample business continuity plan that person. Mill and Feinberg agreed that the principle of paternalism , which renders acceptable certain attempts to benefit another person when the other does not prefer to receive the essays donald barthelme, benefit, is not a morally acceptable liberty-limiting principle. The term paternalism has its roots in the notion of paternal administrationgovernment as by a father to administer in the way a beneficent father raises his children. The analogy with the father presupposes two features of the paternal role: that the father acts beneficently (that is, in accordance with the interests of his children) and that he makes all or at least some of the plan, decisions relating to his children's welfare, rather than leaving them free to make those decisions. On this model, “paternalism” may be defined as the intentional overriding of one person's known preferences or choices by another person, where the person who overrides justifies the action by the goal of substantially benefiting or avoiding harm to the person whose preferences or choices are overridden. (Both “benefiting” and “avoiding harm” can here, though not always, be understood as forms of beneficence.) An act of paternalism, then, overrides moral obligations to respect autonomous choice on grounds of beneficence.
Philosophers divide sharply over whether some restricted form of paternalism can be justified and, if so, on what basis. One plausible beneficence-based justification of paternalistic actions places benefits on a scale with autonomy interests and balances the two: As a person's interests in autonomy increase and the benefits for that person decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes less cogent; conversely, as the benefits for a person increase and that person's interests in autonomy decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes more plausible. Thus, preventing minor harms or providing minor benefits while deeply disrespecting autonomy lacks plausible justification; but actions that prevent major harms or provide major benefits while only trivially disrespecting autonomy have a highly plausible paternalistic rationale. Though no consensus exists over where to put a thesis in the, the justification of paternalism, virtually no one thinks that benefit paternalism can be justified unless at least the following conditions are satisfied: A person is at continuity plan, risk of a significant and preventable harm or loss of college, a benefit. The paternalistic action has a strong likelihood of preventing the harm or obtaining the benefit. The projected benefits of the paternalistic action outweigh its risks. The least autonomy-restrictive alternative that will secure the benefits and reduce the risks is adopted. Debates about benefit paternalism have also emerged in public policy contexts. Often health policies have the sample business plan, goal of avoiding a harm or providing a benefit in a population in which most affected parties are not consulted.
Some percentage of the population will not support the policy, for where to put in the, example, because they are given no choice in the matter, whereas others will approve the policy. In effect, the policy is intended to benefit all members of a population without consulting the preferences of individuals affectedall the while foreseeing that many individuals will reject the sample business, imposed control that the policy exerts over their lives. So-called neopaternalists have argued for government policies intended to protect or benefit individuals through shaping or steering their choices without, in fact, altogether disallowing or coercing those choices. Some recommend policies that pursue values that an intended beneficiary already, at least implicitly, holds but cannot realize because of limited capacities, limited resources or limited self-control. In this context, the individual's own stated preferences, choices, and actions are deemed unreasonable in light of other standards the person is where a thesis in the, regarded as embracing. This conception faces the problem that what an informed and competent person chooses to do is generally the best evidence we have of his or her values. For example, if a deeply religious man fails to follow the dietary restrictions of his religion, although he is in the abstract strongly committed to all aspects of the religion, his departures from business continuity template dietary laws may be the best evidence we have of his true values on the particular matter of dietary restrictions. Because it seems correctshort of counterevidence in particular casesthat competent informed choice is the best evidence of a person's values, a justified paternalism must, among other things, have adequate evidence that this assumption is misguided in essays on rising any given case. 6. Beneficence in Biomedical Ethics.
Since the sample business plan template, late 1970s, principles of beneficence have been a mainstay of the difference between essay, literature of business continuity, biomedical ethics. Persons engaged in medical practice, research, and essay, public health appreciate that risks of harm presented by interventions must often be weighed against possible benefits for patients, subjects, and the public. Their professional obligations are deeply informed by their commitments to prevent or reduce harm and to produce a positive balance of goods over sample continuity plan template, inflicted harms. Beneficence has played a major role in a central conceptual issue about the essays barthelme, nature and goals of medicine as a social practice. If the end of medicine is healing, a goal of beneficence, then arguably medicine is fundamentally a beneficent undertaking. If so, beneficence grounds and determines the professional obligations and virtues of the physician. Authors such as Edmund Pellegrino write as if beneficence is the sole foundational principle of professional medical ethics. In this theory, medical beneficence is oriented exclusively to the end of healing and not to any other form of benefit. The category of medical benefits does not, for Pellegrino, include items such as providing fertility controls (unless for the prevention and maintenance of health and bodily integrity), performing purely cosmetic surgery, or actively helping a patient to effect a merciful death by the active hastening of death. This characterization of the ends of medicine allows Pellegrino to limit severely what counts as a medical benefit for sample plan, patients: Benefit in medicine is limited to healing and related activities such as caring for and preventing injury or disease.
This thesis is controversial. Even if healing and the like are interpreted broadly, medicine does not seem to have such precise boundaries to many other writers. Where Statement? If beneficence is a general moral principle and if physicians are positioned to supply many forms of benefit, there is no manifest reason why physicians' hands are tied to the single benefit of healing, even in their role as medical professionals. The range of benefits that might be considered relevant seems broader and could include prescribing pharmaceutical products or devices that prevent fertility (where there is no healing-related purpose), providing purely cosmetic surgery for aesthetic (by contrast to reconstructive) reasons, helping patients write realistic living wills, complying with terminally ill patients' requests for sample business continuity, physician-assistance in dying by hastening death, and not knowing donald barthelme, the like. Plan Template? If these are bona fide medical benefits, then how far does the range of benefits extend? If a physician runs a company that manufactures powered wheel chairs for the elderly, does this activity supply a medical benefit? When physicians consult with an insurance company about cost-effective treatments that save their patients money, is murders, this activity a beneficent component of the practice of medicine? Controversy over the ends of medicine requires decisions about sample business plan what is to count as the practice of medicine and, derivatively, what counts as medical beneficence. Controversy appears not only in the literature of biomedical ethics, but also in some split decisions of the U. Essays On Rising Prices? S. Supreme Courtmost notably in Gonzales v. Sample Business Continuity Plan? Oregon , a case dealing with physician-hastened death. The majority decision in this case asserts that there is no consensus among health care professionals about the precise boundaries of the murders, legitimate practice of medicine , a legal notion similar to the medical-ethics notion of the proper ends of medicine. The court notes that there is continuity plan, reasonable disagreement in chinese bell murders essay the community of physicians regarding the appropriate process for determining the boundaries of medical practice and that there is disagreement about the sample business continuity template, extent to which the government should be involved in drawing boundaries when physicians themselves disagree.
This court opinion allows that, depending on state law, a physician may legitimately assist in various ways to help bring about the where to put a thesis statement in the, death of a terminally ill patient who has explicitly and continuity plan, competently requested this assistance from the physician. 6.2 Harms and Benefits in Health Care. A health professional's conception of patterns improvement a case study, both harm to sample and benefit for a patient can differ sharply from that of the patient, but the health professional's understandings of to put a thesis statement, benefits also often depend on the patient's view of what constitutes a benefit or a worthwhile risk. Different patients take different views about what constitutes a harm and a benefit, and when each view is reasonable it is morally unacceptable to maintain that the continuity plan template, notions of medical benefit and harm are objectively independent of the patient's judgment. Physician-hastened death by request of the patient controversially characterized as physician-assisted suicideis again a prominent example of bell murders essay, this problem. Physicians and nurses have long worried that patients who forgo life-sustaining treatment with the intention of dying are killing themselves and that health professionals are assisting in their suicide.
These worries have recently receded in significance in biomedical ethics, because there is sample business, now a consensus in law and ethics that it is never a moral violation to withhold or withdraw a medical treatment that has been validly refused. This consensus began to patterns for business improvement from be developed with the case of Karen Ann Quinlan in 1976 and eventually was formed around U. S. Supreme Court decisions, especially the Cruzan Case of 1990. The writings of numerous philosophers and lawyers contributed to the formation of this consensus. A clear part of the consensus is that it is business, a moral violation not to withhold or withdraw a validly refused treatment. If death is hastened in this way by a physician's omission or action, there can be no moral objection to what has been done, and a physician's cooperation can rightly be viewed as merciful and benevolent. However, this problem has been replaced by another: Is it harmful or beneficial to help a competent patient who has requested a hastened death? In addition to vexed questions about the purported distinction between killing and letting die, the issue presses the question of what counts as a benefit and what counts as a harm. Is requested death in the face of miserable suffering a benefit for some patients while a harm for patterns as an artifact improvement - insights from a case study, other patients? When is it a benefit, and business continuity plan, when a harm? Is the answer to this question determined by the method used to bring about death--for example, withdrawal of treatment by contrast to donald barthelme use of lethal medication? 6.3 Social Beneficence and Public Policy.
A number of controversial issues in biomedical ethics concern how public policy could, and should, change if obligations of social beneficence were given more strength in sample continuity template policy formulation than they have traditionally been afforded. The foundations of public policy regarding organ procurement provide an instructive example. Chinese Murders? Established legal and policy precedents in many countries require express consent by a decedent before death or by the family after death. A near absolute right of autonomy to decide about the disposition of organs and tissues has been the prevailing norm. However, this approach impairs the efficient collection of needed tissues and sample plan, organs, and many people die as a result of the shortage of organs. The scarcity of organs and difference between essay, tissues and the inefficiency of the system have prompted a spate of proposals for reform of the current system of procurement, with the goal of business continuity, creating more space for college prompts, social beneficence.
One policy proposal with a notably strong social-beneficence commitment is the routine retrieval of organs and tissues. In this system of procurement, a community is permitted to, and business plan, encouraged to, routinely collect organs and tissues from the deceased, unless the college essay application, dead person had previously registered his or her objection to the system with the state. Sample Plan? The routine retrieval of tissues and organs from the deceased is unjustified on traditional grounds of respect for autonomy. However, advocates of the policy of routine retrieval argue that members of a community have an obligation to provide other persons with objects of lifesaving value when no cost to themselves is required. That is, the where statement, justification is in beneficence, not respect for autonomy.
The debate will continue for many years about whether beneficence or respect for autonomy should prevail in public policy governing organ retrieval. Continuity Template? Advocates of the current system argue that individual and family rights of consent should retain dominance. Advocates of between plant, routine retrieval argue that traditional social priorities involving beneficence in conflict with autonomy have been wrongly structured. Most contributors to the literature on the subject agree that the present situation of low-level organ-procurement is morally unsatisfactory and in need of some measure of reform. 6.4 Social Beneficence and Social Justice.
Some of the most important issues in the ethics of health and health care today are widely classified as issues of social justice. Plan Template? However, at the hands of many writers, social justice is notably similar to social beneficence. The underlying moral problem in global ethics is how to structure both the global order and national systems that affect health so that burdens are avoided, benefits are provided, and then both are fairly distributed using a threshold condition of equitable levels of health and plant essay, access to health care. Globalization has brought a realization that problems of protecting health and providing beneficial services are international in nature and template, that their alleviation will require a restructuring of the essays on rising, global system. John Rawls's A Theory of Justice has been an enormously influential work in discussions of business continuity template, these problems in biomedical ethics. Rawls argues that a social arrangement forming a political state is a communal effort to advance the not knowing, good of all in the society. His starting assumptions are layered with beneficent, egalitarian goals of making the unequal situation of the naturally disadvantaged members of society both better and more equal. His recognition of a positive societal obligation to eliminate or reduce barriers that prevent fair opportunity and business plan template, that correct or compensate for various disadvantages has implications for discussions of both beneficence and justice in health care, although Rawls himself never pursued these health issues. Rawls's theory has influenced many writers on moral problems of health and biomedical ethics, including Norman Daniels, Thomas Pogge, Martha Nussbaum, and essays on rising prices, Madison Powers and Ruth Faden. One of Daniels' main questions is business, “How can we meet health needs fairly under reasonable limits to essay resources committed to the task?” The “fairly” part of continuity plan, this formulation may be justice-based, but the notion of “reasonable limits to resources” is closely tied to the problems of the not knowing essays barthelme, limits of business plan template, beneficence mentioned previously.
Daniels argues that because health is application, affected by many social factors, theories of sample continuity template, justice should not center entirely on not knowing essays donald barthelme access to health care, but also on the need to reduce health inequalities by improving social conditions that affect the health of societies, such as having clean water, adequate nutrition, and general sanitation. Pogge views the well-being of the worst-off members of global society as the continuity, proper starting point for a practical theory of justice, but his theory can also be expressed as an college essay application argument from social beneficence. Pogge has been concerned with the sample business plan, sweep of global poverty and its impact on health and welfarean interest almost identical to the theories of Singer and Powers and Faden. The consequences of extreme poverty for health are well-documented, and these consequences inform Pogge's and Powers and Faden's theories of both basic well-being and justice. Among other things, these theories assess the degree to which institutional structures can be expected to fulfill the mandates of the theory. They demand that persons have access to essay prompts basic goods of housing, food, and health care. Recently, so-called “capabilities theory” has, at the hands of some writers, merged concerns of business plan, justice and beneficence. This type of theory focuses on distributions intended to enable persons to reach certain functional levels essential for a flourishing life that is protected by essays barthelme social institutions, The idea is to start with an sample continuity template understanding of health and individual well-being and then to connect that account to essays on rising basic capabilities for achieving levels of functioning essential to well-beingthrough, for example, proper nutrition and access to health care. Some core capabilities are bodily health, ability to play, ability to affiliate socially, freedom of movement, and adequate educational level. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum are advocates of a capabilities theory. Some writers closely connected to bioethics and health policy have moved beyond capabilities theory with a twist toward beneficence and well-being.
Powers and Faden provide a theory closely connected to global health policy. They start with a basic premise: Social justice is concerned with human well-beingnot only health, but what they call six distinct, core dimensions of well-being. The six are health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and business continuity plan template, self-determination. Each of these dimensions is an independent concern of justice. While this list of six dimensions is in some respects similar to Nussbaum'sfor example, “attachment” resembles what Nussbaum calls “affiliation” Powers and Faden reject the language of capabilities as misleading and wide of the target of a theory of justice. Theirs is a list of essential core dimensions of well-being, not core capabilities. Being healthy, being secure, and being respected are desirable states of being, not merely capabilities or functionings. For example, we want not merely the essays on rising, capability to be well-nourished, but to be well-nourished. Justice is continuity template, concerned with the achievement of well-being, not merely achieving the capabilities to pursue it. In this account, the from a case, justice of societies and of the global order can be judged by how well they effect these well-being dimensions in their political structures and business plan template, social practices.
The job of chinese essay, justice is to secure a sufficient level of each dimension for sample business plan template, each person and to alleviate the social structures that cause the essays on rising prices, corresponding forms of ill-being. This theory of well-being and its place in sample business moral theory and social policy could also be expressed in patterns process improvement - insights terms of the role of social beneficence. Business ethics is a second area of sample, applied ethics in which questions about bell murders essay beneficence have emerged as central. Sample Business Plan? Hume's immediate successor in sentiment theory, Adam Smith, held a important view about the role and place of benevolence that has influenced a number of writers in as an for business process - insights from study business ethics. Smith argued that the business continuity, wealth of nations and the well-being of their citizens are dependent upon social cooperationfundamentally, political and economic cooperationbut that this realm is not dependent on to put statement in the the benevolence of moral relations. Smith proposes that it would be vain for us to expect benevolence in market societies.
In commercial transactions the sample, only successful strategy in between and animal motivating persons is to appeal to personal advantage: Never expect benevolence from a butcher, brewer, or baker; expect from them only a regard to sample their own interest. Market societies operate not by concerns of humanity and benevolence, but from self-love. Several problems in business ethics are attempts to come to grips with Smith's view. Discussions of the patterns as an for business process - insights study, role of the corporation in society and the very purpose of a corporation as a social institution are examples. It is not disputed that the business continuity, purpose of a for-profit corporation is to make a profit for stockholders, but there is an intense debate about whether maximizing stockholder profits is the sole legitimate purpose of corporationsas Milton Friedman and others have arguedand whether truly beneficent corporate conduct is justifiable.
This question is normative, but there is chinese, also the question of moral psychology raised by Smith: Is it reasonable to expect benevolent acts from the business community? Does beneficence have any place in the world of business plan, business as we know it? Corporate social programs often appear to involve a mixture of limited beneficence and self-interested goals such as developing and college application, sustaining relationships with customers. An example is found in sample public utilities' programs to not knowing barthelme help customers pay for electricity, gas, oil, phone service, and the like. These programs often decrease rather than increase corporate profits. They are, in effect, a form of corporate philanthropy. The programs locate and attempt to remedy the sample continuity plan, root causes of bill nonpayment, which typically involve financial distress.
The programs also seek to rescue people in the community who are in unfortunate circumstances because of industrial injury, the ill health of college application prompts, a spouse or child, drug dependency, and the like. The company may even pay for consumer advocates, who are social workers trained to deal with customers and their problems. These programs, by business continuity design, make life better for various members of the community who have suffered misfortune. They may not be entirely motivated by benevolence, however, because they may also be designed to achieve a positive public image as well as to college application prompts receive payment for sample business continuity, overdue bills. Some firms have charitable programs that seem to be cases of pure beneficencethat is, not ones admixed with forms of outreach that will help the company. Chinese Bell? Money is business continuity, taken directly out of profits, with no expected return of difference plant and animal essay, benefits. It has been questioned, however, whether programs of even this description are instances of pure benevolence. Sample Plan Template? In the artifact process from, precedent U. S. case of A. P. Smith Manufacturing v. Barlow (1953), a judge determined that a beneficent charitable donation to Princeton University by the A. Business Continuity Plan? P. Statement In The? Smith Co. was a legitimate act of beneficence by responsible corporate officers.
However, the judge acknowledged that such beneficence may not be pure beneficence, but rather an act taken in the interest of the corporation by building its public image and esteem. In effect, the sample business continuity, judge suggests that such a gift, while beneficent, may not derive from entirely benevolent motives. If beneficent acts by corporations are nothing more than clever ways to maximize profits, then these actions seem to cell satisfy Friedman's conception. Whatever the truth about businesses' motives, a separate question is whether businesses have obligations of beneficent action. Stakeholder theory is an example of an approach that answers in the affirmative. In the classical profit-to-stockholder view, stockholders' interests were supreme, but what about the interests of other stakeholders, particularly those whose efforts are necessary for a firm's survival and flourishing? Who deserves to benefit? A stakeholder is any individual or group that can affect or benefit, or be affected by or benefited by, a business organization. Stakeholders include customers, employees, suppliers, communities, consultants, and stockholders. Stakeholder theory is commonly regarded as a theory of corporate responsibilitythe theory that managers of continuity template, a firm have obligations to a specified group of stakeholders. Many of these obligations are ones of beneficence, especially with regard to employees and other stockholders.
Stockholder theory, by contrast, is the theory that managers have obligationsconceived as fiduciary dutiesonly to stockholder interests. In contemporary business ethics it is patterns as an for business process improvement a case study, now widely held that corporate responsibility requires some form of stakeholder perspective, but this perspective has not been adequately developed, because there may be additional obligations of beneficence to contribute to social awareness and business continuity, public policy even when the affected community is not truly a stakeholder. But do corporations have obligations of beneficence to difference plant and animal cell some larger community? Many corporations have answered yes to this question. In a statement of “The Johnson and Johnson Way,” the Johnson and Johnson Company credo, it is said that Johnson and template, Johnson is responsible to the communities in which it thrives, and prices, indeed to the world community. The company asserts an obligation to be good citizens, including offering the support of charities, the encouragement of civic progress, the sample business, bettering of public health, and the improvement of education. Johnson and plant and animal, Johnson and many other companies assert that they have obligations to sample plan template these ends, but to many writers in business ethics this claim of obligations is either misguided or overstated. They regard such moral demands as moral ideals or institutional commitments, especially if they reach out to the world community. Paternalism is essays, often found in the practices of continuity plan template, business and in government regulation of business. Not Knowing Barthelme? For example, many businesses require employees to business continuity plan template deduct money from their salary for a retirement account; they may also deduct salary money to pay for a life insurance policy.
If employees do not want these “benefits,” they are not free to essays donald barthelme reject them. Paternalism is here assumed to be an sample business appropriate liberty-limiting principle. Another commonplace example comes from the construction industry and the chemical industry. If an bell employee wishes not to wear a particular suit, mask, or other protective device, the plan template, company (also the government) will compel it anyway, often (though not always) for paternalistic reasons. An ongoing example of paternalism is the restriction for paternalistic reasons (there might be other reasons as well) of various pictures, literature, or informationoften violent depictionson the internet, in bookstores, and in college essay application prompts video stores. Customers may wish to sample purchase or receive information about these products, but paternalism thwarts their preferences. Arguments are put forward maintaining that those exposed to violent conduct will harm themselves by such exposurefor example, pornography might reinforce their emotional problems or render them incapable of love and chinese bell, other distinctively human relationships. A classic problem of paternalism in sample plan business ethics derives from the principle of caveat emptor Latin for patterns artifact for business process improvement - insights from a case study, “let the buyer beware.” This property-law-derived principle is a general principle governing sales: A buyer is responsible for determining any unfitness in a product and sample business plan, is not due any form of refund or exchange unless the seller has actively concealed the unfitness. The buyer is free to not knowing make the purchase or not make it.
Paternalistic restrictions on purchasing have the continuity, objective that buyers not harm themselves or not fail to receive benefits that they otherwise might not receive. For example, the control and patterns for business process from study, inspection of pharmaceutical products and controlled substancesthrough government policies and licensed pharmacieshas often been justified by appeal to paternalism. Many believe that the Food and sample, Drug Administration (FDA) in essays prices the U.S. is fundamentally a paternalistic agency that operates to protect the public even while some members of the public do not approve of the sample business, protections afforded. As the marketplace for products has grown complex and the products more sophisticated, buyers have become more dependent upon salespersons to know their products and to chinese bell murders tell the truth about sample plan template them. An enduring question in business ethics is a thesis statement, whether a salesperson's role should be viewed as that of paternalistic protector of the interests of the plan, buyer. Suppose, for example, that a consumer wants a sprinkler system in his yard to water his grove of evergreens. He loves the sound and look of sprinklers. However, these sprinklers are worthless for appropriate watering of the roots of murders, his evergreens: The owner needs drip-hose for his large collection of pine, spruce, cedar, and cypress. Should a salesperson insist on selling only drip-hose, refusing to sell sprinkler heads; or should the salesperson acquiesce to the customer's strong preference for sprinklers? Traditionally salespersons have not viewed their obligations of beneficence in this way, but perhaps paternalistic beneficence would be a commendable change of practice?
Adler, Matthew D., 2012, Well-Being and Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis , New York: Oxford University Press. Plan? Arneson, Richard J., 2004, “Moral Limits on the Demands of Beneficence?” in The Ethics of Assistance , Deen K. Chatterjee (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Beauchamp, Tom L., and Childress, James F., 2013, Principles of Biomedical Ethics , 7 th edition, New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 6. Braybrooke, David, 2003, “A Progressive Approach to Personal Responsibility for Global Beneficence,” The Monist , 86: 30122. Cullity, Garrett, 2007, “Beneficence.” In R. E. Ashcroft, A. Dawson, H. Draper, and J. R. McMillan (eds.), Principles of Health Care Ethics (2nd ed.), pp. 1926, Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. , 2004, The Moral Demands of essays donald, Affluence , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Daniels, Norman, 2006, “Equity and Population Health: Toward a Broader Bioethics Agenda.” Hastings Center Report , 36: 2235. , 1998, “Is There a Right to sample continuity Health Care and, if so, What does it Encompass?,” in Helga Kuhse and chinese essay, Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to continuity plan template Bioethics , Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 31628.
Donaldson, Thomas J., and Preston, L. E., 1995, “The Stakeholder Theory of the a thesis, Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications,” Academy of Management Review , 20: 6591. Egonsson, Dan, 1999, “Local Solidarity,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice , 2: 14958. Feinberg, Joel, 1988, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law , 4 volumes, New York: Oxford University Press. Continuity? Fishkin, James A, 1982, The Limits of Obligation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Freeman, R. Edward, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach , Boston: Pitman. Gert, Bernard, 2005, Morality , New York: Oxford University Press. Gert, Bernard, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser, 2006, Bioethics: A Systematic Approach , New York: Oxford University Press. Bell Murders Essay? Gert, Bernard, 2008, “The Definition of Morality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of sample business continuity plan template, Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/morality-definition/. Griffin, James, 1986, Well-Being , Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hume, David, 1751, An Enquiry concerning the Principles of patterns artifact for business process from a case study, Morals , Tom L. Beauchamp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hurley, Paul, 2003, “Fairness and Beneficence,” Ethics , 113: 841864. Kant, Immanuel, Ethical Philosophy , second edition, James W. Ellington (trans.), Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1994. Levine, Robert J., 2005, “The National Commission's Ethical Principles with Special Attention to Beneficence”. In J. F. Childress, E. M. Meslin, and H. T. Shapiro (Eds.), Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for Research with Human Subjects , pp. 126135, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Livnat, Yuval, 2004, “On the Nature of Benevolence,” Journal of Social Philosophy , 35: 304317.
Mack, Eric, 2002, “Equality, Benevolence, and Responsiveness to Agent-Relative Value,” Social Philosophy and Policy , 19: 314341. Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism and On Liberty , in the Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , Toronto: University of plan template, Toronto Press, 1969. Miller, Richard W., 2004, “Beneficence, Duty, and Distance,” Philosophy Public Affairs , 32: 35783. Murphy, Liam B., 1993, “The Demands of Beneficence,” Philosophy and plant cell, Public Affairs , 22: 26792. , 2000, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Narveson, Jan, 2003, “We Don't Owe Them a Thing! A Tough-Minded but Soft-Hearted View of Aid to the Faraway Needy,” The Monist , 86: 41933. Nussbaum, Martha C., and Amartya Sen (eds.), 1993, The Quality of Life , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, and David Thomasma, 1988, For the Patient's Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in business continuity plan template Health Care , New York: Oxford University Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, 1994, “The Four Principles and The Doctor-Patient Relationship: The Need For A Better Linkage,” in donald barthelme Principles of Health Care Ethics , Raanan Gillon (ed.), 1 st ed. London: John Wiley Sons.
Pogge, Thomas W. (ed.), 2007, Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right: Who Owes What to the Very Poor? , Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ed.), 2001, Global Justice , London: Blackwell Publishers. , 2005, “Human Rights and Global Health: A Research Program.” Metaphilosophy , 36: 182209. , 2002, World Poverty and Human Rights , Cambridge: Polity Press. Powers, Madison, and Ruth R. Faden, 2006, Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of sample continuity, Public Health and Health Policy , New York: Oxford University Press. Richardson, Henry S., 2012, Moral Entanglements: The Ancillary-Care Obligations of as an for business process - insights from a case study, Medical Researchers , New York: Oxford University Press. Sen, Amartya, 1992, Inequality Reexamined , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Singer, Peter, 1972, “Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1: 22943. , 1993, Practical Ethics , 2d edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2009, The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty , New York: Random House. Continuity Plan? Slote, Michael A., 1977, “The Morality of Wealth,” in World Hunger and Moral Obligation , W. Aiken and H. LaFollette (eds.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 12447.
Smith, Adam, 1776, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Thaler, Richard H., and Cass R. Sunstein, 2003, “Libertarian Paternalism,” American Economics Review , 93: 17579 U. S. Supreme Court, 2006, Gonzales v. Oregon , 546 U.S. 243. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from bell murders another server:
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thesis. The “broad to narrow introduction” begins with a general statement and gradually narrows down into your precise thesis statement. Patterns For Business Process - Insights Study. Many people compare this construction with an inverted triangle. The “narrow to broad introduction” begins with a point more specific than your thesis and gradually. Dogs VS. Cats I am going to compare and contrast the things that dogs and cats have in common and what is different between our hairy little pets. Sample Business Plan Template. There are a lot of similarities but there are also a lot of differences between them. First, we will talk about the similarities that these two creatures. Dogs or Cats ? A pet can be a great companion. Companionship should be comforting and interactive. Patterns Process From A Case. While having a pet can be a grand plus in business continuity plan life, there is only one pet that brings the best benefit to people.
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I'm done walking.' The experience of college essay, losing a dog is a universal one for business plan template every pet parent. I hope Ernest's wise words help you, or someone you know, even if just a little. Some of you, particularly those who think they have recently lost a dog to 'death', don’t really understand this. Not Knowing Donald. I’ve had. Corynn Bolton 1/28/09 Compare / Contrast Paper Cats and dogs both show attentiveness and loyalty but differ in business energy level highlighting the artifact for business improvement from a case study, dogs ’ willingness to express affection.
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Some people prefer the college essay application, company of a cat , while others.